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Archive for the ‘immigration’ Category

Culture: Persistence and Evolution

April 16, 2014 Comments off

Culture: Persistence and Evolution (PDF)
Source: Research Papers in Economics

This paper presents evidence on the speed of evolution (or lack thereof) of a wide range of values and beliefs of different generations of European immigrants to the US. The main result is that persistence differs greatly across cultural attitudes. Some, for instance deep personal religious values, some family and moral values, and political orientation are very persistent. Other, such as attitudes toward cooperation, redistribution, effort, children independence, premarital sex, and even the frequency of religious practice or the intensity of association with one’s religion, converge rather quickly. Moreover, the results obtained studying higher generation immigrants differ greatly from those obtained limiting the analysis to the second generation, and imply lesser degree of persistence. Finally, we show that persistence is “culture specific” in the sense that the country from which one’s ancestors came matters for the pattern of generational convergence.

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Catching Up: The Labor Market Outcomes of New Immigrants in Sweden

April 15, 2014 Comments off

Catching Up: The Labor Market Outcomes of New Immigrants in Sweden
Source: Migration Policy Institute

The considerable diversity among Sweden’s immigrants reflects a humanitarian migration policy. Refugees have arrived in the country since the 1970s and 1980s, with their countries of origin shifting according to the ethnic and political conflicts of any given period. Sweden is also a longstanding magnet for labor migration from surrounding Scandinavia, and has attracted mobile EU citizens since its entry into the European Union in 1995—and especially following the EU enlargements of 2004 and 2007. Sweden’s immigration flows continue to change today, as policy reforms in 2008 allowed employers to bring non-EU labor migrants to the country for the first time in decades.

This report assesses how new immigrants to Sweden fare in the country’s labor market. The report is part of a series of six case studies on labor market outcomes among immigrants to European Union countries.

Is Violent Radicalisation Associated with Poverty, Migration, Poor Self-Reported Health and Common Mental Disorders?

April 14, 2014 Comments off

Is Violent Radicalisation Associated with Poverty, Migration, Poor Self-Reported Health and Common Mental Disorders?
Source: PLoS ONE

Background
Doctors, lawyers and criminal justice agencies need methods to assess vulnerability to violent radicalization. In synergy, public health interventions aim to prevent the emergence of risk behaviours as well as prevent and treat new illness events. This paper describes a new method of assessing vulnerability to violent radicalization, and then investigates the role of previously reported causes, including poor self-reported health, anxiety and depression, adverse life events, poverty, and migration and socio-political factors. The aim is to identify foci for preventive intervention.

Methods
A cross-sectional survey of a representative population sample of men and women aged 18–45, of Muslim heritage and recruited by quota sampling by age, gender, working status, in two English cities. The main outcomes include self-reported health, symptoms of anxiety and depression (common mental disorders), and vulnerability to violent radicalization assessed by sympathies for violent protest and terrorist acts.

Results
2.4% of people showed some sympathy for violent protest and terrorist acts. Sympathy was more likely to be articulated by the under 20s, those in full time education rather than employment, those born in the UK, those speaking English at home, and high earners (>£75,000 a year). People with poor self-reported health were less likely to show sympathies for violent protest and terrorism. Anxiety and depressive symptoms, adverse life events and socio-political attitudes showed no associations.

Conclusions
Sympathies for violent protest and terrorism were uncommon among men and women, aged 18–45, of Muslim heritage living in two English cities. Youth, wealth, and being in education rather than employment were risk factors.

After Decades of Decline, A Rise in Stay-at-Home Mothers

April 8, 2014 Comments off

After Decades of Decline, A Rise in Stay-at-Home Mothers
Source: Pew Research Social & Demographic Trends

The share of mothers who do not work outside the home rose to 29% in 2012, up from a modern-era low of 23% in 1999, according to a new Pew Research Center analysis of government data. This rise over the past dozen years represents the reversal of a long-term decline in “stay-at-home” mothers that had persisted for the last three decades of the 20th century. The recent turnaround appears to be driven by a mix of demographic, economic and societal factors, including rising immigration as well as a downturn in women’s labor force participation, and is set against a backdrop of continued public ambivalence about the impact of working mothers on young children.

