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Emergency department visits for drug-related suicide attempts rise over six year period

August 11, 2014 Comments off

Emergency department visits for drug-related suicide attempts rise over six year period
Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Two new reports highlight the rise in drug-related suicide attempt visits to hospital emergency departments especially among certain age groups. The reports by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) show that overall there was a 51 percent increase for these types of visits among people 12 and older — from 151,477 visits in 2005 to 228,277 visits in 2011.

One report analyzed the increase in emergency department visits by age and found that the overall rise resulted from increases in visits by people aged 18 to 29 and people aged 45 to 64. Visits involving 18 to 29 year olds increased from 47,312 in 2005 to 75,068 — a 58 percent increase. Visits involving people aged 45 to 64 increased from 28,802 in 2005 to 58,776 visits in 2011 — a 104 percent increase. In 2011, these two age groups comprised approximately 60 percent of all drug-related emergency department visits involving suicide attempts.

The other SAMHSA report focused on the 45 to 64 age group, which had the largest increase in emergency department visits involving drug related suicide attempts, and characterized these visits. The report found that the majority (96 percent in 2011) of these visits involved the non-medical use of prescription drugs and over-the-counter-medications. In 2011, these drugs included anti-anxiety and insomnia medications (48 percent), pain relievers (29 percent) and antidepressants (22 percent).

Other substances involved in these drug-related suicide attempt emergency department visits during the same year included alcohol (39 percent) and illicit drugs (11 percent).

The report also found that these visits by patients aged 45 to 64 doubled for both men and women during this time period.

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Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Behavioral Interventions Update (August 6, 2014)

August 6, 2014 Comments off

Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Behavioral Interventions Update (PDF)
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

Objective
We updated a prior systematic review of interventions for children (0–12 years) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), focusing on recent studies of behavioral interventions.

Data sources
We searched the MEDLINE® (PubMed®), PsycInfo, and Educational Resources Information Clearinghouse (ERIC) databases as well as the reference lists of included studies and recent systematic reviews. We conducted the search in December 2013.

Methods. We included comparative studies (with treatment and comparison groups) of behavioral interventions with at least 10 participants with ASD in the update, and made our conclusions based on the cumulative comparative evidence across the original report and update. Two investigators independently screened studies against predetermined inclusion criteria and independently rated the quality of included studies.

Results
We included 65 unique studies comprising 48 randomized trials and 17 nonrandomized comparative studies (19 good, 39 fair, and 7 poor quality) published since the prior review. The quality of studies improved compared with that reported in the earlier review; however, our assessment of the strength of evidence (SOE), our confidence in the stability of effects of interventions in the face of future research, remains low for many intervention/outcome pairs. Early intervention based on high-intensity applied behavior analysis over extended timeframes was associated with improvement in cognitive functioning and language skills (moderate SOE for improvements in both outcomes) relative to community controls in some groups of young children. The magnitude of these effects varied across studies, potentially reflecting poorly understood modifying characteristics related to subgroups of children. Early intensive parent training programs modified parenting behaviors during interactions; however, data were more limited about their ability to improve developmental skills beyond language gains for some children (low SOE for positive effects on language). Social skills interventions varied in scope and intensity and showed some positive effects on social behaviors for older children in small studies (low SOE for positive effects on social skills). Studies of play/interaction-based approaches reported that joint attention interventions may demonstrate positive outcomes in preschool-age children with ASD when targeting joint attention skills (moderate SOE); data on the effects of such interventions in other areas were limited (low SOE for positive effects on play skills, language, social skills). Studies examining the effects of cognitive behavioral therapy on anxiety reported positive results in older children with IQs ≥70 (high SOE for improvements in anxiety in this population). Smaller short-term studies of other interventions reported some improvements in areas such as sleep and communication, but data were too sparse to assess their overall effectiveness.

Conclusions
A growing evidence base suggests that behavioral interventions can be associated with positive outcomes for children with ASD. Despite improvements in the quality of the included literature, a need remains for studies of interventions across settings and continued improvements in methodologic rigor. Substantial scientific advances are needed to enhance our understanding of which interventions are most effective for specific children with ASD and to isolate elements or components of interventions most associated with effects.

