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Campus Law Enforcement, 2011-12

January 26, 2015 Comments off

Campus Law Enforcement, 2011-12
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics

Presents findings from a BJS survey of campus law enforcement agencies covering the 2011-12 academic year. The report focuses primarily on 4-year colleges and universities enrolling 2,500 or more students. Agencies serving public and private campuses are compared by number and type of employees, agency functions, arrest jurisdiction, patrol coverage, agreements with local law enforcement, requirements for new officers, use of nonlethal weapons, types of computers and information systems, community policing initiatives, use of special units and programs, and emergency preparedness activities.

Highlights:

  • About 75% of the campuses were using armed officers, compared to 68% during the 2004-05 school year.
  • About 9 in 10 public campuses used sworn police officers (92%), compared to about 4 in 10 private campuses (38%).
  • Most sworn campus police officers were authorized to use a sidearm (94%), chemical or pepper spray (94%), and a baton (93%).
  • Most sworn campus police officers had arrest (86%) and patrol (81%) jurisdictions that extended beyond campus boundaries.
  • About 7 in 10 campus law enforcement agencies had a memorandum of understanding or other formal written agreement with outside law enforcement agencies.

Household Poverty And Nonfatal Violent Victimization, 2008–2012

January 15, 2015 Comments off

Household Poverty And Nonfatal Violent Victimization, 2008–2012
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics

Presents findings from 2008 to 2012 on the relationship between households that were above or below the federal poverty level and nonfatal violent victimization, including rape or sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault, and simple assault. This report examines the violent victimization experiences of persons living in households at various levels of poverty, focusing on type of violence, victim’s race or Hispanic origin, and location of residence. It also examines the percentage of violent victimizations reported to the police by poverty level. Data are from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), which collects information on nonfatal crimes, reported and not reported to the police, against persons age 12 or older from a nationally representative sample of U.S. households. During 2012, about 92,390 households and 162,940 persons were interviewed for the NCVS.

Highlights:

For the period 2008–12—

  • Persons in poor households at or below the Federal Poverty Level (FPL) (39.8 per 1,000) had more than double the rate of violent victimization as persons in high-income households (16.9 per 1,000).
  • Persons in poor households had a higher rate of violence involving a firearm (3.5 per 1,000) compared to persons above the FPL (0.8–2.5 per 1,000).
  • The overall pattern of poor persons having the highest rates of violent victimization was consistent for both whites and blacks. However, the rate of violent victimization for Hispanics did not vary across poverty levels.
  • Poor Hispanics (25.3 per 1,000) had lower rates of violence compared to poor whites (46.4 per 1,000) and poor blacks (43.4 per 1,000).
  • Poor persons living in urban areas (43.9 per 1,000) had violent victimization rates similar to poor persons living in rural areas (38.8 per 1,000).
  • Poor urban blacks (51.3 per 1,000) had rates of violence similar to poor urban whites (56.4 per 1,000).

Teen Dating Violence: How Peers Can Affect Risk & Protective Factors

January 13, 2015 Comments off

Teen Dating Violence: How Peers Can Affect Risk & Protective Factors (PDF)
Source: National Institute of Justice

Compared to childhood, adolescence is a period marked by significant changes in the nature and importance of interpersonal relationships. Relationships with friends become more autonomous and central to personal well-being and, for the first time, many youth become involved in romantic relationships. Although the initiation of romantic relationships is a positive and healthy experience for many youth, it is a source of violence and abuse for others. Approximately 9 percent of high school students report being hit, slapped or physically hurt on purpose by their boyfriend or girlfriend in the past year. Teen dating violence rates appear to be even higher among certain populations, such as youth who have a history of exposure to violence.

Recognizing the large number of youth who experience dating violence, policymakers at the federal and state levels have worked to raise awareness of dating violence, prevent violence from occurring, and offer more protection and services to victims. In response to this increased focus on teen dating violence, research has begun to flourish. Since 2008, the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) has provided close to $15 million in funding for basic, applied and policy-level research on dating violence. These projects have led to increased knowledge about risk and protective factors and psychosocial health behaviors associated with teen dating violence, and to the development and evaluation of dating violence prevention programs targeting diverse samples of youth. Research has also examined adolescents’ knowledge of and barriers to using protection orders against violent partners.

This Research in Brief looks at the research from the perspective of one key emerging theme: Peers and the contexts in which peers interact can contribute to their risk for and protection against dating violence. Although we focus primarily on findings from NIJ-funded research, we also draw upon the broader literature on adolescent development and romantic relationships to show ways that teens shape each other’s experiences across the spectrum of entering into and leaving violent romantic relationships.

