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2015 Tax Brackets

October 23, 2014 Comments off

2015 Tax Brackets
Source: Tax Foundation

Every year, the IRS adjusts more than 40 tax provisions for inflation. This is done to prevent what is called “bracket creep.” This is the phenomenon by which people are pushed into higher income tax brackets or have reduced value from credits or deductions due to inflation instead of an actual increase in real income.

The IRS uses the Consumer Price Index (CPI) to calculate the past year’s inflation and adjusts income thresholds, deduction amounts, and credit values accordingly. Rather than directly adjusting last year’s values for annual inflation, each provision is adjusted from a specified base year. For more information, see the methodology, below.

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The Skinny on Corporate Inversions

October 21, 2014 Comments off

The Skinny on Corporate Inversions
Source: Center for American Progress

Corporate financial accounting and taxation are complex subjects. For this reason, many people tune out when issues that involve corporate tax practices rise to the level of public debate. Unfortunately, many legislators shy away from these issues for similar reasons. But while corporate taxation can be mind-bogglingly complex, nontax experts can learn enough to join the debate.

CRS — Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA): Resources for Frequently Asked Questions (October 10, 2014)

October 20, 2014 Comments off

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA): Resources for Frequently Asked Questions (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via Federation of American Scientists)

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA; P.L. 111-148, as amended) has numerous provisions affecting private health insurance and public health coverage programs. Many of these provisions take effect in 2014. This report provides resources to help congressional staff respond to constituents’ frequently asked questions (FAQs) about the law. The report lists selected resources regarding consumers, employers, and other stakeholders, with a focus on federal sources. It also lists CRS reports that summarize ACA’s provisions.

The report begins with links to contacts for specific ACA questions, such as Consumer Assistance Programs, state agencies, and local organizations that can answer constituents’ questions directly. For example, the federal HealthCare.gov website offers an ACA consumer telephone hotline and online chat assistance. The report also lists sources for congressional staff to contact federal agencies with ACA questions.

The report provides basic consumer sources, including a glossary of health coverage terms. The next sections focus on health coverage: the individual mandate, private health insurance, and exchanges, as well as public health care programs, such as Medicaid and the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP), Medicare, Indian health care, and veterans’ and military health care. It then lists sources on employer-sponsored coverage, including sources on employer penalties, small businesses, federal workers’ health plans, and union health plans. It also provides sources on ACA’s provisions on mental health, public health, workforce, quality, and taxes. Finally, the report lists sources on ACA costs and appropriations, legal issues, the treatment of noncitizens under ACA, and sources for obtaining the law’s full-text.

This list is not a comprehensive directory of all resources on the ACA, but rather is intended to address a few questions that may arise frequently.

See also:
Another Court Rejects Premium Tax Credits in Federal Exchanges under ACA, CRS Legal Sidebar (October 6, 2014) (PDF)
Appropriations and Fund Transfers in the Affordable Care Act (ACA) (October 10, 2014) (PDF)

Why Do Innovative Firms Hold So Much Cash? Evidence from Changes in State R&D Tax Credits

October 14, 2014 Comments off

Why Do Innovative Firms Hold So Much Cash? Evidence from Changes in State R&D Tax Credits (PDF)
Source: Federal Reserve Board

This paper uses the staggered changes of R&D tax credits across U.S. states and over time as a quasi-natural experiment to examine the impact of innovation on corporate liquidity. By generating plausibly independent variation in firms’ incentive to invest in R&D, we are able to assess the empirical importance of specific theories of the link between innovation and corporate liquidity. Firms increase (decrease) their cash to asset ratios by about one and a half percentage point when their home state increases (cuts) R&D tax credits. These baseline difference-in-differences estimates hold up to a battery of validation, falsification, and robustness checks, which corroborate their internal and external validity. The treatment effect of R&D tax credits increases monotonically with several specific proxies for debt and equity financing frictions. Increases (cuts) in tax credits also lead to increases (decreases) in the ratios of cash to bank lines of credit and to book equity, and to decreases (increases) in bank debt, secured debt, and overall net indebtness, supporting debt and equity financing channels through which innovation impacts the demand for cash. We also find support for a product market competition channel, and assess repatriation and agency explanations. Overall, our analysis offers endogeneity-free evidence that innovation is a first-order driver of corporate liquidity management decisions.

