Archive for the ‘U.S. Army’ Category

Commander’s Legal Handbook 2013

April 15, 2014 Comments off

Commander’s Legal Handbook 2013 (PDF)
Source: Judge Advocate General’s Legal Center and School, United States Army

This Handbook is designed to assist you in taking proper immediate action when faced with a variety of legal issues that might arise during your command. The purpose of your actions should be to preserve the legal situation until you can consult with your servicing Judge Advocate. However, like most aspects of your command responsibilities, you can fail if you just wait for things to come to you. You need to be proactive in preventing problems before they occur.

In the legal arena, this means establishing and enforcing high standards, ensuring your Soldiers are fully aware of those standards and properly trained to comply with them. You must also properly train your Soldiers on all Army policies and higher level command standards so that they also understand and comply with them. Soldiers must also be well-versed in the Army Values and be able to apply those values to real-world situations, which will usually keep them well within legal bounds.

All Soldiers have seen issues in the news that can occur when we are not proactive about discipline and standards: Abuse of prisoners, desecration of corpses, hazing, and sexual assault to name recent examples. All of these circumstances present serious legal issues. But, fundamentally, they also represent a breakdown in unit standards, training, and discipline. Your objective as a Commander should be to develop solid systems and a command climate that prevents legal issues, rather than just reacting to them. In sum, it is every bit as important to train your Soldiers to maintain a high level of discipline and compliance with law, policy, and military standards, as it is to train them to perform your Mission Essential Task List (METL). In legal circles, we call this effort to prevent legal problems before they arise by properly training Soldiers, “preventive law.” The responsibility to practice preventive law belongs to the Commander.

See also: 2013 Fiscal Law Deskbook (PDF)
See also: Military Citation Guide (PDF)

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U.S. Army — Uniform Policy: Leaders Training

April 8, 2014 Comments off

Uniform Policy: Leaders Training (PDF of PPT slides)
Source: U.S. Army
Army’s new grooming/appearance regulations

Senior Officer Talent Management: Fostering Institutional Adaptability

March 21, 2014 Comments off

Senior Officer Talent Management: Fostering Institutional Adaptability
Source: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College

The Army has for years been successful at creating senior leaders adept in the art and science of land combat after honing their leadership at the direct and organizational levels. While those experiences remain invaluable, undue reliance upon them to create the Army’s future institutional leaders is increasingly risky in today’s rapidly changing world. The contemporary and future operating environments demand an innovative and highly adaptive Institutional Army, capable of rapidly responding to operational demands. Incremental adjustments to current senior officer management practices will not create that adaptability. An entirely new approach is required, one that unleashes the unique potential of each person—full-career officer talent management.

U.S. Army Field Manual — Cyber Electromagnetic Activities

February 20, 2014 Comments off

FM 3-38: Cyber Electromagnetic Activities (PDF)
Source: U.S. Army (via Federation of American Scientists)

United States (U.S.) forces operate in an increasingly network-based world. The proliferation of information technologies is changing the way humans interact with each other and their environment, including interactions during military operations. This broad and rapidly changing operational environment requires that today’s Army must operate in cyberspace and leverage an electromagnetic spectrum that is increasingly competitive, congested, and contested.

FM 3-38, Cyber Electromagnetic Activities, is the first doctrinal field manual of its kind. The integration and synchronization of cyber electromagnetic activities (CEMA) is a new concept. The Army codified the concept of CEMA in Army Doctrine Publication (ADP) 3-0, Unified Land Operations, and ADP 6-0, Mission Command. The mission command warfighting function now includes four primary staff tasks: conduct the operations process (plan, prepare, execute, assess), conduct knowledge management and information management, conduct inform and influence activities (IIA), and conduct CEMA. The purpose of FM 3-38 is to provide an overview of principles, tactics, and procedures on Army integration of CEMA as part of unified land operations.

At its heart, CEMA are designed to posture the Army to address the increasing importance of cyberspace and the electromagnetic spectrum (EMS) and their role in unified land operations. CEMA are implemented via the integration and synchronization of cyberspace operations, electronic warfare (EW), and spectrum management operations (SMO).

