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Share of Unauthorized Immigrant Workers in Production, Construction Jobs Falls Since 2007

March 30, 2015 Comments off

Share of Unauthorized Immigrant Workers in Production, Construction Jobs Falls Since 2007
Source: Pew Research Center

In a reflection of changes in the overall economy since the Great Recession, the U.S. unauthorized immigrant workforce now holds fewer blue-collar jobs and more white-collar ones than it did before the 2007-2009 recession, but a solid majority still works in low-skilled service, construction and production occupations, according to new Pew Research Center estimates.

The size of the unauthorized immigrant labor force did not change from 2007 to 2012, but its makeup shifted slightly. The number of unauthorized immigrants in management or professional related jobs grew by 180,000, while the number in construction or production jobs fell by about 475,000, mirroring rises and declines in the overall U.S. economy. The share of all unauthorized immigrant workers with management and professional jobs grew to 13% in 2012 from 10% in 2007, and the share with construction or production jobs declined to 29% from 34%.

Despite these shifts, unauthorized immigrant workers remain concentrated in lower-skill jobs, much more so than U.S.-born workers, according to the new estimates, which are based on government data. In 2012, 62% held service, construction and production jobs, twice the share of U.S.-born workers who did. The 13% share with management or professional jobs is less than half of the 36% of U.S.-born workers in those occupations.

Reducing Poverty in the United States: Results of a Microsimulation Analysis of the Community Advocates Public Policy Institute Policy Package

March 30, 2015 Comments off

Reducing Poverty in the United States: Results of a Microsimulation Analysis of the Community Advocates Public Policy Institute Policy Package
Source: Urban Institute

A package of five policies—a transitional jobs (TJ) program, a $10.10 minimum wage, expanded earned income tax credits, a tax credit for senior citizens and people with disabilities, and expanded child care subsidies—could cut the national poverty rate by at least half. Using the TRIM3 microsimulation model and the Supplemental Poverty measure, the analysis shows the national poverty rate falling fall from 14.8 percent to either 7.4 percent or 6.3 percent, depending on the take-up rate assumed for the TJ program. Poverty is greatly reduced for all age groups and race/ethnicity groups.

CA — Wage Watch. A comparison of public-sector and private-sector wages

March 24, 2015 Comments off

Wage Watch. A comparison of public-sector and private-sector wages
Source: Canadian Federation of Independent Business

The broad public sector is a major employer in Canada. As a group, it employs 3.6 million Canadians—more than one job in five. Because the large share of these jobs are supported in whole or in part by tax revenues, it is certainly appropriate to question how representative and appropriate public sector salaries are in relation to private sector norms. Latest findings based on the 2011 National Household Survey, which represents earnings from 2010, show a continued and substantial gap in salary compensation in favour of government or public sector employees—even after adjustments for differences in occupation mix, age and education. The gaps grow even wider once employment benefits such as working hours and pensions are taken into account.The impacts on the public purse are significant, adding almost $20 billion to the hard costs of compensating the public sector in 2010.

The Lost Generation of the Great Recession

March 20, 2015 Comments off

The Lost Generation of the Great Recession
Source: Social Science Research Network

This paper analyzes the effects of the Great Recession on different generations. While older generations have suffered the largest decline in wealth due to the collapse in asset prices, younger generations have suffered the largest decline in labor income. Potentially, the young may benefit from the purchase of cheaper assets, especially if they have access to credit. To analyze the impact of these channels, I construct an overlapping generations model with borrowing constraints in which households choose a portfolio over risky and risk-free assets. Shocks to labor efficiency and uncertainty regarding the return on risky assets generate a recession with a drop in asset prices and cross-sectional changes in risky investment that are consistent with the recent recession. Overall, the young suffer the largest welfare losses, equivalent to an 8 percent reduction in lifetime consumption.

Changes in Family Welfare from 1994 to 2012: A Tale of Two Decades

March 18, 2015 Comments off

Changes in Family Welfare from 1994 to 2012: A Tale of Two Decades
Source: Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta

The female/male average wage ratio has steadily risen from 1983 to 2012. In earlier work, we found that the falling wage gap from 1983 to 1993 was materially detrimental to the average dual-earner family. The female/male wage ratio continued to rise over the following two decades, accompanied by a growing share of households in which the wife is the principal household income generator. This paper investigates how these two developments affected family welfare. Although family welfare rose during the 1990s, the story of the 2000s is quite different.

Higher Education, Wages, and Polarization

March 17, 2015 Comments off

Higher Education, Wages, and Polarization
Source: Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco

The earnings gap between people with a college degree and those with no education beyond high school has been growing since the late 1970s. Since 2000, however, the gap has grown more for those who have earned a post-graduate degree as well. The divergence between workers with college degrees and those with graduate degrees may be one manifestation of rising labor market polarization, which benefits those earning the highest and the lowest wages relatively more than those in the middle of the wage distribution.

Census Bureau Releases New Median Earnings by Detailed Occupations

March 17, 2015 Comments off

Census Bureau Releases New Median Earnings by Detailed Occupations
Source: U.S. Census Bureau

In honor of Women’s History Month, the U.S. Census Bureau released today a new table showing median earnings by detailed occupation from the 2013 American Community Survey. The table includes ratios indicating the percentage of women in an occupation, as well as the male-to-female earnings ratio in the occupation for full-time, year round workers in the past twelve months.

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