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Informal Sector and Conditions of Employment in India

September 1, 2014 Comments off

Informal Sector and Conditions of Employment in India (PDF)
Source: Government of India, Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation

This report presents the estimates of usual status workforce engaged in various enterprises in the non-agricultural sector and AGEGC sector (i.e., part of the agricultural sector excluding growing of crops, plant propagation, combined production of crops and animals) with special reference to those engaged in the information sector (proprietary and partnership enterprises). The report also provides the estimates of usual status employees in the AGEGC and non-agricultural sectors, with various conditions of their employment.

Hat tip: IWS Documented News Service

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CRS — India’s New Government and Implications for U.S. Interests (August 7, 2014)

August 22, 2014 Comments off

India’s New Government and Implications for U.S. Interests (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via U.S. State Department Foreign Press Center)

The United States and India have been pursuing a “strategic partnership” since 2004, and a 5th Strategic Dialogue session was held in New Delhi in late July 2014. A May 2014 national election seated a new Indian government led by the Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and new Prime Minister Narendra Modi. Top U.S. officials express eagerness to engage India’s new leadership and re-energize what some see as a flagging relationship in recent years. High hopes for the engagement have become moderated in recent years as expectations held in both capitals remain unmet, in part due to a global economic downturn that has dampened commercial activity. Yet the two countries, estranged through the Cold War period, have now routinized cooperative efforts through myriad working groups on an array of bilateral and global issues.

Select Diaspora Populations in the United States

July 24, 2014 Comments off

Select Diaspora Populations in the United States
Source: Migration Policy Institute

Diaspora populations often perform essential functions in the economic and human capital development of their countries of origin, and can continue playing a strong role in shaping these countries long after they or their forebears departed.The Rockefeller Foundation and the Aspen Institute have launched the Rockefeller-Aspen Diaspora Program (RAD), a joint venture to better understand diaspora members’ financial and human capital investments and to design an approach to foster further growth in these areas. The Migration Policy Institute has partnered with RAD to produce profiles of 15 diaspora communities in the United States, which is home to nearly 60 million first- or second-generation immigrants.

These profiles address 15 different diaspora populations in the United States, gathering in one place key data and analysis on diasporas from Bangladesh, Colombia, El Salvador, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Haiti, India, Kenya, Mexico, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Each profile explores the demographic characteristics of first- and second-generation immigrants in a particular diaspora, their educational attainment, household income, employment patterns, geographic distribution, and remittance volume.

Five longer profiles, focusing on Colombia, Egypt, India, Kenya, and the Philippines, also detail historical immigration pathways and contemporary entry trends, poverty status, active diaspora organizations, and country-of-origin policies and institutions related to interaction with emigrants and their descendants abroad.

The Future of Driving in Developing Countries

July 17, 2014 Comments off

The Future of Driving in Developing Countries
Source: RAND Corporation

The level of automobility, defined as travel in personal vehicles, is often seen as a function of income: The higher a country’s per capita income, the greater the amount of driving. However, levels of automobility vary quite substantially between countries even at similar levels of economic development. This suggests that countries follow different mobility paths. The research detailed in this report sought to answer three questions: What are the factors besides economic development that affect automobility? What is their influence on automobility? What will happen to automobility in developing countries if they progress along similar paths as developed countries? To answer these questions, the authors developed a methodology to identify these factors, model their impact on developed countries, and forecast automobility (as defined by per capita vehicle-kilometers traveled [VKT]) in four developing countries. This methodology draws on quantitative analysis of historical automobility development in four country case studies (the United States, Australia, Germany, and Japan) that represent very different levels of per capita automobility, in combination with data derived from an expert-based qualitative approach. The authors used the latter to assess how these experiences may affect the future of automobility in the BRIC countries: Brazil, Russia, India, and China. According to this analysis, automobility levels in the four BRIC countries will fall between those of the United States (which has the highest per capita VKT level of the four case studies) and Japan (which has the lowest). Brazil is forecasted to have the highest per capita VKT and India the lowest.

Country Analysis Brief: India

July 4, 2014 Comments off

Country Analysis Brief:  India
Source: Energy Information Administration

India was the fourth-largest energy consumer in the world after China, the United States, and Russia in 2011, and its need for energy supply continues to climb as a result of the country’s dynamic economic growth and modernization over the past several years. India’s economy has grown at an average annual rate of approximately 7% since 2000, and it proved relatively resilient following the 2008 global financial crisis.

The latest slowdown in growth of emerging market countries and higher inflation levels, combined with domestic supply and infrastructure constraints, have reduced India’s annual inflation-adjusted gross domestic product (GDP) growth from a high of 10.3% in 2010 to 4.4% in 2013, according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF). India was the third-largest economy in the world in 2013, as measured on a purchasing power parity basis. Risks to economic growth in India include high debt levels, infrastructure deficiencies, delays in structural reforms, and political polarization between the country’s two largest political parties, the Indian National Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).

Managing Corruption Risks in India

May 29, 2014 Comments off

Managing Corruption Risks in India
Source: Deloitte

In the past few years, India has emerged as one of the most promising destinations for investments. Its democratic government and large economy in terms of purchase power parity, highly skilled workforce, growing domestic market and sizeable English-speaking population, has resulted in an increasing number of global investors. According to a recent survey conducted by United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), India has been ranked as the third most attractive destination for investments by transnational companies. In addition, the United States is one of India’s largest investment and trade partners and both countries are currently negotiating a bilateral investment treaty as part of their effort to strengthen their mutual economic ties and enhance investor confidence.

While India presents increasing investment opportunities, foreign companies in India face some unique challenges. This article focuses mainly on the corruption landscape in India, several associated risks and the need for implementing an effective anti-corruption compliance program in India.

India’s Higher Education System

May 23, 2014 Comments off

India’s Higher Education System
Source: Martin Prosperity Institute

From at least the 5th century CE, India has been home to institutions of higher education. When India achieved independence in 1947, it had 20 universities and 500 colleges. It now boasts one of the largest higher education systems in the world with over 42,000 institutions of higher learning. This paper identifies and discusses five different dimensions across which the higher education system in India can be considered. These dimensions are governance, financing, level of degree awarded, program differentiation, and language. Along with definition and specification of these dimensions, some of the key challenges facing higher education in India are presented. This paper only focuses on the system of ‘higher’ education which is supported and regulated by the two senior levels of government, which are the central or federal government and the state governments. The current challenges include both quantity and quality of education, availability of higher education for traditionally under-represented groups, and moving India from ‘mass’ to ‘universal’ access. A brief summary of the 12th (current; 2012-17) Five-Year Plan for education depicts the Central government’s approach to these issues.

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