New Realities: Energy Security in the 2010s and Implications for the U.S. Military – Executive Summaries

January 29, 2014 Comments off

New Realities: Energy Security in the 2010s and Implications for the U.S. Military – Executive Summaries
Source: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College

The rapidly changing global energy supply situation, coupled with a host of social, political, and economic challenges facing consumer states, has significant implications for the United States generally and for the U.S. military specifically. The U.S. Army War College gathered experts from the policymaking community, academia, think tanks, the private sector, and the military services at the Reserve Officers Association in Washington, DC on 19-20 November 2013 to address first the major ‘new realities’ both geographically and technologically and then the specific military implications. This compendium of executive summaries is based on the presentations delivered at that conference, which was funded through the generous support of the U.S. Army War College Foundation.

Changing Minds In The Army: Why It Is So Difficult and What To Do About It

December 4, 2013 Comments off

Changing Minds In The Army: Why It Is So Difficult and What To Do About It
Source: Strategic Studies Institute of the U.S. Army War College

History and organizational studies both demonstrate that changing one’s mind is quite difficult, even in the face of overwhelming evidence that this change needs to occur. This monograph explains how smart, professional, and incredibly performance-oriented Army senior leaders develop frames of reference and then oftentimes cling to their outdated frames in the face of new information. It describes the influence of individual-level concepts—personality, cognitive dissonance reduction, the hardwiring of the brain, the imprints of early career events, and senior leader intuition—along with group level factors to explain how frames of reference are established, exercised, and rewarded. It concludes by offering recommendations to senior leaders on how to structure Army leader development systems to create leaders comfortable with changing their minds when the environment dictates.

Army 2020 and Beyond Sustainment White Paper

October 31, 2013 Comments off

Army 2020 and Beyond Sustainment White Paper (PDF)
Source: U.S. Army Combined Arms Support Command

Our nation and armed forces are transitioning from more than a decade of war to a future that presents us with a range of challenges. Significant change in security policy over the past 18 months, combined with fiscal uncertainty means that we must re-think how the Army sustains itself in the next war, particularly as we transition from being an Army at war to an Army in preparation for the next conflict.

This white paper is a key document for change in the sustainment community and will inform both the revision of the Army Functional Concept for Sustainment and the broader force modernization process. It leverages the Global Logistics 2020 effort, looking at the contemporary issues that will drive change in how the sustainment community shapes the future. It provides a broader, integrated view of national strategic issues, the industrial base, the generating force, and the operating force executing sustainment activities in support of the warfighter.

This white paper proposes an approach called Globally Responsive Sustainment. This approach identifies a range of attributes that will shape the future sustainment force. It follows the Capstone Concept for Joint Operations, which describes the need for Globally Integrated Operations. Globally Responsive Sustainment is the Army’s contribution to meeting the need of Globally Integrated Operations. Globally Responsive Sustainment seeks to produce a sustainment system that is optimized, integrated, and synchronized, while ensuring that it is affordable, relevant, and avoids unnecessary redundancy. Globally Responsive Sustainment proposes a future sustainment force that is agile and flexible, integrated, protected, trained and ready, precise and responsive, and affordable. Although much of this approach for the future has yet to be realized, the “Big Ideas” that the sustainment community is pursuing have been identified in this white paper. These will evolve toward our vision of Globally Responsive Sustainment.

The Effectiveness of Drone Strikes in Counterinsurgency and Counterterrorism Campaigns

October 16, 2013 Comments off

The Effectiveness of Drone Strikes in Counterinsurgency and Counterterrorism Campaigns
Source: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College

The United States increasingly relies on unmanned aerial vehicles to target insurgent and terrorist groups around the world. This monograph analyzes the available research and evidence that assesses the political and military consequences of drone strikes. It is not clear if drone strikes have degraded their targets, or that they kill enough civilians to create sizable public backlashes against the United States. Drones are a politically and militarily attractive way to counter insurgents and terrorists, but, paradoxically, this may lead to their use in situations where they are less likely to be effective and where they are difficult to predict consequences.

