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Juvenile Arrests 2011

March 25, 2014 Comments off

Juvenile Arrests 2011
Source: office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

As has been the case in general for the past decade, juvenile arrest data for 2011 provide reasons for encouragement. Overall, arrests in 2011 were down 11 percent from 2010 and down 31 percent since 2002.

Although juvenile arrest rates for many crimes are at their lowest levels in more than 30 years, many states and communities are instituting legislative, policy, and practice changes to reduce juvenile arrests even further. As a growing body of evidence underscores the corrosive effects that system involvement and confinement can have on healthy adolescent emotional, mental, behavioral, and social development, many jurisdictions are examining and developing ways to divert nonserious offenders from entering the system. With time, the cumulative effects of these and other reform efforts, such as trauma, mental health, and substance abuse screening and assessment for youth upon intake, should result in a system where arrests are rare, all youth are treated fairly, and when a youth enters the system, he or she receives much-needed treatment and services. Such changes would undoubtedly provide positive and healthy outcomes for youth, families, and communities.

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Mentoring Children of Incarcerated Parents: A Synthesis of Research and Input From the Listening Session Held by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and the White House Domestic Policy Council and Office of Public Engagement

March 21, 2014 Comments off

Mentoring Children of Incarcerated Parents: A Synthesis of Research and Input From the Listening Session Held by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and the White House Domestic Policy Council and Office of Public Engagement (PDF)
Source: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

Parents may be incarcerated in correctional facilities at either the local or state level and the length of incarceration varies by type of facility. Jails are locally-operated correctional facilities and sentences to jail (typically for misdemeanors) are usually one year or shorter, whereas prisons (state or federal) are typically further away and generally involve sentences (typically for felonies) that are longer than one year. The number of youth who have an incarcerated parent has grown considerably over the past two decades. It is estimated that 1.7 million youth in the United States have at least one parent currently in prison and that millions more have a parent in jail. As a group, these youth fare worse than other youth on a range of immediate and longer-term outcomes that relate to mental and physical health as well as educational achievement. Evidence suggests that, in combination with other sources of risk and adversity, the incarceration of a parent can increase the likelihood that youth become involved in antisocial and delinquent behavior. Yet, it is clear that parental incarceration affects families in different ways and that experiences before, during, and after incarceration contribute to youths’outcomes. Furthermore, as many youth faced with the incarceration of a parent do well, a parent’s incarceration is clearly not an insurmountable barrier to a young person realizing his or her full potential.

The broader research literature supports mentoring programs as a promising form of support for youth with incarcerated parents. Findings indicate that participation in a mentoring program can benefit a young person in several different areas, including emotional well-being, social relationships, avoiding problem behavior, and academic achievement.

Mentoring Children of Incarcerated Parents

February 4, 2014 Comments off

Mentoring Children of Incarcerated Parents (PDF)
Source: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

Parents may be incarcerated in correctional facilities at either the local or state level and the length of incarceration varies by type of facility. Jails are locally-operated correctional facilities and sentences to jail (typically for misdemeanors) are usually one year or shorter, whereas prisons (state or federal) are typically further away and generally involve sentences (typically for felonies) that are longer than one year. The number of youth who have an incarcerated parent has grown considerably over the past two decades. It is estimated that 1.7 million youth in the United States have at least one parent currently in prison and that millions more have a parent in jail. As a group, these youth fare worse than other youth on a range of immediate and longer-term outcomes that relate to mental and physical health as well as educational achievement. Evidence suggests that, in combination with other sources of risk and adversity, the incarceration of a parent can increase the likelihood that youth become involved in antisocial and delinquent behavior. Yet, it is clear that parental incarceration affects families in different ways and that experiences before, during, and after incarceration contribute to youths’ outcomes. Furthermore, as many youth faced with the incarceration of a parent do well, a parent’s incarceration is clearly not an insurmountable barrier to a young person realizing his or her full potential.

The broader research literature supports mentoring programs as a promising form of support for youth with incarcerated parents. Findings indicate that participation in a mentoring program can benefit a young person in several different areas, including emotional well-being, social relationships, avoiding problem behavior, and academic achievement.

