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Archive for the ‘Urban Institute’ Category

Immigrant Access to Health and Human Services: Final Report

November 17, 2014 Comments off

Immigrant Access to Health and Human Services: Final Report
Source: Urban Institute

The Immigrant Access to Health and Human Services project describes the legal and policy contexts that affect immigrant access to health and human services. The study aims to identify and describe federal, state, and local program eligibility provisions related to immigrants, major barriers to immigrants’ access to health and human services for which they are legally eligible, and innovative or promising practices that can help states manage their programs. This final report summarizes findings from the seven research briefs and one report that constitute this project.

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Stop and Frisk: Balancing Crime Control with Community Relations

November 14, 2014 Comments off

Stop and Frisk: Balancing Crime Control with Community Relations
Source: Urban Institute

Police have been stopping, questioning, and frisking pedestrians for decades in an effort to protect themselves and the public from harm. However, pedestrians may view the stop and frisk experience as unjustified and perceive that they are subject to unfair and overly aggressive treatment. These feelings are most pronounced for those residing in high-crime areas that are targets for intensive stop and frisk activities. Because citizens’ views of the police contribute to their willingness to cooperate with and empower law enforcement, minimizing the negative effects of stop and frisk is crucial for overall police effectiveness and is especially important for improving relations with communities of color. This publication discusses the constitutionality and legal precedents of stop and frisk and the theory and practice behind these street stops. This background is followed by a discus¬sion of stop and frisk’s unintended consequences and a series of practical recommendations for the lawful and respectful use of pedestrian stops in the context of community policing.

A Better Way to Budget for Federal Lending Programs

October 30, 2014 Comments off

A Better Way to Budget for Federal Lending Programs
Source: Tax Policy institute (Urban Institute and Brookings Institution)

Policy analysts have long debated how best to budget for student loans, mortgage guarantees, and other federal lending programs. Under official budget rules, these programs appear highly profitable; under an alternative, favored by many analysts, they appear to lose money. That discrepancy confuses policy deliberations. In this brief, Donald Marron proposes a new budgeting approach, known as expected returns, that would eliminate this confusion. Unlike existing approaches, expected returns accurately reports the fiscal effects of lending over time and provides a natural way to distinguish the fiscal gains from bearing financial risk from the subsidies given to borrowers.

The Nonprofit Sector in Brief 2014: Public Charities, Giving and Volunteering

October 29, 2014 Comments off

The Nonprofit Sector in Brief 2014: Public Charities, Giving and Volunteering
Source: Urban Institute

The Nonprofit Sector in Brief 2014 highlights trends in the number and finances of 501(c)(3) public charities and key findings on two important resources for the nonprofit sector: private charitable contributions and volunteering. Each year, The Nonprofit Sector in Brief 2014 presents the most recent data available on the nonprofit sector. This particular edition of the brief presents data from 2002 to 2012.

Labeling Effects of First Juvenile Arrests: Secondary Deviance and Secondary Sanctioning

October 27, 2014 Comments off

Labeling Effects of First Juvenile Arrests: Secondary Deviance and Secondary Sanctioning
Source: Urban Institute

Does arresting juveniles deter or promote future offending, and how does it affect the chances of future arrests? These questions were studied through official arrest data and self-reported offending data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, using propensity score methods. First arrests increased subsequent offending and subsequent arrest through separate processes, and the effects on rearrest were substantially larger. Being labelled as an arrestee seems to trigger “secondary sanctioning” processes beyond any effects on offending. Attempts to ameliorate deleterious “labeling” effects should include efforts to dampen their escalating punitive effects on societal responses.

Understanding the Organization, Operation, and Victimization Process of Labor Trafficking in the United States

October 23, 2014 Comments off

Understanding the Organization, Operation, and Victimization Process of Labor Trafficking in the United States
Source: Urban Institute

This study chronicles the experiences of labor trafficking victims from the point of recruitment for work, their forced labor victimization, their attempts to escape and get help, and their efforts to seek justice through civil or criminal cases. The report finds that legal loopholes and lax enforcement enable labor traffickers to commit crimes against workers in major US industries: agriculture, domestic work, hotels, restaurants, and construction. Interview and case file data detail the ubiquity of trafficking, which occurs both in plain sight and behind lock and key. Detailed recommendations propose next steps for policy and practice.

See also: Lax Enforcement and Legal Loopholes Enable Labor Trafficking Victimization; Broadest look ever at victim experiences in five major US industries

Who Pays for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Exams? It Is Not the Victim’s Responsibility

October 7, 2014 Comments off

Who Pays for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Exams? It Is Not the Victim’s Responsibility (PDF)
Source: Urban Institute

The Violence Against Women Act of 2005 requires that sexual assault victims must not be required to file law enforcement reports in order to receive free exams. This study aimed to examine how states are meeting these goals. We found victim compensation funds are by far the largest funder of exams across the country. In the 19 jurisdictions included in case studies, victims generally received free exams without having to report if they did not want to. However, barriers to even accessing the exam prevent some victims from seeking help.

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