Strategic Landpower Task Force Research Report

October 16, 2013 Comments off

Strategic Landpower Task Force Research Report
Source: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College

The 21st-century security environment compels the United States to develop more effective and efficient ways to promote its national interests. This includes refining methods for developing and applying landpower. One of the most important aspects of improving American landpower is augmenting the ability of the U.S. military in the human domain of conflict.

While discussion of the human domain is new for the U.S. military, it reflects long-standing ideas. Skilled military leaders have always understood that war has both a physical and a psychological dimension. The physical dimension allows an army, navy, and air force to compel enemies and noncombatants to act in a specific way. By contrast, effects in the psychological dimension are indirect, leading both enemies and noncombatants to choose to act in a specific way, either by fear of what will happen to them if they do not or the promise of reward if they do. The two dimensions clearly overlap: physically compelling enemies to do something, or killing them, has psychological effects on anyone who observes or hears about it. But skill in one dimension does not automati­cally equate to success in the other.

History’s greatest military strategists have capitalized on this intersection to amplify their in­fluence beyond what they can physically affect and to make the most efficient use possible of their resources. As Sun Tzu, the Chinese theorist of war, wrote more than 2,000 years ago, “The supreme art of war is to subdue the enemy without fighting.” Although he used different words, Sun Tzu was talking about the psychological dimension of armed conflict. And the past 10 years have shown that, in 21st-century conflict, the psychological dimension is as important as the physical, and often more so.

The Real “Long War”: The Illicit Drug Trade and the Role of the Military

October 11, 2013 Comments off

The Real “Long War”: The Illicit Drug Trade and the Role of the Military
Source: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College

The 21st century has seen the growth of a number of nontraditional threats to international stability on which, trade, and thus U.S. peace and security, depends, and for the moment at least a reduced likelihood of continental scale warfighting operations, and something of a de-emphasis on major involvement in counterinsurgency operations. These nontraditional threats are, however, very real and should command a higher priority than they have done in the past, even in a period of budgetary constraint. The military have cost-effective contributions to make in countering the manufacture and distribution of illicit drugs, and in many cases can do so without serious detriment to their main warfighting role. Successfully completing this mission, however, will require the military to rethink their integration with the nonmilitary aspects of a whole-of-government approach, and almost certainly, their institutional preference for speedy victories in short wars.

An Assessment of the DoD Strategy for Operating in Cyberspace

October 10, 2013 Comments off

An Assessment of the DoD Strategy for Operating in Cyberspace
Source: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College

In July 2011, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) issued the DoD Strategy for Operating in Cyberspace, which outlines five strategic initiatives: 1) Treat cyberspace as another operational domain; 2) Employ new defense operating concepts to protect DoD networks; 3) Partner with other U.S. Government agencies and the private sector; 4) Build relationships with U.S. allies and international partners to strengthen cyber security; and, 5) Leverage national intellect and capabilities through cyber workforce training and rapid technological innovation. First, the monograph explores the evolution of cyberspace strategy through a series of government publications leading up to the DoD Strategy for Operating in Cyberspace. It is seen that, although each strategy has different emphases on ideas, some major themes recur. Second, each strategic initiative is elaborated and critiqued in terms of significance, novelty, and practicality. Third, the monograph critiques the DoD Strategy as a whole. Is it comprehensive and adequate to maintain U.S. superiority in cyberspace against a rapidly changing threat landscape? Shortcomings in the strategy are identified, and recommendations are made for improvement in future versions of the strategy.