Functional Impairment in Delinquent Youth

January 13, 2014 Comments off

Functional Impairment in Delinquent Youth (PDF)
Source: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

This bulletin is one in a series that presents the results of the Northwestern Juvenile Project—a longitudinal study of youth detained at the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center in Chicago, IL. The authors present the results of their examination of youth’s functional impairment as assessed 3 years after their release from detention. Key findings include the following:

  • Only 7.5 percent of youth had no notable impairment in functioning.
  • Approximately one of every five youth had markedly impaired functioning.
  • Markedly impaired functioning was much more common in males than in females; however, females were more likely to be severely impaired in the moods/emotions and self-harm domains than males.
  • Among males living in the community, African Americans and Hispanics were more likely to be severely impaired in school and work than non-Hispanic whites.

New OJJDP Bulletin Examines Youth Delinquency and Victimization

October 30, 2013 Comments off

New OJJDP Bulletin Examines Youth Delinquency and Victimization
Source: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

OJJDP has released Children’s Exposure to Violence and the Intersection Between Delinquency and Victimization. The latest in OJJDP’s National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV) publication series, the bulletin presents survey results regarding the co-occurrence of victimization and delinquency among children who are exposed to violence.

The survey categorized adolescents ages 10 to 17 into one of four groups: those youth who were primarily delinquents and not victims (primarily delinquents), those who were primarily victims and not delinquents (primarily victims), those who were both delinquents and victims (delinquent-victims), and those who were neither victims nor delinquents. Youth identified as delinquent-victims had higher levels of both delinquency and victimization than either the primarily victim or primarily delinquent youth. These youth also suffered more adversities, and had lower levels of social support and higher rates of mental health symptoms. The study points to the importance of early intervention.

The relative sizes of these various groups appear to change as children age; they also differ by gender. The delinquent-victim group among boys is larger overall and increases substantially between ages 13 and 14. This may reflect an increase in delinquent activities around the time they enter high school among boys who had previously been primarily victims. The high school environment may expose them to older delinquent role models and present them with conditions of more independence and less supervision than middle school.

For girls, the pattern change appears to occur earlier (between ages 11 and 12) and is associated with an increase in both victimization and delinquency, but particularly victimization. This is likely related to the onset of puberty in girls and shows up in the data as a particularly marked increase in sexual harassment.

These findings strongly suggest that delinquency- and victimization-prevention efforts need to be marshaled around or before the fifth grade, and they need to include components that minimize sexual aggression and harassment.

Nature and Risk of Victimization: Findings From the Survey of Youth in Residential Placement

August 19, 2013 Comments off

Nature and Risk of Victimization: Findings From the Survey of Youth in Residential Placement (PDF)
Source: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (DOJ)

This bulletin covers key findings from the Survey of Youth in Residential Placement on youth’s victimization in placement, including their experiences of theft, robbery, physical assault, and sexual assault. It presents the details of youth’s reports about these victimization experiences, indicating the prevalence and frequency of victimization, the perpetrators involved, the use of weapons, and any injuries resulting from the victimization. Because SYRP provides substantial information about youth’s characteristics, needs, and conditions of confinement (Sedlak and Bruce, 2010; Sedlak and McPherson, 2010a, 2010b), it also provides a rich basis for un- derstanding the context of victimization.

The bulletin describes a variety of youth characteristics and facility conditions that correlate with victimization rates and identifies a core set of risk factors that predict the probability of a youth experi- encing violence in custody.

PTSD, Trauma, and Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Detained Youth

July 16, 2013 Comments off

PTSD, Trauma, and Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Detained Youth (PDF)
Source: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

This bulletin examines the results of the Northwestern Juvenile Project—a prospective longitudinal study of youth detained at the Cook County Juvenile Tem – porary Detention Center in Chicago, IL. The authors discuss their findings on the prevalence of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among juvenile detainees and PTSD’s tendency to co-occur with other psychiatric disorders. Some findings include the following:

  • Of the study sample, 92.5 percent of youth had experienced at least one trauma, 84 percent had experienced more than one trauma, and 56.8 percent were exposed to trauma six or more times.
  • Witnessing violence, the most common trauma, was far more common in this study sample than in most community studies of youth and young adults.
  • More than 1 in 10 detainees had PTSD in the year prior to the interview.
  • Among participants with PTSD, 93 percent had at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder. Among males, having any psychiatric diagnosis significantly increased the odds of having comorbid PTSD.

