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Archive for the ‘diseases and conditions’ Category

Complex temporal climate signals drive the emergence of human water-borne disease

December 19, 2014 Comments off

Complex temporal climate signals drive the emergence of human water-borne disease
Source: Emerging Microbes & Infections

Predominantly occurring in developing parts of the world, Buruli ulcer is a severely disabling mycobacterium infection which often leads to extensive necrosis of the skin. While the exact route of transmission remains uncertain, like many tropical diseases, associations with climate have been previously observed and could help identify the causative agent’s ecological niche. In this paper, links between changes in rainfall and outbreaks of Buruli ulcer in French Guiana, an ultraperipheral European territory in the northeast of South America, were identified using a combination of statistical tests based on singular spectrum analysis, empirical mode decomposition and cross-wavelet coherence analysis. From this, it was possible to postulate for the first time that outbreaks of Buruli ulcer can be triggered by combinations of rainfall patterns occurring on a long (i.e., several years) and short (i.e., seasonal) temporal scale, in addition to stochastic events driven by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation that may disrupt or interact with these patterns. Long-term forecasting of rainfall trends further suggests the possibility of an upcoming outbreak of Buruli ulcer in French Guiana.

See: Climate, emerging diseases: Dangerous connections found (Science Daily)

New From the GAO

December 19, 2014 Comments off

New GAO Reports
Source: Government Accountability Office

1. Fair Labor Standards Act: Extending Protections to Home Care Workers. GAO-15-12, December 17.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-15-12
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/667603.pdf

2. Federal Emergency Management Agency: Opportunities Exist to Strengthen Oversight of Administrative Costs for Major Disasters. GAO-15-65, December 17.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-15-65
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/667607.pdf

3. Department of Homeland Security: Continued Action Needed to Strengthen Management of Administratively Uncontrollable Overtime. GAO-15-95, December 17.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-15-95
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/667618.pdf

4. Tax-Exempt Organizations: Better Compliance Indicators and Data, and More Collaboration with State Regulators Would Strengthen Oversight of Charitable Organizations. GAO-15-164, December 17.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-15-164
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/667596.pdf

5.   State and Local Governments’ Fiscal Outlook: 2014 Update. GAO-15-224SP, December 17.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-15-224SP
Podcast: http://www.gao.gov/multimedia/podcasts/667597

6.   Dodd-Frank Regulations: Regulators’ Analytical and Coordination Efforts. GAO-15-81, December 18.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-15-81
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/667634.pdf

7.   Electronic Submissions in Federal Procurement: Implementation by the Army Corps of Engineers and Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Reclamation. GAO-15-253R, December 18.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-15-253R

8.   Federal Food Safety Oversight: Additional Actions Needed to Improve Planning and Collaboration. GAO-15-180, December 18.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-15-180
Highlights –  http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/667657.pdf

EU — Employment opportunities for people with chronic diseases

December 18, 2014 Comments off

Employment opportunities for people with chronic diseases
Source: Eurofound

This report examines employment opportunities for people with chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, arthritis and mental health problems in the EU28 Member States and Norway. People with a chronic disease may have a reduced working capacity and experience difficulty staying at or returning to work. The report looks at the prevalence of people suffering from chronic diseases, their employment situation, uneven distribution among occupations and sectors, and working conditions. It looks at policies and measures adopted by governments, social partners and enterprises to improve employment prospects and working conditions of people with chronic diseases.

CRS — FY2015 Budget Requests to Counter Ebola and the Islamic State (IS) (December 4, 2014 )

December 17, 2014 Comments off

FY2015 Budget Requests to Counter Ebola and the Islamic State (IS) (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via U.S. Department of State Foreign Press Center)

The lame-duck session of the 113th Congress may consider appropriations measures that include recent emergency funding requests. In 2014, two major global threats — the Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the Islamic State (IS) in the Middle East — caused serious concern within the Obama Administration and among Members of Congress. In November 2014, the President requested a total of $11.68 billion for responding to the Ebola crisis and combatting the Islamic State.

Exergy and the City: The Technology and Sociology of Power (Failure)

December 16, 2014 Comments off

Exergy and the City: The Technology and Sociology of Power (Failure)
Source: Journal of Urban Technology

Blackouts—the total loss of electrical power—serve as a reminder of how dependent the modern world and particularly urban areas have become on electricity and the appliances it powers. To understand them we consider the critical nature of electrical infrastructure. In order to provide general patterns from specific cases, a large number of blackouts have been analyzed. Irrespective of cause, they display similar effects. These include measurable economic losses and less easily quantified social costs. We discuss financial damage, food safety, crime, transport, and problems caused by diesel generators. This is more than just a record of past failures; blackouts are dress rehearsals for the future in which they will appear with greater frequency and severity. While energy cannot be destroyed, exergy—the available energy within a system—can be. Exergy is concerned with energy within an “environment;” in this case a city. The bottom line is simple: no matter how “smart” a city may be, it becomes “dumb” when the power goes out.

Antimicrobial Resistance : Tackling a crisis for the health and wealth of nations

December 15, 2014 Comments off

Antimicrobial Resistance : Tackling a crisis for the health and wealth of nations(PDF)
Source: Review on Antimicrobial Resistance (UK)

The Review has published its first paper, Antimicrobial Resistance: Tackling a Crisis for the Health and Wealth of Nations on December 11 at a launch event hosted by its Chair, Jim O’Neill, in London. In this report we explain why failing to tackle drug-resistant infections will cause 10 million deaths a year and cost up to US$ 100 trillion a year by 2050.

New Study Shows Increase in Raw Milk-Associated Outbreaks

December 14, 2014 Comments off

New Study Shows Increase in Raw Milk-Associated Outbreaks
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases (CDC)

A study published today in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal shows that the average annual number of outbreaks due to drinking raw (unpasteurized) milk more than quadrupled since the last similar study – from an average of three outbreaks per year during 1993-2006 to 13 per year during 2007-2012. Overall, there were 81 outbreaks in 26 states from 2007 to 2012. The outbreaks, which accounted for about 5 percent of all foodborne outbreaks with a known food source, sickened nearly 1,000 people and sent 73 to the hospital. More than 80 percent of the outbreaks occurred in states where selling raw milk was legal.

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