What does the Research Tell us about Services for Children in Therapeutic/Treatment Foster Care with Behavioral Health Issues?

July 18, 2014 Comments off

What does the Research Tell us about Services for Children in Therapeutic/Treatment Foster Care with Behavioral Health Issues?
Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Reports on a technical expert panel convened to assess the research about services for foster care children in therapeutic or treatment care. Reviews the scientific evidence and expert panel input to identify actions to be taken and further research needs.

Crisis Services: Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness, and Funding Strategies

June 8, 2014 Comments off

Crisis Services: Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness, and Funding Strategies
Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Summarizes the evidence base on the clinical and cost effectiveness of different types of crisis services, and presents cases studies of different approaches states are using to coordinate, consolidate, and blend funding sources to provide robust crisis services.

Mayors’ Resource Guide on Behavioral Health Issues

May 27, 2014 Comments off

Mayors’ Resource Guide on Behavioral Health Issues
Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

The term “behavioral health” refers to both mental health and substance use, and recognizes how the two are often inter‐related. Behavioral health problems include the misuse of alcohol or drugs, mental and substance use disorders, and suicide. Mental and substance use disorders include conditions such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and addiction to alcohol or prescription drugs. Preventing, treating, and supporting recovery from behavioral health problems is essential for communities to be healthy, safe, and successful. You can help ensure that everyone in your community has the best chance to succeed by addressing the behavioral health needs of your communities. You can do this by supporting the prevention and treatment of mental illness and supporting recovery from mental illness. Mayors and municipal leaders like you can have an important role in providing leadership and support to address the behavioral health needs of children, adults, and families in their communities.

Unaddressed behavioral health problems may have a negative effect on the economy for cities, towns, and counties. Costs may increase across systems including health care, emergency and social services, special education, services for homelessness, law enforcement, criminal justice system, and health insurance for municipal employees. They may impact the productivity of local businesses and health care costs, impede the ability of children and youth to succeed in school, and lead to family and community disruption.

Fortunately, many people with behavioral health problems can recover from these conditions and live healthy and productive lives. Many effective prevention, treatment, and recovery programs are available for mental and substance use disorders. Many mental and substance use disorders can be prevented and if symptoms do appear, and the severity of many of these problems can be reduced through programs focused on health promotion, illness prevention, and early treatment intervention.

Guidelines for the Successful Transition of People with Behavioral Health Disorders from Jail and Prison

April 28, 2014 Comments off

Guidelines for the Successful Transition of People with Behavioral Health Disorders from Jail and Prison (PDF)
Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Despite the significant number of individuals with behavioral disorders in the criminal justice system, 2010 marked the first time in nearly 40 years that the number of state prisoners in the United States declined. To achieve better outcomes, policymakers and researchers agree that a shift away from a reliance on incarceration to an emphasis on expanding capacity to supervise and treat individuals in the community is necessary. This shift has focused attention on the importance of cross-system approaches to providing effective criminal justice and behavioral health treatment interventions with the dual goals of reducing recidivism and promoting recovery. A critical component of cross-system work occurs at the transition from jail or prison to the community. Reentry into the community is a vulnerable time, marked by difficulties adjusting, increased drug use and a 12-fold increased risk of death in the first two weeks after release. Effective transition planning and implementation can minimize the risk of these hazards, enhance public safety by increasing the possibility that individuals will participate in and complete supervision and treatment requirements, and improve individual outcomes.

Recent Declines in Adolescent Inhalant Use

April 18, 2014 Comments off

Recent Declines in Adolescent Inhalant Use (PDF)
Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

+ In 2012, almost 650,000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 used inhalants in the past year.

+ Past year inhalant use among adolescents generally has been declining since about 2006; most recently, rates decreased from 3.3 percent in 2011 to 2.6 percent in 2012.

+ Rates of past year inhalant use among adolescents decreased between 2011 and 2012 for several demographic groups, including males, whites, those living in the Northeast and West, and those living in metropolitan areas.

