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AU — The G20: a quick guide

March 26, 2014 Comments off

The G20: a quick guide
Source: Parliamentary Library of Australia

This is a quick guide to basic information about the G20, as well as links to useful summary resources. The G20 background section includes the G20’s history, its members, the hosting system and G20 meeting processes, as well as a brief discussion of selected policy areas. Material on Australia and the G20 includes Australia’s involvement in the G20, Australia’s G20 goals for 2014 and speeches and press releases on the G20. A short list of links provides access to more resources on the G20.

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Tariffs, Social Status, and Gender in India

March 14, 2014 Comments off

Tariffs, Social Status, and Gender in India (PDF)
Source: Institute for the Study of Labor

This paper shows that trade policy can have significant intergenerational distributional effects across gender and social strata. We compare women and births in rural Indian districts more or less exposed to tariff cuts. For low socioeconomic status women, tariff cuts increase the likelihood of a female birth and these daughters are less likely to die during infancy and childhood. On the contrary, high-status women are less likely to give birth to girls and their daughters have higher mortality rates when more exposed to tariff declines. Consistent with the fertility-sex ratio trade-off in high son preference societies, fertility increases for low-status women and decreases for high-status women. An exploration of the mechanisms suggests that the labor market returns for low-status women (relative to men) and high-status men (relative to women) have increased in response to trade liberalization. Thus, altered expectations about future returns from daughters relative to sons seem to have caused families to change the sex-composition of and health investments in their children.

India’s path from poverty to empowerment

March 10, 2014 Comments off

India’s path from poverty to empowerment
Source: McKinsey & Company

India has made encouraging progress by halving its official poverty rate, from 45 percent of the population in 1994 to 22 percent in 2012. This is an achievement to be celebrated—yet it also gives the nation an opportunity to set higher aspirations. While the official poverty line counts only those living in the most abject conditions, even a cursory scan of India’s human-development indicators suggests more widespread deprivation. Above and beyond the goal of eradicating extreme poverty, India can address these issues and create a new national vision for helping more than half a billion people attain a more economically empowered life.

“Donkey Flights”: Illegal Immigration from the Punjab to the United Kingdom

February 7, 2014 Comments off

“Donkey Flights”: Illegal Immigration from the Punjab to the United Kingdom (PDF)
Source: Migration Policy Institute

The facilitation of illegal immigration is big business in India. One method being used to exploit immigration loopholes, explored in this report, is referred to as “donkey flights”—the practice of Indian migrants obtaining a tourist visa for a Schengen-zone country in order to enter the United Kingdom through the back door via other European countries.

December Issue of International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health Now Available

February 4, 2014 Comments off

December Issue of International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health Now Available
Source: Guttmacher Institute
Articles include:

  • Documenting the Individual- and Household-Level Cost of Unsafe Abortion in Uganda
  • Understanding Couples’ Relationship Quality And Contraceptive Use in Kumasi, Ghana
  • Consumer Perspectives on a Pericoital Contraceptive Pill In India and Uganda
  • The Oportunidades Conditional Cash Transfer Program: Effects on Pregnancy and Contraceptive Use Among Young Rural Women in Mexico
  • Reproduction, Functional Autonomy and Changing Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence Within Marriage in Rural India

How Does India Innovate?

November 24, 2013 Comments off

How Does India Innovate?
Source: Nielsen

Innovation isn’t easy. Globally, at least 90 percent of new product introductions fail in the year they launch. India is often viewed as a hotbed of innovation, but truth be told, the odds of launching a breakthrough success in this market may not be meaningfully better than anywhere else in the world. And the landscape is highly competitive. In looking at more than 14,000 launches in the fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) sector in 2011 for India, Nielsen deemed fewer than 40 as true breakthrough innovations.

Free registration required to download full report.

Backgrounder — Governance in India: Corruption

November 13, 2013 Comments off

Backgrounder — Governance in India: Corruption
Source: Council on Foreign Relations

With a booming economy throughout the 2000s, India was touted as one of the most promising major emerging markets. But that breakneck growth sputtered to a decade low in 2012, with many observers pointing to the corrosive effect of endemic corruption—including a spate of scandals under Prime Minister Manmohan Singh—as a culprit. Perhaps more than India’s weak currency and rising inflation, the graft problem has undermined institutions and thwarted efforts to reduce poverty and catalyze sustainable growth in the world’s largest democracy. Public revelations of corruption, including major scandals in the telecommunications and coal industry, have galvanized a rising middle class with increased demands for better governance. The tide has spurred new political movements, and forced Prime Minister Singh’s Congress Party to address transparency and marshal reforms. As the country enters a busy political season, culminating in the 2014 general elections, corruption is expected be a cornerstone issue—and one with big implications for India’s development.