The broad category of “stay-at-home” mothers includes not only mothers who say they are at home in order to care for their families, but also those who are at home because they are unable to find work, are disabled or are enrolled in school.

CRS — Unlawfully Present Aliens, Driver’s Licenses, and Other State-Issued ID: Select Legal Issues

April 7, 2014 Comments off

Unlawfully Present Aliens, Driver’s Licenses, and Other State-Issued ID: Select Legal Issues (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via Federation of American Scientists)

One aspect of the broader debate over aliens who are present in the United States in violation of federal immigration law has been their eligibility for driver’s licenses and other forms of state-issued identification documents (IDs). The issuance of driver’s licenses has historically been considered a state matter, and states have taken a variety of approaches. Some have barred the issuance of driver’s licenses and other state-issued ID to unlawfully present aliens; others permit their issuance; and yet others instead grant unlawfully present aliens Certificates for Driving (CFDs) or Driving Privilege Cards (DPCs). CFDs or DPCs expressly state, on their face, that they are valid for driving, but not for other purposes. The federal government has generally not intruded on state control over the issuance of driver’s licenses, although the REAL ID Act of 2005 (P.L. 109-13, Div. B) will, when implemented, bar federal agencies from accepting, “for any official purpose,” licenses or ID cards issued by states that do not meet specific requirements.

CRS — Unlawfully Present Aliens, Higher Education, In-State Tuition, and Financial Aid: Legal Analysis

April 7, 2014 Comments off

Unlawfully Present Aliens, Higher Education, In-State Tuition, and Financial Aid: Legal Analysis (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via Federation of American Scientists)

The existence of a sizable population of “DREAMers” in the United States has prompted questions about unlawfully present aliens’ eligibility for admission to public institutions of higher education, in-state tuition, and financial aid. The term DREAMer is widely used to describe aliens who were brought to the United States as children and raised here but lack legal immigration status. As children, DREAMers are entitled to public elementary and secondary education as a result of the Supreme Court’s 1982 decision in Plyler v. Doe. There, the Court struck down a Texas statute that prohibited the use of state funds to provide elementary and secondary education to children who were not “legally admitted” to the United States because the state distinguished between these children and other children without a “substantial” goal, in violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.

Once DREAMers complete high school, however, they may have less access to public higher education. Plyler’s holding was limited to elementary and secondary education, and the Court’s focus on the young age of those whom Texas denied a “basic education” has generally been taken to mean that measures denying unlawfully present aliens access to higher education may be subject to less scrutiny than the Texas statute was. Thus, several states have adopted laws or practices barring the enrollment of unlawfully present aliens at public institutions of higher education. In addition, Congress has enacted two statutes that restrict unlawfully present aliens’ eligibility for “public benefits,” a term which has generally been construed to encompass in-state tuition and financial aid. The first of these statutes, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA, P.L. 104-193) bars the provision of “state and local public benefits” to unlawfully present aliens unless the state enacts legislation that “affirmatively provides” for their eligibility. The second, the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA, P.L. 104-208) bars states from providing “postsecondary education benefits” to unlawfully present aliens based on their residence in the state unless all U.S. citizens or nationals are eligible for such benefits, regardless of their state of residence.

What You Need to Know about H-1B Visas

April 2, 2014 Comments off

What You Need to Know about H-1B Visas
Source: Brookings Institution

Starting today, April 1, the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services is accepting applications for the limited number (85,000) of H-1B Visas, the temporary visa that allows U.S. employers to hire foreign workers in specialty positions that require at least a bachelor’s degree. Twenty thousand of the visas are set aside for foreign nationals who hold master’s degrees or higher from U.S. universities. Once the cap is reached and if there are more applications submitted than visas available, USCIS will conduct a lottery on April 7. The process is first-come, first-served.

