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Annotated Bibliography: Juvenile Justice

April 18, 2014 Comments off

Annotated Bibliography: Juvenile Justice
Source: National Institute of Corrections

Are you looking for a comprehensive list of resources about juvenile justice? Then this publication is for you. It offers a wide range of sources that will give you an excellent review of the field of juvenile justice. Each annotation explains what the item is about, with many having Web links. Citations are organized into the following areas: courts; juvenile assessment; assessment tools; programs; programs for young women; facilities; training; websites; and juvenile sex offenders.

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Transcript: Innovations in Justice— Real Crimes in Virtual Worlds: An Interview With Dr. Brian Regli and Dr. Robert D’Ovidio

April 18, 2014 Comments off

Transcript: Innovations in Justice— Real Crimes in Virtual Worlds: An Interview With Dr. Brian Regli and Dr. Robert D’Ovidio (PDF)
Source: Bureau of Justice Assistance

Hello, this is Cornelia Sigworth. I’m a Policy Advisor with the Bureau of Justice Assistance. Today I am sitting down with Dr. Brian Regli from Drakontas Communication Tool and Dr. Robert D’Ovidio from Drexel University. Dr. Regli is the Chief Executive Officer of Drakontas Incorporated [LLC, http://www.drakontas.com. In this role, he is responsible for developing product commercialization strategies for emerging technologies. Dr. D’Ovidio is an Associate Professor at Drexel University, where he teaches for the Criminal Justice Program and directs Drexel’s research program in computer crime and digital forensics. Both Dr. Regli and Dr. D’Ovidio are working with the Bureau of Justice Assistance to develop curriculum materials to increase awareness of crimes committed in virtual worlds and to build capacity among state and local law enforcement [agencies] to combat these crimes.

So, Brian, when you think of video games, you think of fun, not crime. How are people exploiting virtual worlds and online video game worlds for criminal purposes?

USDoJ Executive Office for Immigration Review: FY 2013 Statistics

April 17, 2014 Comments off

USDoJ Executive Office for Immigration Review: FY 2013 Statistics (PDF)
Source: U.S. Department of Justice, Executive Office for Immigration Review
From press release (PDF):

The Executive Office for Immigration Review (EOIR) today announced that it has released its Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 Statistics Yearbook. As announced on its website on October 1, 2013, EOIR has been working to enhance its external data reporting by changing the way it analyzes and reports its data. The new statistical methodology is featured in the FY 2013 Statistics Yearbook, an annual compilation of data that examines respondents’ cases by nationality, language, and disposition, and provides detailed information surrounding asylum cases.

Lost and Found: Understanding Technologies Used to Locate Missing Persons with Alzheimer’s or Dementia

April 14, 2014 Comments off

Lost and Found: Understanding Technologies Used to Locate Missing Persons with Alzheimer’s or Dementia (PDF)
Source: Bureau of Justice Assistance

Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia affect not only those who are living with the disease; these afflictions also impact the caregivers, law enforcement, and even neighbors. As the disease progresses, physical and mental capabilities are negatively impacted, short-term memory loss increases, and a person with Alzheimer’s might begin living in the past. As the person attempts to return to former places of employment or residences, they often get lost and need assistance returning to where they are currently residing. It is never possible to predict if or when a person with Alzheimer’s will wander or be unable to navigate familiar routes. Initiating a search for a person with Alzheimer’s can never be delayed, and conducting such searches can prove to be costly and consume extreme amounts of agency resources. It is crucial for law enforcement officers and other first responders to be familiar with and understand the signs of dementia and be aware of passive identification products used to identify persons with Alzheimer’s. In addition to passive identification techniques, there are technologies and products available that can be used to actively locate an individual who is lost.

Cellular location techniques and Global Positioning System devices are examples of proven methods for aiding law enforcement in a search for a missing person with dementia. This document will provide a technical description of these technologies and outline some of the advantages and disadvantages when employing these products. It will also provide comprehensive lists of locating devices that are currently available. Provided in each section is a short technical description of the technology and its advantages and the disadvantages. Appendix I and Appendix II provide a list of passive and active locating devices currently available.

Social Media and Police Leadership: Lessons From Boston

April 14, 2014 Comments off

Social Media and Police Leadership: Lessons From Boston (PDF)
Source: National Institute of Justice

The Boston Police Department (BPD) has long embraced both community policing and the use of social media. The department put its experience to good and highly visible use in April 2013 during the dramatic, rapidly developing investigation that followed the deadly explosion of two bombs at the finish line of the Boston Marathon. BPD successfully used Twitter to keep the public informed about the status of the investigation, to calm nerves and request assistance, to correct mistaken information reported by the press, and to ask for public restraint in the tweeting of information from police scanners. This demonstrated the level of trust and interaction that a department and a community can attain online. In the aftermath of the investigation, BPD was “applauded for leading an honest conversation with the public during a time of crisis in a way that no police department has done before.”

National Criminal Justice Reference Service — Special Feature: Youth Violence

April 11, 2014 Comments off

Special Feature: Youth Violence
Source: National Criminal Justice Reference Service

According to data released by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, juvenile arrests for violent crimes (murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault) declined 29% between 2006 and 2011 (Juvenile Arrests 2011, December 2013). The number of juvenile court cases involving violent offenses fell 8% between 2008 and 2009 (Juvenile Court Statistics, 2009, July 2012) and 8% between 2009 and 2010 (Juvenile Court Statistics, 2010, June 2013).