Explaining the rural-urban gap in infant mortality in India

September 27, 2013 Comments off

Explaining the rural-urban gap in infant mortality in India
Source: Demographic Research

Background:
Prior studies suggest that infant mortality in rural areas of India is substantially higher than in urban areas. However, little is known about the determinants explaining such excess of rural mortality.

Objective:
This study systematically assesses the role of socioeconomic and maternal and child health (MCH) care-related programme factors in explaining the rural-urban gap in infant mortality during the past two decades.

Methods:
Long-term changes in rural and urban infant mortality were assessed using Sample Registration System (SRS) data. Binary logistic regression was used to analyse the association between socioeconomic and MCH care-related programme factors and infant mortality using data from the three rounds of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS). Fairlie’s decomposition technique was applied to understand the relative contribution of different co-variates to the rural-urban gap in infant mortality.

Results:
Relative inequality between rural and urban India has increased over time. The rural-urban gap in infant mortality can be largely explained by the distributions of the co-variates in rural and urban area. The largest part of the rural disadvantage in infant mortality is attributable to the underlying disadvantage in household wealth and maternal education, whereas breastfeeding and knowledge of Oral Rehydration Solution has contributed to narrowing the gap. The share of women using modern contraceptive methods and the percentage of fully vaccinated children in the community have also contributed to widening the rural-urban gap in infant mortality.

Conclusions:
In addition to strengthening MCH programmes in rural areas, substantial efforts must also be made to improve household wealth and female education levels.

India can Build Competitive and Sustainable Cities, Says new World Bank Report

September 26, 2013 Comments off

India can Build Competitive and Sustainable Cities, Says new World Bank Report
Source: World Bank

Rural areas adjacent to India’s major metropolitan cities are witnessing faster economic growth and higher employment generation than the mega-cities themselves, says a new World Bank report. Examining the phenomenon of rapid “suburbanization” that India is undergoing, the report offers options to city planners and policymakers to ensure that the movement of economic activity away from city cores does not affect their potential to emerge as powerhouses of growth.

The report, India’s Urbanization Beyond Municipal Boundaries, analyses the patterns of India’s urbanization derived from geo-referencing and linking the population and economic census, to examine whether or not “suburbanization” is enhancing productivity by tapping agglomeration economies. Existing data suggests that the seven largest metropolitan cities in the country did not increase their overall shares in national employment between 1993 and 2006. While the largest metropolitan centers (Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore, Kolkata, Chennai, Hyderabad, and Ahmedabad) saw a 16% loss in manufacturing jobs between 1998 and 2005, job growth in suburban and secondary towns and villages, (close to the metropolitan areas), was 12% and 45% respectively.

The report looks at this striking feature of India’s spatial transformation at a time when 90 million people joined its urban ranks in the last decade, and its cities are projected to be home to another 250 million people by 2030.

Such “suburbanization”, beyond the municipal boundaries of metropolitan cities, is leading to stagnation in the heart of metropolitan centers where land management policies are limiting the extent and intensity at which land can be used by industry, commerce and housing, the report says. The economic push away from city cores is also imposing a burden on businesses and people. Transport costs for freight are among the highest nationally between the metropolitan core and its periphery. In addition, infrastructure access and quality — for water, electricity, and sanitation — is much worse at the urban periphery compared with at the core. These challenges hurt productivity, mobility, and livability in the major cities.

India Country Report 2013 — Statistical Appraisal

September 13, 2013 Comments off

India Country Report 2013 — Statistical Appraisal (PDF)
Source: Government of India — Ministry of Statistics and Programme

People across the South Asian Region today have higher expectations from their Governments for providing an enabling environment for better future. This is particularly true in the Indian scenario. Having seen the economy grow at a rate faster than that achieved until a decade back and the resultant across-the-board benefits, it is obvious for a larger section of the population to believe that the country can do even better. While the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12) and the Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012-17) have focused to address these expectations, the SAARC Development Goals have tended to reinforce the need for strong positive action from the national Governments in this region in general and India in particular.

