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Families Continue to Rely on Wives As Breadwinners Post-Recession

October 4, 2014 Comments off

Families Continue to Rely on Wives As Breadwinners Post-Recession
Source: Carsey Institute

This brief uses data from the 2013 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the Current Population Survey to examine how President Obama’s proposed expanded eligibility and higher credit values might affect tax filers in both rural and urban America. Authors Jessica Carson and Marybeth Mattingly report that proposed changes to the earned income tax credit (EITC) will increase the share of workers without a qualifying child eligible for the EITC equally in rural and urban places, although rural residents are more likely to be eligible under both current and proposed policies. The average increase in the credit is $476, more than double the average current credit, and would be similar for married and single filers without qualifying children in both rural and urban places. The number of unmarried filers who would become eligible for the credit is significantly higher than the number of married filers, in both urban and rural places.

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The Long-Term Unemployed in the Wake of the Great Recession

January 23, 2014 Comments off

The Long-Term Unemployed in the Wake of the Great Recession
Source: Carsey Institute

Using the Annual Social and Economic Supplement of the Current Population Survey, this brief outlines the demographic and economic characteristics of the long-term unemployed and compares them with their short-term unemployed counterparts. It also describes changes in the composition of the long-term unemployed since the start of the Great Recession. Author Andrew Schaefer reports that the percentage of unemployed workers who were seeking employment for more than six months more than doubled between 2007 and 2013 from 18.4 percent to 39.3 percent and that the long-term unemployed are more likely than the short-term unemployed to live in urban areas. In addition, the urban long-term unemployed are more likely to be older, but less likely to be poor than their rural counterparts. He concludes that, as debate about the extension of Emergency Unemployment Compensation benefits continues, it is important to gain an understanding of the long-term unemployed in terms of their demographic and economic characteristics and how those characteristics differ across place in order to help better target strategies for alleviating the negative effects of long-term unemployment.

Variation Found in Rates of Restraint and Seclusion Among Students With a Disability

December 18, 2013 Comments off

Variation Found in Rates of Restraint and Seclusion Among Students With a Disability
Source: The Carsey Institute (University of New Hampshire)

The restraint and seclusion of individuals—practices usually associated with highly restrictive environments—are extreme responses to student behavior used in some public schools. In this brief, authors Douglas Gagnon, Marybeth Mattingly, and Vincent Connelly report that restraint and seclusion are used much more frequently on students with a disability than on students without a disability. In addition, the majority of U.S. school districts does not restrain or seclude students with a disability; 59.3 percent of districts report no instances of restraint, while 82.5 percent do not report a single instance of seclusion. However, a small proportion of districts report exceedingly high rates. The authors also find that low-poverty, low-diversity school districts use restraint and seclusion on students with a disability more than twice as often as high-poverty, high-diversity districts. The authors conclude that, overall, the relationships between restraint and seclusion rates, and disability type and school characteristics, warrant further research. This brief draws on data from the 2009–2010 Civil Rights Data Collection and the 2009 Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates.

Informal Kinship Care Most Common Out-of- Home Placement After an Investigation of Child Maltreatment

May 16, 2013 Comments off

Informal Kinship Care Most Common Out-of- Home Placement After an Investigation of Child Maltreatment (PDF)
Source: Carsey Institute

Key Findings

Informal kinship placement settings, where a parent voluntarily places a child with a family member, were the most common out-of-home placement in both rural and urban areas. Informal placements involve children who are in physical custody of a relative but may remain in legal custody of a parent.

Children aged 3 to 5 with a child maltreatment report in rural areas and those in very poor rural households (incomes less than 50 percent of fed – eral poverty level) were more likely to be in informal kinship settings than similar children in urban areas.

Record Number of Children Covered by Health Insurance in 2011

February 6, 2013 Comments off

Record Number of Children Covered by Health Insurance in 2011

Source: Carsey Institute

Using data from the 2008 through 2011 American Community Survey, this brief describes rates of children’s health insurance coverage nationally, by region, and place type (that is, rural, suburban, and central city). In addition, it details the composition of coverage in the United States, specifically the proportion of children covered by private and public insurance. Author Michael Staley reports that rates of insurance coverage for children under age 18 increased from 90 percent in 2008 to 92.5 percent in 2011 and that the proportion of children covered by public health insurance increased substantially for the fourth consecutive year in every kind of place—rural, suburban, and in central cities. Rates of private insurance coverage among children decreased for the fourth consecutive year. Staley discusses how possible cuts to federal insurance programs could impact children’s coverage, in addition to policy considerations for increasing the overall rate of insurance.

Psychotropic Medication Use Among Children in the Child Welfare System

January 25, 2013 Comments off

Psychotropic Medication Use Among Children in the Child Welfare System (PDF)

Source: Carsey Institute

Key Findings

  • Among children age 4 and older with a report of maltreatment, rates of psychotropic medication use are significantly higher in rural (20 percent) than urban areas (13 percent).
  • Children age 4 and older with a maltreatment report in rural areas were significantly more likely to take more than one medication than children in urban areas. In rural places, 28 percent took two medications and 33 percent took three or more medications. In urban places, 23 percent took two and 14 percent took three or more medications.
  • In addition to emotional or behavioral problems, a number of other factors predicted which children were given psychotropic medication, including whether they receive counseling, being 12 years old or older, and being male.
  • In rural places, children living in poor households were more likely to be given psychotropic medication.
  • Twenty percent of children in rural areas with a child maltreatment report who remain in-home received medication compared to 12 percent in urban areas.

Understanding Child Abuse in Rural and Urban America: Risk Factors and Maltreatment Substantiation

June 3, 2012 Comments off

Understanding Child Abuse in Rural and Urban America: Risk Factors and Maltreatment Substantiation (PDF)
Source: Carsey Institute

Key Findings

  • Approximately one-fourth of all cases investigated by CPS are substantiated.
  • Across America, 25 percent of supervisory neglect cases, 24 percent of sexual abuse cases, and 22 percent of physical neglect are substantiated.
  • Caregivers’ risk factors, including drug and alcohol abuse, mental health problems, and a recent arrest, increase the likelihood that a child maltreatment report is substantiated. Nearly one-half of caregivers with three or more risk factors have a substantiated report compared with an estimated 22 percent with only one or two risks,
    and 11 percent of caregivers with no risk factors.

  • Important differences emerge between rural and urban America:
    • Higher-income children (that is, in families with incomes greater than 200 percent of the federal poverty level) in rural areas are significantly more likely to have a report substantiated than they are in urban places.
    • Older children in rural places are more likely to have a report substantiated (35 percent) than those in urban areas (23 percent).
    • Children in rural areas whose caregivers are either experiencing active domestic violence or have cognitive impairments are more likely to have a case substantiated than similar urban children.
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