Gender Differences in Primary Substance of Abuse across Age Groups

April 16, 2014 Comments off

Gender Differences in Primary Substance of Abuse across Age Groups
Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

+ In 2011, about 609,000 of the 1.84 million admissions to substance abuse treatment were female (33.1 percent), and 1.23 million were male (66.9 percent)
+ Compared with their male counterparts, a larger proportion of female admissions aged 12 to 17 reported alcohol as their primary substance of abuse (21.7 vs. 10.5 percent)
+ Marijuana as the primary substance of abuse was less common among female than male admissions aged 12 to 17 (60.8 vs. 80.7 percent) and 18 to 24 (22.1 vs. 33.4 percent)
+ Within the 65 or older age group, the proportion of female admissions reporting primary abuse of prescription pain relievers (e.g., oxycodone) was nearly 3 times that of their male counterparts (7.2 vs. 2.8 percent)

National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS): 2012 Data on Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities

March 21, 2014 Comments off

National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS): 2012 Data on Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities (PDF)
Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

This report presents results from the 2012 National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS), an annual census of facilities providing substance abuse treatment. Conthe Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), N-SSATS is designed to collect data on the location, characteristics, and use of alcohol and drug abuse treatment facilities and services throughout the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and other U.S. jurisdictions. It is important to note that values in charts, narrative lists, and percentage distributions are calculated using actual raw numbers and rounded for presentation in this report; calculations using rounded values may produce different results.

Trends in Substance Use Disorders among Males Aged 18 to 49 on Probation or Parole

March 20, 2014 Comments off

Trends in Substance Use Disorders among Males Aged 18 to 49 on Probation or Parole (PDF)
Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

In 2012, an estimated 3.2 million males aged 18 to 49 were on probation, and 900,000 were on parole; the percentage of males aged 18 to 49 who reported being on probation or parole during the past 12 months remained relatively stable between 2002 and 2012 (about 5 percent).

XXRates of substance use disorders among males aged 18 to 49 on probation or parole were generally similar to rates in previous years; in 2012, 40.3 percent of male probationers and 38.3 percent of male parolees had an alcohol or illicit drug use disorder in the past year.

XXThere were few statistically significant changes in need for treatment, receipt of substance use treatment (including receipt of treatment in prison or jail), or unmet treatment need between 2002 and 2012 among male probationers and parolees aged 18 to 49.

State Estimates of Adult Mental Illness from the 2011 and 2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health

March 19, 2014 Comments off

State Estimates of Adult Mental Illness from the 2011 and 2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health
Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

+ New State-level estimates produced by SAMHSA will advance our understanding of the nature and extent of mental illness; State-level data is critical to policymakers responsible for the planning and implementation of effective programs and services in communities.

+ Among adults aged 18 or older, the rate of serious mental illness (SMI) in the past year ranged from 3.1 percent in New Jersey to 5.5 percent in West Virginia; nationally the rate was 4.0 percent, which equates to 9.3 million Americans with SMI.

+ Nationally, 42.5 million adults aged 18 or older experienced any mental illness (AMI) in the past year, corresponding to a rate of 18.2 percent of the adult population; among States, AMI rates ranged from 14.7 percent in New Jersey to 22.3 percent in Utah.

A Practitioner’s Resource Guide: Helping Families to Support Their LGBT Children

March 12, 2014 Comments off

A Practitioner’s Resource Guide: Helping Families to Support Their LGBT Children
Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Offers information and resources to help practitioners throughout health and social service systems implement best practices in engaging and helping families and caregivers to support their lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) children.

More than One Third of Adults with Major Depressive Episode Did Not Talk to a Professional

February 26, 2014 Comments off

More than One Third of Adults with Major Depressive Episode Did Not Talk to a Professional (PDF)
Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Every year, about 15.2 million adults experience a major depressive episode (MDE). Combined data from the 2008 to 2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUHs) show that more than one third of adults with past year MDE (38.3 percent) did not talk to a health or alternative service professional during the past 12 months. Of the adults with MDE, 48.0 percent talked to a health professional only, and 10.7 percent talked to both a health professional and an alternative service professional.

Twenty-one Percent of Veterans in Substance Abuse Treatment Were Homeless

February 14, 2014 Comments off

Twenty-one Percent of Veterans in Substance Abuse Treatment Were Homeless (PDF)
Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

U.S. military veterans are a large portion of homeless adults. There is a possibility that the number of homeless veterans may grow as the total number of veterans increases due to recent military conflicts. One challenge faced by many homeless veterans is substance abuse. About 70 percent of homeless veterans have a substance abuse problem.

The Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) is a database of substance abuse treatment admissions. The admissions in TEDS who are veterans represent those who have chosen to seek treatment in community-based, non-Veterans Affairs facilities. In 2011, both veteran status and living arrangements were reported for about 1.3 million admissions aged 21 or older. Of these admissions, 52,427 (3.9 percent) were veterans. About one fifth of veterans in treatment (21.4 percent) were homeless. There was a higher percentage of homelessness among older veterans in treatment than among younger veterans in treatment (24.5 vs. 14.0 percent).

Guidelines for the Successful Transition of People with Behavioral Health Disorders from Jail and Prison

February 6, 2014 Comments off

Guidelines for the Successful Transition of People with Behavioral Health Disorders from Jail and Prison (PDF)
Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Despite the significant number of individuals with behavioral disorders in the criminal justice system, 2010 marked the first time in nearly 40 years that the number of state prisoners in the United States declined. To achieve better outcomes, policymakers and researchers agree that a shift away from a reliance on incarceration to an emphasis on expanding capacity to supervise and treat individuals in the community is necessary. This shift has focused attention on the importance of cross-system approaches to providing effective criminal justice and behavioral health treatment interventions with the dual goals of reducing recidivism and promoting recovery. A critical component of cross-system work occurs at the transition from jail or prison to the community. Reentry into the community is a vulnerable time, marked by difficulties adjusting, increased drug use and a 12-fold increased risk of death in the first two weeks after release.23 Effective transition planning and implementation can minimize the risk of these hazards, enhance public safety by increasing the possibility that individuals will participate in and complete supervision and treatment requirements, and improve individual outcomes.

Behavioral Health Barometer — United States, 2013

February 3, 2014 Comments off

Behavioral Health Barometer — United States, 2013
Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Presents a set of substance use and mental health indicators from population and treatment facility-based data sets. Provides point-in-time and trend data reflecting the status and progress in improving key behavioral health indicators.

Individual state profiles also available.

Adult illicit drug users are far more likely to seriously consider suicide

January 27, 2014 Comments off

Adult illicit drug users are far more likely to seriously consider suicide
Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Adults using illicit drugs are far more likely to seriously consider suicide than the general adult population according to a new report by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). The report finds that 3.9 percent of the nation’s adult population aged 18 or older had serious thoughts about suicide in the past year, but that the rate among adult illicit drug users was 9.4 percent.

According to SAMHSA’s report, the percentage of adults who had serious thoughts of suicide varied by the type of illicit substance used. For example, while 9.6 percent of adults who had used marijuana in the past year had serious thoughts of suicide during that period, the level was 20.9 percent for adults who had used sedatives non-medically in the past year.

Diagnoses and Health Care Utilization of Children Who Are in Foster Care and Covered by Medicaid

December 19, 2013 Comments off

Diagnoses and Health Care Utilization of Children Who Are in Foster Care and Covered by Medicaid
Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Examines mental illness or substance use disorders prevalence and the utilization of health services among foster care children who are covered by Medicaid. Reports trends across three age groups for use in determining the needs of foster children.

Update on Drug-Related Emergency Department Visits Attributed to Intentional Poisoning: 2011

December 2, 2013 Comments off

Update on Drug-Related Emergency Department Visits Attributed to Intentional Poisoning: 2011
Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

  • In 2011, there were an estimated 15,471 emergency department (ED) visits attributed to intentional drug poisoning
  • About three quarters (77 percent) of drug-related ED visits attributed to intentional poisoning were made by patients aged 21 or older
  • Females accounted for two thirds of drug-related ED visits attributed to intentional poisoning (66 percent)
  • Approximately 65 percent of drug-related ED visits attributed to intentional poisoning in 2011 involved unidentified drugs, and a similar percentage involved alcohol in combination with other drugs (62 percent)

Media Guidelines for Bullying Prevention

November 14, 2013 Comments off

Media Guidelines for Bullying Prevention
Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Media coverage of social issues has a profound impact on how communities understand and address problems. Research and expert opinion suggest that certain trends in media coverage of bullying have the potential to do harm. The Media Guidelines for Bullying Prevention offer help to journalists, bloggers, the entertainment creative community, and others who are developing content about bullying.

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