SAARC Development Goals are regionalized from of Millennium Development Goals, with some additional targets and indicators, for the period of five years, 2007-12. The Third SAARC Ministerial Meeting on Poverty Alleviation, held in Kathmandu on 5th April 2013, has extended the terminal year of SDGs from 2012 to 2015 to coincide with the Millennium Development Goals. This report is in pursuance of the decision taken in the Fifth Meeting of SAARC Secretaries on Poverty Alleviation, held in Kathmandu on 4th April 2013.

Following the mid-term statistical appraisal of the SDGs, brought out as “SAARC Development Goals – India Country Report 2010”, the present report gives the statistical appraisal of the achievements made on the SAARC Development Goals in India taking the latest available data into account. However, owing to the fact that not much time has passed since the release of the report on mid-term statistical appraisal and that the results of the next rounds of many large sample surveys in India are not yet available, this report has repeated the results and analysis contained in the report on mid-term statistical appraisal for many goals and indicators. As earlier, in addition to the mutually agreed 67 indicators, some additional indicators have also been included under different goals. Goal-wise complete list of indicators used in this report has been given under “India’s SDGs Framework: Goals and Indicators”. I hope this report will be useful in assessing India’s progress on the attainment of SDGs in the national and collectively in the regional context.

Indian Immigrants in the United States

August 23, 2013 Comments off

Indian Immigrants in the United States
Source: Migration Policy Institute

The nearly 1.9 million Indian immigrants living in the United States in 2011 represented the third-largest immigrant group by country of origin, behind Mexico and China. The share of Indian immigrants among all foreign born in the United States grew from less than 0.5 percent in 1960 to almost 5 percent in 2011.

As a group, immigrants from India are better educated, more likely to have strong English language skills and arrive on employment-based visas, and are less likely to live below the federal poverty line than the overall foreign-born population. They are also more concentrated in the working ages than immigrants overall, and Indian-born men outnumber Indian-born women. In 2011, India was the second most common country of origin for international students at US institutions of higher learning, behind China.

Religion, Politician Identity and Development Outcomes: Evidence from India

August 9, 2013 Comments off

Religion, Politician Identity and Development Outcomes: Evidence from India
Source: Harvard Business School Working Papers

This paper investigates whether the religious identity of state legislators in India influences development outcomes, both for citizens of their religious group and for the population as a whole. To control for politician identity to be correlated with constituency level voter preferences or characteristics that make religion salient, we use quasi-random variation in legislator identity generated by close elections between Muslim and non-Muslim candidates. We find that increasing the political representation of Muslims improves health and education outcomes in the district from which the legislator is elected. We find no evidence of religious favoritism: Muslim children do not benefit more from Muslim political representation than children from other religious groups.

A Deadly Triangle: Afghanistan, Pakistan and India

June 27, 2013 Comments off

A Deadly Triangle: Afghanistan, Pakistan and India
Source: Brookings Institution

With the U.S. and its allies planning to scale down their military efforts significantly in Afghanistan in 2014, a dangerous neighborhood—filled with nuclear weapons, disputed borders, as well as ethnic and tribal divisions—has the potential to become even more threatening. In the first Brookings Essay, historian William Dalrymple examines one ominous scenario, which could be disastrous for both the region and the world: the contest between India and Pakistan in Afghanistan becoming even more deadly.

Navigating today’s complex business risks” Europe, Middle East, India and Africa Fraud Survey 2013

May 23, 2013 Comments off

Navigating today’s complex business risks" Europe, Middle East, India and Africa Fraud Survey 2013 (PDF)

Source: Ernst & Young

Our survey of over 3,000 board members, managers and their teams delivers three clear messages:

Executives and their teams are under increased personal pressure to produce growth in extremely challenging conditions.

Unethical conduct — including fraud, bribery and corruption — in response to this pressure is not just a just a hypothetical risk. One in five respondents have seen financial manipulation occurring in their companies. Fifth-seven percent believe that bribery and corruption are widespread in their country.

Compliance programs work, but not well enough. Companies that do not keep asking the right questions — and demanding answers — are exposing themselves to significant risk.