Criminal Justice Restraints Standard NIJ Standard 1001.00

January 13, 2015 Comments off

Criminal Justice Restraints Standard NIJ Standard 1001.00 (PDF)
Source: National Institute of Justice

This document is a voluntary performance standard for restraints for use by the criminal justice community. It defines both performance requirements and the methods used to test performance. In order for a manufacturer, supplier or other entity to claim that a particular restraint model satisfies this National Institute of Justice (NIJ) standard, the model must be in compliance with this standard, as determined in accordance with this document and the associated document, Criminal Justice Restraints Certification Program Requirements, NIJ CR- 1001.00. Both this standard and the associated certification program requirements document are produced as a part of the Standards and Testing Program of the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, NIJ, as is a third associated document, the Criminal Justice Restraints Selection and Application Guide, NIJ Guide-1001.00.

All requirements stated in this standard, including those that explicitly employ mandatory language (e.g., “shall”), are those necessary to satisfy this standard. Nothing in this document is intended to require or imply that commercially available restraints must satisfy this standard.

This document is a performance and testing standard and, therefore, provides precise and detailed test methods.

This standard addresses only wrist to wrist and ankle to ankle restraints. This standard does not address any restraint constructed of natural/non-synthetic materials (e.g., leather, natural rubber, cotton).

U.S. Departments of Education and Justice Release Joint Guidance to Ensure English Learner Students Have Equal Access to High-Quality Education

January 8, 2015 Comments off

U.S. Departments of Education and Justice Release Joint Guidance to Ensure English Learner Students Have Equal Access to High-Quality Education
Source: U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Justice

The U.S. Departments of Education (ED) and Justice (DOJ) today released joint guidance reminding states, school districts and schools of their obligations under federal law to ensure that English learner students have equal access to a high-quality education and the opportunity to achieve their full academic potential.

The guidance explains schools’ obligations to:

  • identify English learner students in a timely, valid and reliable manner;
  • offer all English learner students an educationally sound language assistance program;
  • provide qualified staff and sufficient resources for instructing English learner students;
  • ensure English learner students have equitable access to school programs and activities;
  • avoid unnecessary segregation of English learner students from other students;
  • monitor students’ progress in learning English and doing grade-level classwork;
  • remedy any academic deficits English learner students incurred while in a language assistance program;
  • move students out of language assistance programs when they are proficient in English and monitor those students to ensure they were not prematurely removed;
  • evaluate the effectiveness of English learner programs; and
  • provide limited English proficient parents with information about school programs, services, and activities in a language they understand.

Almost 5 million students in the United States are English learners—about 9 percent of all public school students. From 2002 to 2011, the percentage of English learners in public schools increased in 40 states and the District of Columbia, and currently three out of every four public schools enroll English learner students.

Household Poverty And Nonfatal Violent Victimization, 2008–2012

January 7, 2015 Comments off

Household Poverty And Nonfatal Violent Victimization, 2008–2012
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics

Presents findings from 2008 to 2012 on the relationship between households that were above or below the federal poverty level and nonfatal violent victimization, including rape or sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault, and simple assault. This report examines the violent victimization experiences of persons living in households at various levels of poverty, focusing on type of violence, victim’s race or Hispanic origin, and location of residence. It also examines the percentage of violent victimizations reported to the police by poverty level. Data are from the National Crime Victimization Survey, which collects information on nonfatal crimes, reported and not reported to the police, against persons age 12 or older from a nationally representative sample of U.S. households. During 2012, about 92,390 households and 162,940 persons were interviewed for the NCVS.

Highlights:

For the period 2008–12—

  • Persons in poor households at or below the Federal Poverty Level (FPL) (39.8 per 1,000) had more than double the rate of violent victimization as persons in high-income households (16.9 per 1,000).
  • Persons in poor households had a higher rate of violence involving a firearm (3.5 per 1,000) compared to persons above the FPL (0.8–2.5 per 1,000).
  • The overall pattern of poor persons having the highest rates of violent victimization was consistent for both whites and blacks. However, the rate of violent victimization for Hispanics did not vary across poverty levels.
  • Poor Hispanics (25.3 per 1,000) had lower rates of violence compared to poor whites (46.4 per 1,000) and poor blacks (43.4 per 1,000).
  • Poor persons living in urban areas (43.9 per 1,000) had violent victimization rates similar to poor persons living in rural areas (38.8 per 1,000).
  • Poor urban blacks (51.3 per 1,000) had rates of violence similar to poor urban whites (56.4 per 1,000).

Legal Issues Related to Elder Abuse: A Pocket Guide for Law Enforcement

January 6, 2015 Comments off

Legal Issues Related to Elder Abuse: A Pocket Guide for Law Enforcement (PDF)
Source: Bureau of Justice Assistance

This national guide provides brief explanations of:
•Legal concepts, documents, and tools that may be misused to commit elder abuse or used properly to remedy it.
•Issues and actions that justice system professionals should consider if they suspect elder abuse has occurred.

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