Neil Ruiz (@neil_ruiz), Jill Wilson (@JillHWilson) and Jonathan Rothwell (@jtrothwell), analysts and associate fellows in the Brookings Metropolitan Policy Program, have written numerous articles and commentary on the application process (the “race to the cap”), its flaws and how it could be improved to better help workers and the economy. A collection of this analysis appears below…

Global Remittances Guide

April 1, 2014 Comments off

Global Remittances Guide
Source: Migration Policy Institute

Remittances are among the most tangible links between migration and development. According to World Bank projections, international migrants are expected to remit more than $550 billion in earnings in 2013, of which $414 billion will flow to developing countries. In 24 countries, remittances were equal to more than 10 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011; in nine countries they were equal to more than 20 percent of GDP.

The Future of Immigrant Integration in Europe: Mainstreaming Approaches for Inclusion

March 28, 2014 Comments off

The Future of Immigrant Integration in Europe: Mainstreaming Approaches for Inclusion
Source: Migration Policy Institute

Immigrant integration policies that are designed for migrants to Europe, particularly newcomers, are important, but they can be insufficient over the long run to realize the full economic potential and societal participation of immigrants and citizens with an immigrant background.

For this reason, several European governments have increasingly turned to the strategy of “mainstreaming” integration—an effort to reach people with a migration background through needs-based social programming and policies that also target the general population—in order to address areas where traditional immigrant integration polices have fallen short.

This MPI Europe report assesses the degree to which four European countries—relative veterans regarding the reception and integration of immigrants—have mainstreamed integration priorities across general policy areas such as education, employment, and social cohesion. The report shows how approaches to mainstreaming in Denmark, France, Germany, and the United Kingdom reflect each country’s distinct ethnic profile, diversity, and social traditions. It also offers suggestions for future policy development.

A Precarious Position: The Labor Market Integration of New Immigrants in Spain

March 27, 2014 Comments off

A Precarious Position: The Labor Market Integration of New Immigrants in Spain (PDF)
Source: Migration Policy Institute

This report assesses how new immigrants to Spain fare in the country’s labor market, evaluating the conditions under which they are able to find employment, and their progress out of unskilled work into middle-skilled jobs. The report is part of a series of six case studies on labor market outcomes among immigrants to European Union countries.

New immigrants to Spain have very different experiences entering the labor market depending on when they arrived in the country. The report analyzes Spanish Labor Force Survey data from 2000 through 2011, finding that immigrants who arrived before the 2008 recession had little trouble finding work immediately, but those who arrived after 2008 struggled to find work as Spanish unemployment rates skyrocketed.

Human Rights, Climate Change, Environmental Degradation and Migration: A New Paradigm

March 25, 2014 Comments off

Human Rights, Climate Change, Environmental Degradation and Migration: A New Paradigm
Source: Migration Policy Institute

Climate change and environmental degradation will likely displace millions of people in the coming years, either directly or indirectly. Although today’s international legal framework provides a degree of protection to certain environmental migrants, major gaps in the framework often prevent recognition of their vulnerability and endanger their rights.

One major problem is that there is little consensus on the definition of environmental migrants, in large part because it is difficult to ascertain the influence of environmental factors, such as degradation and climate change, on migration. In the absence of a precise definition, ambiguity about the legal rights of migrants and the responsibilities of governments and international organizations lead to difficulties in implementing solutions.

This issue in brief emphasizes the need to defend the rights of migrants whose movement is induced by environmental degradation or climate change, particularly in the highly vulnerable Asia-Pacific region, by pursuing an integrated approach to climate change that incorporates rights-based strategies. The brief evaluates the current human rights framework; identifies gaps both in the legal framework and in implementation; and then reviews different legal options available to the international community. Finally, the brief makes recommendations on how to strengthen the “soft law” approach as an interim step before there is broad global consensus on a possible binding framework to protect the rights of environmental migrants.