CRS — Nuclear Weapons R&D Organizations in Nine Nations

April 23, 2013 Comments off

Nuclear Weapons R&D Organizations in Nine Nations (PDF)

Source: Congressional Research Service (via U.S. Department of State Foreign Press Center)

Seven nations—China, France, India, Pakistan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States—possess nuclear weapons. North Korea tested a nuclear explosive device in 2006, and announced that it had conducted a test in 2009 and another in 2013. Israel is widely thought to have nuclear weapons. As an aid to Congress in understanding nuclear weapons, nuclear proliferation, and arms control matters, this report describes which agency is responsible for research and development (R&D) of nuclear weapons (i.e., nuclear explosive devices, as distinct from the bombers and missiles that deliver them) in these nations and whether these agencies are civilian or military. It also traces the history of such agencies in the United States from 1942 to the present. This report will be updated annually, or more often as developments warrant.

In the United States, the Army managed the nuclear weapons program during World War II. Since 1946, weapons R&D has been managed by civilian agencies, at present by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), a semiautonomous agency in the Department of Energy. Concerns about “the immediate and long-term issues associated with the NNSA,” however, led Congress to establish the Congressional Advisory Panel on the Governance of the Nuclear Security Enterprise in the FY2013 National Defense Authorization Act, P.L. 112-239. China’s nuclear weapons R&D is apparently under the direction of the military, collectively called the People’s Liberation Army.

France’s nuclear weapons R&D is supervised by the Ministry of Defense, which delegates the direction of these programs to the French Atomic and Alternative Energy Commission (CEA). However, as with NNSA in the United States, CEA is not a part of the Ministry of Defense. CEA also conducts nuclear programs in science and industry under the supervision of other ministries.

India’s nuclear weapons R&D appears to be controlled by the Department of Atomic Energy, which is under the direct control of the Prime Minister.

Israel’s nuclear program is under civilian control, but since Israel neither confirms nor denies that it possesses nuclear weapons, it classifies information on such weapons, including organizations responsible for R&D. The Israel Atomic Energy Commission reportedly has overall responsibility for Israel’s nuclear weapons program, and the Director General of that commission reports directly to the Prime Minister.

North Korea’s Ministry of Atomic Energy Industry is in charge of the day-to-day operation of the nuclear weapons program. Under it are nuclear-related organizations. Policy is decided by leader Kim Jong-un and other Communist Party and military leaders who advise him.

Pakistan’s National Command Authority (NCA) supervises the functions and administration of all of Pakistan’s organizations involved in nuclear weapons R&D and employment, as well as the military services that operate the strategic forces. The Prime Minister is the chair of the NCA, and membership includes senior civilian and military leaders.

Russia’s State Atomic Energy Corporation (Rosatom) is responsible for nuclear weapons R&D and production. It is a civilian agency, though it has many links to the military.

In the United Kingdom, a private company, AWE Management Limited, manages and operates the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), a government-owned, contractor-operated entity. The Ministry of Defence (MoD), which is headed by a civilian, controls the operations, policy, and direction of AWE and can veto actions of the company. The MoD provides most of the funding for AWE.

Three Essays on Entrepreneurship in India and the U.S.: Policies, Social Ties and Mobility

April 12, 2013 Comments off

Three Essays on Entrepreneurship in India and the U.S.: Policies, Social Ties and Mobility

Source: RAND Corporation

Across the globe, policymakers view entrepreneurship as a potential route out of poverty, even for the most disadvantaged. Many countries have developed policies to encourage business creation within this group. These dissertation papers explore the role entrepreneurship plays in the lives of the economically disadvantaged in both India and the US. The first paper examines how India’s Micro, Small and Medium-sized Enterprise (MSME) policies affect low-income and female entrepreneurship. In addition to important policy effects, a key finding highlights that entrepreneurial social ties significantly correlate with early-stage entrepreneurship, regardless of income level. The second paper explores this result by instrumenting for the endogeneity of entrepreneurship and social ties using past vernacular newspaper circulation and population density. Instrumental variables regression substantiates the non-instrumented finding indicating social ties play a non-trivial role in increasing early-stage entrepreneurship in India. Finally, analysis of data from the US Panel Study of Income Dynamics in the third paper finds no evidence that self-employment provides any particular advantage in achieving upward mobility, or in reducing downward mobility. In contrast, family business ownership associates with more upward mobility and less downward mobility. We instrument for the endogeneity of family business ownership and mobility using tax schedule progressivity. Instrumental variables regression results substantiate the non-instrumented findings but should be interpreted with some caution.

