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Reducing Harms to Boys and Young Men of Color from Criminal Justice System Involvement

April 20, 2015 Comments off

Reducing Harms to Boys and Young Men of Color from Criminal Justice System Involvement
Source: Urban Institute

Boys and young men of color are overrepresented in all aspects of the juvenile justice and criminal justice systems, at considerable cost to those involved, their families, and their communities. This overrepresentation is most acute for African Americans, although other communities of color are also affected. This paper reviews systemic, institutional, and community policies and practices that greatly impact the life chances of boys and young men of color. Policy and practice changes that would reduce criminal justice engagement and that would reduce the harms caused to communities of color from criminal justice engagement are identified and suggestions are made for developing more evidence of effectiveness for initiatives in this area.

Earned Income Tax Credit in the United States

April 9, 2015 Comments off

Earned Income Tax Credit in the United States
Source: Urban Institute

The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) provides substantial assistance to low-income working families with children. The credit encourages work for many, though may reduce work or wages for some. Counted in the poverty measure, the EITC would have been credited with lifting 6.5 million people out of poverty in 2012. The credit fails to provide substantial benefits to workers without children, is complicated, has a high erroneous payment rate, and creates substantial marriage penalties for some low- and moderate-income couples. Extending the credit to workers without children or replacing it with an individual worker credit could solve some or all of these criticisms.

Assessing the Merits of Photo EBT Cards in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program

March 31, 2015 Comments off

Assessing the Merits of Photo EBT Cards in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
Source: Urban Institute

In seeking to reduce the trafficking of benefits in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), states are considering policies to require that SNAP electronic benefit transfer (EBT) cards include a photograph of the household head. Such policies have sparked controversy, placing in direct conflict the desires to bolster program integrity with the statutory rights of SNAP household members to utilize their program benefits and receive equal customer treatment. Drawing on Massachusetts’ 2013 implementation of a photo EBT policy, this brief suggests that such policies are not a cost-effective means to promote program integrity and may hinder benefit access

Reducing Poverty in the United States: Results of a Microsimulation Analysis of the Community Advocates Public Policy Institute Policy Package

March 30, 2015 Comments off

Reducing Poverty in the United States: Results of a Microsimulation Analysis of the Community Advocates Public Policy Institute Policy Package
Source: Urban Institute

A package of five policies—a transitional jobs (TJ) program, a $10.10 minimum wage, expanded earned income tax credits, a tax credit for senior citizens and people with disabilities, and expanded child care subsidies—could cut the national poverty rate by at least half. Using the TRIM3 microsimulation model and the Supplemental Poverty measure, the analysis shows the national poverty rate falling fall from 14.8 percent to either 7.4 percent or 6.3 percent, depending on the take-up rate assumed for the TJ program. Poverty is greatly reduced for all age groups and race/ethnicity groups.

The Labor Force in an Aging and Growing America; Mapping America’s Futures, Brief 4

March 17, 2015 Comments off

The Labor Force in an Aging and Growing America; Mapping America’s Futures, Brief 4
Source: Urban Institute

From 2010 to 2030, patterns of labor force participation will change across regions of the United States. In some regions, the primary demographic effect will be changes in age structure, which will drive declines in labor force participation rates. In other regions, in-migration and changes in the racial and ethnic composition of the adult population will primarily increase the numbers of the “dependent population”-people not in the labor force. Still other regions will have to accommodate both sharply declining participation rates and sharply increasing nonparticipants. These diverse patterns of changes in labor force participation pose different challenges to regions.

See also:
+ Evolving Patterns in Diversity Mapping America’s Futures, Brief 2
+ Children and Youth in an Aging America; Mapping America’s Futures, Brief 3

Lessons the United States Can Learn From Other Countries’ Territorial Systems for Taxing Income of Multinational Corporations

March 16, 2015 Comments off

Lessons the United States Can Learn From Other Countries’ Territorial Systems for Taxing Income of Multinational Corporations
Source: Urban Institute

The United States has a worldwide system that taxes the dividends its resident multinational corporations receive from their foreign affiliates, while most other countries have territorial systems that exempt these dividends. This report examines the experience of four countries – two with long-standing territorial systems and two that have recently eliminated taxation of repatriated dividends. We find that the reasons for maintaining or introducing dividend exemption systems varied greatly among them and do not necessarily apply to the United States. Moreover, classification of tax systems as worldwide or territorial does not adequately capture differences in how countries tax foreign-source income.

Transitioning from Medicaid Expansion Programs to Medicare: Making Sure Low-Income Medicare Beneficiaries Get Financial Help

March 12, 2015 Comments off

Transitioning from Medicaid Expansion Programs to Medicare: Making Sure Low-Income Medicare Beneficiaries Get Financial Help
Source: Urban Institute

The Affordable Care Act allows states to offer Medicaid coverage to low-income adults who would not have qualified under previous law. This population will face higher cost-sharing requirements when they transition to Medicare, although some may be eligible for traditional Medicaid benefits and/or Medicare Savings Programs (MSPs) that will reduce their costs. This report discusses how Medicare beneficiaries can qualify for traditional Medicaid and MSPs, provides new estimates of the number and characteristics of eligible individuals, and outlines policy options that would make it easier for Medicare beneficiaries to qualify for traditional Medicaid benefits and MSPs.

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