TIGTA Releases Annual Report on IRS Compliance Trends

October 13, 2014 Comments off

TIGTA Releases Annual Report on IRS Compliance Trends
Source: Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration

Despite less funding and fewer employees, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) increased the total dollars received and collected for the third straight year, according to a new report publicly released today by the Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration (TIGTA).

However, the IRS conducted fewer examinations, and its Collection Function continued to receive more delinquent accounts than it closed, the report concluded.

TIGTA — Trends in Compliance Activities Through Fiscal Year 2013

October 9, 2014 Comments off

Trends in Compliance Activities Through Fiscal Year 2013
Source: Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration

IMPACT ON TAXPAYERS
This report is a compilation of statistical information reported by the IRS. The data presented in this report provide taxpayers and stakeholders with information about how the IRS focuses its compliance resources and the impact of those resources on revenue and compliance over time.

WHY TIGTA DID THE AUDIT
TIGTA conducts this review annually in response to continuing stakeholder interest in the analysis and trending of Collection and Examination function activities. The overall objective was to provide various statistical information regarding Collection and Examination function activities.

WHAT TIGTA FOUND
Between Fiscal Years (FY) 2010 and 2013, the IRS’s appropriated budget decreased 7.4 percent, from $12.1 billion to $11.2 billion after sequestration. Sequestration had a significant impact on the IRS’s FY 2013 budget.

These budget reductions resulted in decreases in the number of employees available to provide services to taxpayers and enforce the tax laws. Specifically, the number of full-time equivalents decreased by nearly 9 percent, from 94,618 at the end of FY 2010 to 86,310 at the end of FY 2013, including a 4 percent reduction between FYs 2012 and 2013. The number of enforcement personnel decreased by more than 1,000 employees during FY 2013.

As resources decreased, the IRS’s responsibilities have expanded. For example, in FY 2013, the IRS continued implementing tax‑related portions of the Affordable Care Act and the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act.

Despite these challenges, total dollars received and collected (gross collections) increased for the third straight year to $2.9 trillion (a 13 percent increase) in FY 2013. Enforcement revenue collected also increased from $50.2 billion in FY 2012 to $53.3 billion in FY 2013 due, in part, to several large Appeals case settlements. Tax return filings continued to increase as did gross accounts receivable, which increased to $400 billion.

The FY 2013 Collection function activities showed mixed results. The amount collected on delinquent accounts by both the Automated Collection System and Field Collection decreased. The Collection function continued to receive more delinquent accounts than it closed, although the number of delinquent accounts in the Collection queue decreased due, in part, to the removal of millions of accounts that were not resolved. Fewer Notices of Federal Tax Lien were filed, fewer levies were issued, and fewer seizures were made. Meanwhile, taxpayers’ use of payment options such as offers in compromise increased.

The Examination function conducted 6 percent fewer examinations in FY 2013 than in FY 2012. The decline in examinations occurred across all tax return types, including individual, corporation, S corporation, and partnership. Seventy percent of return examinations were conducted via correspondence. While the number of tax return examinations declined, productivity indicators were mixed. The dollar yield per hour for most return types increased. However, the no-change rates increased for some types of examinations (corporations and partnerships), while it decreased for others (individuals and S corporations).

WHAT TIGTA RECOMMENDED
TIGTA made no recommendations in this report. IRS officials were provided an opportunity to review the draft report and did not provide any comments.

See also: Fiscal Year 2014 Statutory Review of Compliance With the Freedom of Information Act

ASEAN Study Highlights the Philippines as Country with the Fastest Growth in Illicit Cigarettes

October 6, 2014 Comments off

ASEAN Study Highlights the Philippines as Country with the Fastest Growth in Illicit Cigarettes
Source: Oxford Economics

The Philippines is the fastest-growing and now one of the top two illicit cigarette markets within ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations). Consumption of illicit cigarettes grew by 198% from 2012 to 2013 according to a newly-released study.

The Philippines now accounts for 34% of all illicit cigarette consumption in ASEAN, second only to Vietnam with 39%. However, uniquely within ASEAN,the Philippine problem can be traced back to domestic illicit cigarettes, according to the Asia-14 Illicit Tobacco Indicator 2013 study.

Domestic illicit cigarettes are produced locally and sold without payment of the required taxes, Non-domestic illicit cigarettes are smuggled contraband or counterfeit originating in another country.

+ Full Report (PDF)

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