National Assessments on Gender and STI

March 13, 2013 Comments off

National Assessments on Gender and STI

Source: Women in Global Science and Technology

The National Assessments on Gender and STI are based on the Gender Equality – Knowledge Society (GE&KS) indicator framework, which was developed to address the fact that worldwide, women’s capacity to participate in science, technology and innovation is grossly under-developed and under-utilized. Not only do they have less access to information and technology, they are poorly represented in educational, entrepreneurship and employment opportunities. It brings together gender-sensitive data on key areas in the knowledge society (ICT, science, technology and innovation) with gender indicators of health, economic and social status to assess the barriers and opportunities for women.

A pilot assessment of six countries and one region took place during 2012 with funding from the Elsevier Foundation: Brazil, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, South Africa, the United States, and the European Union.

Key Findings

The major finding of this study is that the knowledge gender divide continues to exist in all countries, even those which have a highly-developed knowledge society. In all countries in this review – which represent the leading knowledge-based economies in the world – the knowledge society is failing to include women to an equal extent, and in some cases, their inclusion is negligible.

  • Numbers of women in the science, technology and innovation fields are alarmingly low in the world’s leading economies, and are actually on the decline in many, including the United States.
  • Women remain severely under-represented in engineering, physics and computer science — less than 30% in most countries – while the numbers of women working in these fields are also declining.
  • Women have lower levels of access to the productive resources necessary to support active engagement in the knowledge society and related professions – property (land); finance; technology; and education.
  • Female parity in the science, technology and innovation fields is tied to multiple factors, with the most influential being higher economic status, larger roles in government and politics, access to economic, productive and technological resources, and a supportive policy environment. Findings also show that women gain ground in countries that have health and childcare, equal pay, & gender mainstreaming.
  • Access to education is not a solution in and of itself and neither is economic status. It’s only one part of what should be a multi-dimensional policymaking approach. There is no simple solution.

India: Financial System Stability Assessment Update

February 13, 2013 Comments off

India: Financial System Stability Assessment Update (PDF)

Source: International Monetary Fund

This report summarizes the findings of the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) for India. The assessment was undertaken in June and October 2011. The findings were further discussed with the authorities during the Article IV consultation mission in January 2012.

The key macro-relevant findings of the Financial System Stability Assessment (FSSA) are as follows:

  • India has made remarkable progress toward developing a stable financial system but confronts a build-up of financial sector vulnerabilities. The system is becoming more complex, with interlinkages across institutions and borders. The main near-term risks to the financial system are a worsening of bank asset quality and renewed pressures on systemic liquidity. However, stress tests did not reveal near-term stability concerns, suggesting the banking system would be resilient to a range of adverse shocks.
  • The prominent role of the state in the financial sector contributes to a build-up of fiscal contingent liabilities and creates a risk of capital misallocation that may constrain economic growth. Gradually reducing mandatory holdings of government securities by financial institutions, and allowing greater access to private (domestic and foreign) sources of capital, would provide more room for the financial sector to intermediate funds toward productive economic activities, thereby improving prospects for sustained growth.
  • The regulatory and supervisory regime for banks, insurance, and securities markets is well developed and largely in compliance with international standards. Areas for improvement include greater de jure independence of regulatory agencies; consolidated supervision of financial conglomerates; reductions in the large exposures and related-party lending limits in banks; stronger valuation and solvency requirements in insurance; and the monitoring of corporations’ compliance with reporting, auditing, and accounting requirements for issuers.
  • Further steps are needed to promote deeper fixed income markets, including a prudent reduction in banks’ minimum statutory holdings of government bonds in line with evolving international liquidity requirements, which would support liquidity in secondary markets and the development of a yield curve; and upgrading the corporate insolvency framework. Use of capital markets to refinance infrastructure loans would help alleviate pressures on banks.