Closing the Candor Chasm: The Missing Element of Army Professionalism

September 26, 2013 Comments off

Closing the Candor Chasm: The Missing Element of Army Professionalism
Source: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College

Candor stands as the keystone element in creating the foundation of trust in the Army, yet the topic is muted. Stewards of the Army Profession build trust through authentic communication—in education, training, and modeled in application. Candor was previously included in Army Doctrine, yet nearly no mention of it currently exists in professional military education and dialogue. Through personal experiences and review of literature, two examples—the demands placed on the Army Reserve Components and a review of the Army’s counseling and evaluation environment—serve as illustrations where candor requires revitalization. Candor must be reinforced to be valued or it remains peripheral, serving as a lesson that is equally damaging to individual character as is it institutionally to the Army.

The Warrior Ethos and Soldier Combat Skills

August 27, 2013 Comments off

The Warrior Ethos and Soldier Combat Skills (PDF)
Source: Headquarters, Department of the Army (via Federation of American Scientists)

This training circular provides all Soldiers the doctrinal basis for the Warrior Ethos, Warrior Tasks, and other combat-critical tasks. It also updates weapon, equipment, and munitions information. This FM is not intended to serve as a stand-alone publication. It should be used with other Army publications that contain more in-depth information.

The target audience for this publication includes individual Soldiers and noncommissioned officers throughout the Army.

The Struggle for Yemen and the Challenge of Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula

July 16, 2013 Comments off

The Struggle for Yemen and the Challenge of Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula
Source: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College

In recent years, al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) has been widely recognized as a more dangerous regional and international terrorist organization than the original al-Qaeda led by Osama bin Laden until his death in 2011. In 2010-11, AQAP was able to present a strong challenge to Yemen’s government by capturing and retaining large areas in the southern part of the country. Yemen’s new reform President defeated AQAP and recaptured areas under their control in 2012, but the terrorists remain an extremely dangerous force seeking to reassert themselves at this time of transition in Yemen.

The Future of the Arab Gulf Monarchies in the Age of Uncertainties

June 14, 2013 Comments off

The Future of the Arab Gulf Monarchies in the Age of Uncertainties

Source: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College

Seismic cultural and political shifts are under way in the Arab Gulf monarchies. The political upheavals and transitions that have swept through the Arab world over the last 2 years have not toppled the Arab Gulf rulers, but did not leave them untouched, either. Rulers of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states face heightened internal and external challenges and uncertainties. Pro-democracy protests and calls are extending from Bahrain to other oil-rich countries of the Arabian Peninsula. The expectations of GCC citizens, particularly the educated youth, are increasingly moving from socio-economic demands to political ones. They are now not only asking for jobs or wage increases, but also for more political participation and accountability. Chief among internal challenges is the resurgence in several GCC countries, particularly Bahrain and Saudi Arabia, of a decades-long sectarian rift between the Sunni regimes and their Shia subjects. The Gulf regimes’ already tense relations with Iran have worsened on the basis of alleged Iranian interference inflaming sectarian tensions in Bahrain and across the broader region.

Cyber Infrastructure Protection: Vol. II

May 8, 2013 Comments off

Cyber Infrastructure Protection: Vol. II

Source: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College

Increased reliance on the Internet and other networked systems raise the risks of cyber attacks that could harm our nation’s cyber infrastructure. The cyber infrastructure encompasses a number of sectors including: the nation’s mass transit and other transportation systems; banking and financial systems; factories; energy systems and the electric power grid; and telecommunications, which increasingly rely on a complex array of computer networks, including the public Internet. However, many of these systems and networks were not built and designed with security in mind. Therefore, our cyber infrastructure contains many holes, risks, and vulnerabilities that may enable an attacker to cause damage or disrupt cyber infrastructure operations. Threats to cyber infrastructure safety and security come from hackers, terrorists, criminal groups, and sophisticated organized crime groups; even nation-states and foreign intelligence services conduct cyber warfare. Cyber attackers can introduce new viruses, worms, and bots capable of defeating many of our efforts. Costs to the economy from these threats are huge and increasing. Government, business, and academia must therefore work together to understand the threat and develop various modes of fighting cyber attacks, and to establish and enhance a framework to assess the vulnerability of our cyber infrastructure and provide strategic policy directions for the protection of such an infrastructure. This book addresses such questions as: How serious is the cyber threat? What technical and policy-based approaches are best suited to securing telecommunications networks and information systems infrastructure security? What role will government and the private sector play in homeland defense against cyber attacks on critical civilian infrastructure, financial, and logistical systems? What legal impediments exist concerning efforts to defend the nation against cyber attacks, especially in preventive, preemptive, and retaliatory actions?