PTSD, Trauma, and Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Detained Youth

July 8, 2013 Comments off

PTSD, Trauma, and Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Detained Youth (PDF)
Source: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice

This bulletin examines the results of the Northwestern Juvenile Project—a longitudinal study of youth detained at the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center in Chicago, IL, cosponsored by OJJDP. The authors discuss their findings on the prevalence of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among juvenile detainees and PTSD’s tendency to co-occur with other psychiatric disorders. Of the study sample, 92.5 percent of youth had experienced at least one trauma, 84 percent had experienced more than one trauma, and 56.8 percent were exposed to trauma six or more times. Among participants with PTSD, 93 percent had at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder. Among males, having any psychiatric diagnosis significantly increased the odds of having comorbid PTSD.

Community Supervision of Underage Drinkers

November 7, 2012 Comments off

Community Supervision of Underage Drinkers (PDF)

Source: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

In this bulletin, the authors provide a theoretical overview upon which to base policies, procedures, and practices that will help professionals—and their cor­ responding agencies—effectively supervise underage drinkers in the community.

They also discuss the legal issues that professionals may encounter when working with these youth.

Some of the authors’ recommendations include the following:

• An effective community supervision program should emphasize four goals: community protection, youth accountability, competency develop­ ment, and individual assessment.

• Conditions of community supervision must be clearly stated to the youth, must be constitutional and fair, and must help rehabilitate the youth.

• Community corrections and diversion professionals must acknowledge the diverse cultural backgrounds of youth and tailor interventions and services accordingly.

• Justice system professionals must remember that youth under supervision maintain certain basic constitutional rights. Violation of these rights, inten­tional misconduct, or negligence can result in legal liability.

Bullying in Schools: An Overview

January 1, 2012 Comments off

Bullying in Schools: An Overview (PDF)
Source: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

Highlights Researchers from the National Center for School Engagement conducted a series of studies to explore the connections between bullying in schools, school attendance and engagement, and academic achievement. This bulletin pro vides an overview of the OJJDP-funded studies, a summary of the researchers’ indings, and recommendations for policy and practice.

Following are some of the authors’ key findings:

  • Bullying is a complex social and emotional phenomenon that plays out differently on an individual level.
  • Bullying does not directly cause truancy.
  • School engagement protects victims from truancy and low academic achievement.
  • When schools provide a safe learning environment in which adults model positive behavior, they can mitigate the negative effects of bullying.
  • ny interventions to address bullying or victimization should be intentional, student-focused engagement strategies that it the context of the school where they are used.

Juvenile Arrests 2009

December 30, 2011 Comments off
Source:  U.S. Department of Justice (Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention)

Contrary to the popular perception that juvenile crime is on the rise, the data reported in this bulletin tell a different story. As detailed in these pages, juvenile arrests for violent offenses declined 10% between 2008 and 2009, and overall juvenile arrests fell 9% during that same period. Between 1994—when the Violent Crime Index arrest rates for juveniles hit a historic high—and 2009, the rate fell nearly 50% to its lowest level since at least 1980. Arrest rates for nearly every offense category for both male and female and white and minority youth were down in 2009.

Although such trends are encouraging, they should not lead to a misplaced sense of compla­ cency. Juvenile crime and violence continue to plague many communities across the country. During the first decade of the 21st century (2000–2009), juvenile arrests for robbery rose 15%, and arrests for murder were unchanged. Clearly, our work is not finished.

Children’s Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence and Other Family Violence

November 4, 2011 Comments off

Children’s Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence and Other Family Violence (PDF)
Source: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

This bulletin discusses the data on exposure to family violence in the National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV), the most comprehensive nationwide survey of the incidence and prevalence of children’s exposure to violence to date, sponsored by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

More than 1 in 9 (11 percent) were exposed to some form of family violence in the past year, including 1 in 15 (6.6 percent) exposed to IPV between parents (or between a parent and that parent’s partner). One in four children (26 percent) were exposed to at least one form of family violence during their lifetimes. Most youth exposed to family violence, including 90 percent of those exposed to IPV, saw the violence, as opposed to hearing it or other indirect forms of exposure. Males were more likely to perpetrate incidents that were witnessed than females, with 68 percent of youth witnessing only violence by males. Father figures were the most common perpetrators of family violence, although assaults by mothers and other caregivers were also common.