Education Reform in a Changing Georgia: Promoting High School and College Success for Immigrant Youth

March 24, 2014 Comments off

Education Reform in a Changing Georgia: Promoting High School and College Success for Immigrant Youth
Source: Migration Policy Institute

Georgia has experienced one of the fastest rates of growth in immigration in the United States over the past two decades, and immigration has profoundly altered the makeup of the state’s educational institutions. ​Together, immigrants and the U.S.-born children of immigrants made up almost one-fifth of Georgia’s youth in 2012. These young adults stand to play a decisive role in the current and future workforce competitiveness of the state.

But these first- and second-generation youth in Georgia—particularly those who are English Language Learners (ELLs)—lag considerably behind their nonimmigrant peers in terms of high school graduation, college access, and postsecondary degree completion. For example, 44 percent of ELLs in Georgia’s high schools graduate in four years, compared to 70 percent for all students. ELLs often face extra hurdles as they seek to develop academic English-language skills, complete high school course requirements, navigate the transition to college and careers, and finance postsecondary education—often while juggling work and family responsibilities.

This report describes these hurdles, and shows that Georgia’s recent education reform efforts—while ambitious in scope—often do not address the unique needs of Georgia’s immigrant youth, and particularly those who are ELLs. Moreover, state policies have created barriers to entry into the very institutions that are designed to provide basic education and English language instruction for low-skilled adults, as well as the flagship universities that educate the state’s most promising students.

Return Migration and Geography of Innovation in MNEs: A Natural Experiment of On-the-Job Learning of Knowledge Production by Local Workers Reporting to Return Migrants

March 20, 2014 Comments off

Return Migration and Geography of Innovation in MNEs: A Natural Experiment of On-the-Job Learning of Knowledge Production by Local Workers Reporting to Return Migrants
Source: Harvard Business School Working Papers

I study whether return migrants and their direct reports facilitate knowledge production and transfer across borders for multinationals. Using unique personnel and patenting data for 1,315 inventors at an emerging market R&D center for a Fortune 50 technology firm, I exploit a natural experiment where the assignment of managers for newly hired college graduates is mandated by rigid HR rules and is uncorrelated to observable characteristics of the graduates. Given this assignment protocol, I find that local employees who report to return migrants file disproportionately more US patents. I also find evidence that return migration facilitates knowledge transfer across borders.

The Rise of Federal Immigration Crimes

March 18, 2014 Comments off

The Rise of Federal Immigration Crimes
Source: Pew Research Hispanic Trends Project

Dramatic growth over the past two decades in the number of offenders sentenced in federal courts has been driven primarily by enforcement of a particular immigration offense—unlawful reentry into the United States—according to an analysis of data from the United States Sentencing Commission (USSC) by the Pew Research Center.

Between 1992 and 2012, the number of offenders sentenced in federal courts more than doubled, rising from 36,564 cases to 75,867.1 At the same time, the number of unlawful reentry convictions increased 28-fold, from 690 cases in 1992 to 19,463 in 2012.2 The increase in unlawful reentry convictions alone accounts for nearly half (48%) of the growth in the total number of offenders sentenced in federal courts over the period. By contrast, the second fastest growing type of conviction—for drug offenses—accounted for 22% of the growth.

Immigrants charged with unlawful reentry—a federal crime—have entered or attempted to enter the U.S. illegally more than once. They may also have attempted to reenter the U.S. after having been officially deported.3 Many of those charged with unlawful reentry were apprehended at the U.S. border by the U.S. Border Patrol.

A Treacherous Journey: Child Migrants Navigating the U.S. Immigration System

March 17, 2014 Comments off

A Treacherous Journey: Child Migrants Navigating the U.S. Immigration System (PDF)
Source: University of California-Hastings College of the Law, Center for Gender & Refugee Studies

CGRS and Kids in Need of Defense (KIND) have collaborated to produce an important report urging lawmakers to reform the U.S. immigration system for migrant children who are coming to our borders with surging frequency. They come, often unaccompanied by an adult, in search of safety, stability, and protection. These children face a system that was created for adults, does not provide them legal counsel, and is not required to consider the child’s best interests, despite the potentially enormous impact of the proceedings on the child’s life and future.