CRS — U.S.-India Security Relations: Strategic Issues

February 8, 2013 Comments off

U.S.-India Security Relations: Strategic Issues (PDF)

Source: Congressional Research Service (via Federation of American Scientists)

In today’s fluid geopolitical environment, the relationship between the United States, the world’s oldest democracy and an established global power, and India, its most populous democracy and an aspiring global power, is seen as a key variable in the unfolding international dynamics of the 21st century. As U.S. foreign policy attention shifts toward the Asia-Pacific (or Indo-Pacific) region, and as India’s economic and military capabilities grow, Washington’s pursuit of a strategic partnership with New Delhi demonstrates that the mutual wariness of the Cold War era has rapidly faded. A vital and in some ways leading aspect of this partnership has been security relations, and today the two countries are engaging in unprecedented levels of military-to-military ties, defense trade, and counterterrorism and intelligence cooperation. Still, although considerable enthusiasm for deepened security engagement is found in both capitals—and not least in the U.S. Congress—there is also a persistent sense that this aspect of the bilateral relationship lacks purpose and focus. Some observers arrgue that the potential of the relationship has been oversold, and that the benefits either hoped for or expected may not materialize in the near future. While Obama Administration officials variously contend that India is now or will be a net provider of security in its region, many independent analysts are skeptical that this aspiration can be realized, at least in the near-term.

Nongovernmental analyses of the course and pace of U.S.-India security relations are oftentimes incompatible or even conflicting in their assumptions and recommendations. Such incompatibility is frequently the result of the differing conclusions rooted in short-term versus long-term perspectives. The Obama Administration—along with numerous pro-India analysts in Washington—has tended to emphasize the anticipated benefits of long-term engagement as opposed to a short-term approach that seeks gains derived through more narrow transactions. This latter tack can have the effect of raising and then thwarting expectations in Washington, as was the case with the ultimate failure of U.S. defense firms to secure the multi-billion-dollar contracts to supply new combat aircraft to India. At the same time, frustrations among many in the United States have arisen from the sense that India’s enthusiasm for further deepening bilateral security cooperation is limited, and that New Delhi’s reciprocity has been insufficient.

Looking ahead, there is widespread concurrence among many officials and analysts that the security relationship would benefit from undergirding ambitious rhetoric with more concrete action in areas of mutual agreement. In their view, defining which actions will provide meaningful gains, even on a modest scale, appears to be the central task facing U.S. and Indian policy makers in coming years.

To assist Members of Congress and their staffs in clarifying the status of and outlook for bilateral security cooperation, this report—a companion to CRS Report R42823, India-U.S. Security Relations: Current Engagement, by K. Alan Kronstadt and Sonia Pinto—takes a systematic approach to the major strategic perspectives held by policy makers in both countries and the ways in which these perspectives are variously harmonious, discordant, or, in some cases, both. The report opens with a brief review of the pre-2005 history of U.S.-India security relations. This is followed by discussion of key U.S. security interests related to India. Next is a focus on India’s defense posture writ large. With this context set, the report reviews key areas of convergent and divergent security interests and perspectives. A brief discussion of the outlook for future security cooperation closes. For information on U.S.-India relations more broadly, see CRS Report RL33529, India: Domestic Issues, Strategic Dynamics, and U.S. Relations , coordinated by K. Alan Kronstadt.

Why Do High-Tech Workers Earn More in Houston Than Hyderabad?

January 10, 2013 Comments off

Why Do High-Tech Workers Earn More in Houston Than Hyderabad? (PDF)

Source: American Economic Association

Why do Indian software workers employed by U.S. firms earn more in the U.S. than in India? There are several possibilities, among which is the pure effect of location on workers’ economic product. This study seeks to isolate the location effect from other effects in a single setting via a natural experiment: a randomized allocation of temporary U.S. visas among one group of Indian software programmers. In this setting, outputs are close to perfectly tradable, workers in the U.S. and India are observably and unobservably identical in expectation, effects like Baumol’s cost disease and cost-of-living compensating differentials are less relevant, and some of the plausible effects of place on productivity (such as access to technology) are identical for both groups. The large majority of the earnings gap remains, suggesting that these workers are several times more economically productive solely due to working in the U.S. rather than in India. This effect is measured for a single firm and external validity is circumscribed. Further study of the effect of location on economic product has implications for the economic gains to migration, trade, and technology transfer.

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