Archive

Archive for the ‘cancer’ Category

Use of Sunscreen and Indoor Tanning Devices Among a Nationally Representative Sample of High School Students, 2001–2011

August 24, 2014 Comments off

Use of Sunscreen and Indoor Tanning Devices Among a Nationally Representative Sample of High School Students, 2001–2011
Source: Preventing Chronic Disease (CDC)

Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to engaging in poor skin-protection behaviors. The objective of this study was to examine use of sunscreen and indoor tanning devices among a nationally representative sample of high school students during a 10-year period (2001–2011) using data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. The percentage of youth who reported using sunscreen declined from 67.7% in 2001 to 56.1% in 2011. The prevalence of using indoor tanning devices was highest among white females: 37.4% in 2009 and 29.3% in 2011. These findings indicate the need for prevention efforts aimed at adolescents to reduce risks for skin cancer.

About these ads

New From the GAO

August 22, 2014 Comments off

New GAO Report
Source: Government Accountability Office

World Trade Center Health Program: Approach Used to Add Cancers to List of Covered Conditions Was Reasonable, but Could Be Improved. GAO-14-606, July 23.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-606
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/664962.pdf

Understanding CAM Natural Health Products: Implications of Use Among Cancer Patients and Survivors

August 19, 2014 Comments off

Understanding CAM Natural Health Products: Implications of Use Among Cancer Patients and Survivors
Source: Journal of the Advanced Practitioner in Oncology

Herbs, vitamins, and other natural health products are being used by cancer patients and survivors with increasing prevalence in the United States. These complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) products, which are also referred to as natural health products in Canada and abroad, are used during cancer treatment and the survivorship period to ease the burden of symptoms such as pain, fatigue, insomnia, anxiety, and depression and hence improve overall quality of life. Data indicate that while patients choose these products for self-treatment, they often do not inform their health-care providers, thereby presenting the potential for negative interactions. This article gives an overview of CAM natural health products, including discussion of herbs, vitamins, and other supplements such as minerals, enzymes, and more. Related research is presented, and implications for advanced practitioners are discussed. Insights into guiding safe and effective use among patients as well as appropriate decision-making strategies are explored.

Review of the Formaldehyde Assessment in the National Toxicology Program 12th Report on Carcinogens

August 13, 2014 Comments off

Review of the Formaldehyde Assessment in the National Toxicology Program 12th Report on Carcinogens
Source: National Research Council

Many people in the United States are exposed to formaldehyde. Exposure can occur from environmental sources (for example, combustion processes, building materials, and tobacco smoke) or in occupational settings (for example, the furniture, textile, and construction industries). Formaldehyde exposure also has endogenous sources–it is produced intracellularly as a component of the one carbon pool intermediary metabolism pathway. Scientists have studied formaldehyde for decades to determine whether exogenous formaldehyde exposure may be associated with cancer in humans. In 1981, The National Toxicology Program (NTP) first listed formaldehyde in the 2nd Report on Carcinogens as “reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen”. In 2011, NTP upgraded the listing of formaldehyde to “known to be a human carcinogen”. Following the new listing, Congress directed the Department of Health and Human Services to arrange for the National Academy of Sciences to independently review formaldehyde’s substance profile and listing. This report presents the findings and conclusions of the committee formed in response to the congressional request.

Review of the Formaldehyde Assessment in the National Toxicology Program 12th Report on Carcinogens concurs with NTP that there is sufficient evidence in studies that had adequate characterization of relevant exposure metrics to enable a strong conclusion about the association between formaldehyde exposure and cancer in humans. Additionally, the authoring committee independently reviewed the scientific evidence from studies in humans, experimental animals, and other studies relevant to the mechanisms of carcinogenesis and made level-of-evidence conclusions. This report finds clear and convincing epidemiologic evidence of an association between formaldehyde exposure and nasopharyngeal and sinonasal cancers in humans.

FDA takes steps to help ensure the reliability of certain diagnostic tests

August 4, 2014 Comments off

FDA takes steps to help ensure the reliability of certain diagnostic tests
Source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration

Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration took important steps to ensure that certain tests used by health care professionals to help diagnose and treat patients provide accurate, consistent and reliable results.

First, the FDA is issuing a final guidance on the development, review and approval or clearance of companion diagnostics, which are tests used to identify patients who will benefit from or be harmed by treatment with a certain drug. Companion diagnostic tests are intended to aid physicians in selecting appropriate therapies for individual patients. These tests are commonly used to detect certain types of gene-based cancers.

Second, consistent with the requirements of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act of 2012 (FDASIA), the agency is notifying Congress of its intention to publish a proposed risk-based oversight framework for laboratory developed tests (LDTs), which are designed, manufactured and used within a single laboratory. They include some genetic tests and tests that are used by health care professionals to guide medical treatment for their patients. The FDA already oversees direct-to-consumer tests regardless of whether they are LDTs or traditional diagnostics.

The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer

July 31, 2014 Comments off

The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer
Source: Surgeon General of the United States
From Executive Summary:

The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer calls on partners in prevention from various sectors across the nation to address skin cancer as a major public health problem. Federal, state, tribal, local, and territorial governments; members of the business, health care, and education sectors; community, nonprofit, and faith-based organizations; and individuals and families are all essential partners in this effort. The goal of this document is to increase awareness of skin cancer and to call for actions to reduce its risk. The Call to Action presents the following five strategic goals to support skin cancer prevention in the United States: increase opportunities for sun protection in outdoor settings; provide individuals with the information they need to make informed, healthy choices about ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure; promote policies that advance the national goal of preventing skin cancer; reduce harms from indoor tanning; and strengthen research, surveillance, monitoring, and evaluation related to skin cancer prevention.

Uterine Pathology in Women Undergoing Minimally Invasive Hysterectomy Using Morcellation

July 23, 2014 Comments off

Uterine Pathology in Women Undergoing Minimally Invasive Hysterectomy Using Morcellation
Source: Journal of the American Medical Association

Our data demonstrate that uterine cancers occurred in 27 per 10 000 women undergoing morcellation. Other malignancies and precancerous abnormalities were also detected. Although morcellators have been in use since 1993, few studies have described the prevalence of unexpected pathology at the time of hysterectomy.2- 4 Prevalence information is the first step in determining the risk of spreading cancer with morcellation. Although data are limited, women with apparent uterine-confined neoplasms at the time of morcellation have been found to have intraperitoneal tumor dissemination at the time of reexploration.3,6

We recognize a number of limitations including the inability to verify pathological findings, possible misclassification of pathology, potential undercapture of morcellation, and the fact that our findings may not be generalizable to all hospitals. Last, we lack data on long-term follow-up, and the outcome of women with pathological abnormalities who underwent morcellation requires further study. Patients considering morcellation should be adequately counseled about the prevalence of cancerous and precancerous conditions prior to undergoing the procedure.

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 899 other followers