Perspectives: Immigrants and Retirement Resources

March 14, 2014 Comments off

Immigrants and Retirement Resources
Source: Social Security Administraton

The extensive literature documenting differences in wages between immigrant and native-born workers suggests that immigrants may enter retirement at a significant financial disadvantage relative to workers born in the United States. However, little work has examined differences in retirement resources and retirement security between immigrants and natives. In this article, we use data from the Health and Retirement Study linked with restricted data from the Social Security Administration to compare retirement resources of immigrants and natives. Our results suggest that while immigrants have lower levels of Social Security benefits than natives, when holding demographic characteristics constant, immigrants have higher levels of net worth. The estimated immigrant differentials vary a great deal by number of years in the United States, with the most recent immigrants being the least prepared for retirement.

United Nations 2013 World Youth Report — Youth & Migration

March 13, 2014 Comments off

United Nations 2013 World Youth Report — Youth & Migration
Source: United Nations

The United Nations 2013 World Youth Report offers a broad understanding of the situation of young migrants from the perspective of young migrants themselves. The report highlights some of the concerns, challenges and successes experienced by young migrants based on their own lives and told in their own voices. The report focuses largely on the phenomena of international migration which increasingly has a significant impact on the origin, transit and destination countries and communities. The consequences are complex, context-specific and subject to change over time. The Report has been drafted in an interactive manner, allowing you to navigate chapters individually.

Topics in Migration Research (Mexico and Germany)

March 12, 2014 Comments off

Topics in Migration Research
Source: RAND Corporation

With respective emigrant and immigrant stocks that are among the largest in the world, Mexico and Germany are affected by migration like few other countries are. They also exemplify that migratory movements need not be permanent, but are also often less temporary than initially assumed. This dissertation explores topics related to the determinants and consequences of migration in these two countries.

How Do E-Verify Mandates Affect Unauthorized Immigrant Workers?

March 11, 2014 Comments off

How Do E-Verify Mandates Affect Unauthorized Immigrant Workers? (PDF)
Source: Institute for the Study of Labor

A number of states have adopted laws that require employers to use the federal government’s E-Verify program to check workers’ eligibility to work legally in the United States. Using data from the Current Population Survey, this study examines whether such laws affect labor market outcomes among Mexican immigrants who are likely to be unauthorized. We find evidence that E-Verify mandates reduce average hourly earnings among likely unauthorized male Mexican immigrants while increasing labor force participation and employment among likely unauthorized female Mexican immigrants. In contrast, the mandates appear to lead to better labor market outcomes among workers likely to compete with unauthorized immigrants. Employment and earnings rise among male Mexican immigrants who are naturalized citizens in states that adopt E-Verify mandates, and earnings rise among U.S.-born Hispanic men.

Census Bureau Highlights Young Noncitizen Population in the U.S.

February 28, 2014 Comments off

Census Bureau Highlights Young Noncitizen Population in the U.S.
Source: U.S. Census

More than three out of five noncitizens under age 35 have been in the U.S. for five years or more, with a majority coming before they were 18 years old, according to a new brief released today from the U.S. Census Bureau. Most of these immigrants — about 80 percent — were young adults from 18 to 34.

The brief Noncitizens Under Age 35: 2010-2012 uses multiyear data from the American Community Survey to present demographic and socio-economic information about the noncitizen population under age 35. Noncitizens include legal permanent residents, temporary migrants, unauthorized immigrants and other resident statuses. The American Community Survey does not include a question on legal status of a resident; therefore, the brief compares only the characteristics of citizens with noncitizens.

“This brief gives an overview of some common characteristics of the younger noncitizen population,” said Elizabeth Grieco, chief of the Census Bureau’s Foreign-Born Population Branch. “The statistics provide new insight into the composition of this unique group.”

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