See also: Cyber Infrastructure Protection (2011)

From Chaos to Cohesion: A Regional Approach to Security, Stability, and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

April 9, 2013 Comments off

From Chaos to Cohesion: A Regional Approach to Security, Stability, and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa
Source: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College

Prevention is the key to effective policies in Africa, whether the issue is equitable resource exploitation, ethnic conflict, infectious diseases, or famine. African Regional Economic Communities (RECs) have moved beyond their initial purpose of a loose confederation of trading partners to become increasingly effective supranational bodies promoting financial, political, and security stabilization in each of their regions. Looking at each of the RECs, their power centers, and areas of weakness, policymakers can gain a more comprehensive understanding of the sometimes symbiotic and often destructive dynamics within and among African states to seek more effective strategic and regional, not national, approaches. This monograph suggests USAFRICOM is uniquely positioned to help design a path to spearhead a pan-African strategy highly likely to have the net long-term effect of attaining considerable competitive advantage for the U.S. economically, militarily, and politically, with a corresponding increase in stability, security, and economic opportunity for the entire continent.

Army Task Force on Behavioral Health: Corrective Action Plan

March 11, 2013 Comments off

Army Task Force on Behavioral Health: Corrective Action Plan (PDF)

Source: U.S. Army (Task Force on Behavioral Health) (via Federal News Radio)

The Army has devoted an extraordinary amount of time, attention, and resources to care for Soldiers returning from deployments, especially those with behavioral health conditions. The Army continues to make great strides in changing the culture that stigmatized those with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and to educate and encourage Soldiers and leaders to heal these invisible wounds of war. The Army has revised several policies to ensure Soldiers with PTSD are prop – erly diagnosed, and if appropriate, considered for a medical discharge. Most recently, the Army proactively implemented several initiatives to resolve some of the findings discovered during the ATFBH comprehensive review. These changes are positive steps for our wounded, ill and injured, and this CAP details subsequent actions required to achieve a more efficient and effective disability system for Soldiers with behavioral health conditions.

The Civil War Begins: Opening Clashes, 1861

December 18, 2012 Comments off

The Civil War Begins: Opening Clashes, 1861

Source: U.S. Army Military History Center

The Civil War Begins: Opening Clashes, 1861 is the first in a series of campaign brochures commemorating our national sacrifices during the American Civil War. Author Jennifer Murray examines the successes and challenges of both the Union and the Confederate forces during the early days of the Civil War. Notable battles discussed include: Fort Sumter, South Carolina; Bull Run, Virginia; Wilson’s Creek, Missouri; Cape Hatteras, North Carolina; and Port Royal, South Carolina. This brochure includes six maps and three tables.

2013 Army Weapon Systems Handbook

December 4, 2012 Comments off

2013 Army Weapon Systems Handbook

Source: U.S. Army (via Federation of American Scientists)

With program descriptions, status and specifications, projected activities, and names and locations of large and small contractors, this book will provide you with a better understanding of our efforts to provide Soldiers with the best, most advanced and sustainable equipment possible. To this end, we are mindful of the public trust imposed by the use of taxpayer resources. We continuously seek to improve our business practices to meet the needs of our Soldiers on an efficient and timely basis.

In providing our Soldiers with world-class capabilities, Army acquisition’s most important asset is our people. Our skilled and dedicated professionals, working in Program Executive Offices and program offices throughout the nation, execute diverse responsibilities to enable the disciplined management of an extensive acquisition portfolio with programs that range from Soldiers systems to precision fires and from air and mission defense to ground combat systems. The responsibility of safeguarding future Army capabilities is a significant honor for the acquisition community and is one that we do not take lightly.


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