Reducing Drinking Among Underage Air Force Members in Five Communities

August 13, 2011 Comments off

Reducing Drinking Among Underage Air Force Members in Five Communities (PDF)
Source: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

In 2006, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention provided grants to five communities with local Air Force bases to implement the agency’s Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws (EUDL) initiative. This bulletin presents findings from an evaluation of EUDL activities in these communities. The study in this bulletin focused on comparing the rates of problem drinking in each of the EUDL communities to five control communities and the Air Force overall. The following are some of the key findings of the evaluation:

  • Although all sites showed some success, sites that implemented their interventions early, had task forces on underage drinking at the program’s onset, collaborated with local partners, and followed guidance from the federal agencies sponsoring the evaluation had the best results.
  • The two Arizona communities that implemented the EUDL initiative following the practices cited above saw the highest reductions in junior enlisted members at risk for problem drinking.
  • EUDL communities located in urban areas had more success finding alternative activities to drinking than communities in rural areas.
  • The percentage of Air Force enlisted personnel at risk for a drinking problem decreased 6.6 percent from 2006 to 2008.

Federal Resources on Missing and Exploited Children: A Directory for Law Enforcement and Other Public and Private Agencies (Sixth Edition)

May 27, 2011 Comments off

Federal Resources on Missing and Exploited Children: A Directory for Law Enforcement and Other Public and Private Agencies (Sixth Edition) (PDF)
Source: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

Describes the federal services, programs, publications, and training sessions that address child sexual exploitation issues, child pornography, child abduction, Internet crime, and missing children cases.

Guide for Implementing or Enhancing an Endangered Missing Advisory

March 31, 2011 Comments off

Guide for Implementing or Enhancing an Endangered Missing Advisory (PDF)
Source: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (DoJ)

The unauthorized absence of a child from the home is a family crisis that requires immediate and collaborative attention. Over the past two decades the AMBER Alert Program has grown into a nationally coordinated effort under the Office of Justice Programs, which has significantly improved the strategies and the methods for recovering endangered and abducted children. More than 500 children have been returned home as a result of AMBER Alert plans, which have been established in every state.

Despite such progress, however, gaps remain in the recovery of missing children whose cases do not meet the strict criteria for AMBER Alert and of missing adults, whose cases are not covered by AMBER Alert. To assist communities in closing these gaps, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention has initiated a project to help states, communities, and law enforcement agencies develop a strategy in which the Endangered Missing Advisory (EMA) plays a crucial role.

This guide provides AMBER Alert coordinators, law enforcement, and public safety professionals with an effective and efficient way to implement an EMA plan. It offers recommendations to assist law enforcement in developing strategies to recover missing children and adults and includes relevant findings to inform policymakers’ efforts to address the problem.

Highlights From Pathways to Desistance: A Longitudinal Study of Serious Adolescent Offenders

March 24, 2011 Comments off

Highlights From Pathways to Desistance: A Longitudinal Study of Serious Adolescent Offenders
Source: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

This fact sheet presents an overview of some major findings from the Pathways to Desistance Study, a project that followed 1,354 serious adolescent offenders for 7 years following their convictions. The primary findings of the study to date deal with the decrease in self-reported offending over time by most serious adolescent offenders, the relative inefficacy of longer juvenile incarcerations in decreasing recidivism, the effectiveness of community-based supervision as a component of aftercare for incarcerated youth, and the effectiveness of substance abuse treatment in reducing both substance use and offending by serious adolescent offenders.

+ Full Document (PDF)

Youth’s Characteristics and Backgrounds: Findings from the Survey of Youth in Residential Placement

February 14, 2011 Comments off

Youth’s Characteristics and Backgrounds: Findings from the Survey of Youth in Residential Placement (PDF)
Source: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

The Survey of Youth in Residential Placement (SYRP) is the third component in the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention’s constellation of surveys providing updated statistics on youth in custody in the juvenile justice system. It joins the Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement and the Juvenile Residential Facility Census, which are biennial mail surveys of residential facility administrators conducted in alternating years. SYRP is a unique addition, gathering information directly from youth through anonymous interviews. This bulletin series reports on the first national SYRP, covering its development and design and providing detailed information on the youth’s characteristics, backgrounds, and expectations; the conditions of their confinement; their needs and the services they received; and their experiences of victimization in placement.

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