The Bureau of Justice Statistics resource, Violent Crime Against Youth, 1994-2010 (December 2012), presents trend data on a number of different points related to the topic. For example, from 1994 to 2010, the rate of serious violent crime occurring on school grounds declined by 62%. Also presented is information on the non-reporting of violent crimes by youth victims. During a 2002-10 period of analysis, the most frequent reasons youth provided for not reporting violence were that the incident was reported to another individual such as a school official (30%), was considered not important enough to the victim to report (15%), or was considered to be a private or personal matter (16%). Another reason youth provided for not reporting the victimization to police was that the offender was a child (7%).

The pages of this Special Feature contain publications and resources on topics related to youth violence and the prevention of such violence.

DoJ OIG — Review of the Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Forces Fusion Center

April 3, 2014 Comments off

Review of the Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Forces Fusion Center (PDF)
Source: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Inspector General

INTRODUCTION
This review examined the operations of the Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Forces (OCDETF) Fusion Center (OFC) and assessed its process for sharing its analytical products. The OFC is a multiagency intelligence center that produces intelligence products in response to requests from federal investigators (requesters). The Drug Enforcement Administration’s (DEA) Special Operations Division (SOD) supports the OFC in developing these products.

ISSUES THAT AROSE DURING THE REVIEW
The Office of the Inspector General (OIG) learned during the course of the review that OFC management took actions that created difficulties for us in obtaining information from OFC employees and in ensuring that interview responses were candid and complete.

We had issues in obtaining documents directly from OFC personnel. Further, two Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) employees detailed to the OFC, who met with us to describe their concerns about the OFC’s operations, told us that thereafter they had been subjected to retaliation by the OFC Director. The OIG recently completed its review of these retaliation allegations and concluded there were reasonable grounds to believe that actions were taken against the FBI employees in reprisal for making protected disclosures. We have referred our findings to the appropriate authorities for adjudication and resolution under applicable law.

Given this troubling conduct, we cannot be sure we obtained complete information from or about the OFC or that other OFC employees may not have been deterred from coming forward and speaking candidly with us. The results of our review reflect the findings and conclusions that we were able to reach based on the information that was made available to us.

RESULTS IN BRIEF
Although we found that OFC products may provide information that is valued by the investigators and prosecutors who use them, the OIG review identified deficiencies in the OFC’s operations that could limit its contribution to the OCDETF Program’s effectiveness.

See:

Audit of the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Management of Terrorist Watchlist Nominations (Redacted Version)

March 26, 2014 Comments off

Audit of the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Management of Terrorist Watchlist Nominations (Redacted Version) (PDF)
Source: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Inspector General

Despite using three separate systems to track non-investigative subject watchlist nominations, we found that the FBI had not maintained the necessry records to readily provide an accurate accounting of the actions that were taken regarding to the watchlisting status of non-investigative subjects. We found that the processes used by the FBI were redundant and resulted in incomplete, inconsistent, and erroneous data.

Juvenile Arrests 2011

March 25, 2014 Comments off

Juvenile Arrests 2011
Source: office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

As has been the case in general for the past decade, juvenile arrest data for 2011 provide reasons for encouragement. Overall, arrests in 2011 were down 11 percent from 2010 and down 31 percent since 2002.

Although juvenile arrest rates for many crimes are at their lowest levels in more than 30 years, many states and communities are instituting legislative, policy, and practice changes to reduce juvenile arrests even further. As a growing body of evidence underscores the corrosive effects that system involvement and confinement can have on healthy adolescent emotional, mental, behavioral, and social development, many jurisdictions are examining and developing ways to divert nonserious offenders from entering the system. With time, the cumulative effects of these and other reform efforts, such as trauma, mental health, and substance abuse screening and assessment for youth upon intake, should result in a system where arrests are rare, all youth are treated fairly, and when a youth enters the system, he or she receives much-needed treatment and services. Such changes would undoubtedly provide positive and healthy outcomes for youth, families, and communities.

Mentoring Children of Incarcerated Parents: A Synthesis of Research and Input From the Listening Session Held by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and the White House Domestic Policy Council and Office of Public Engagement

March 21, 2014 Comments off

Mentoring Children of Incarcerated Parents: A Synthesis of Research and Input From the Listening Session Held by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and the White House Domestic Policy Council and Office of Public Engagement (PDF)
Source: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

Parents may be incarcerated in correctional facilities at either the local or state level and the length of incarceration varies by type of facility. Jails are locally-operated correctional facilities and sentences to jail (typically for misdemeanors) are usually one year or shorter, whereas prisons (state or federal) are typically further away and generally involve sentences (typically for felonies) that are longer than one year. The number of youth who have an incarcerated parent has grown considerably over the past two decades. It is estimated that 1.7 million youth in the United States have at least one parent currently in prison and that millions more have a parent in jail. As a group, these youth fare worse than other youth on a range of immediate and longer-term outcomes that relate to mental and physical health as well as educational achievement. Evidence suggests that, in combination with other sources of risk and adversity, the incarceration of a parent can increase the likelihood that youth become involved in antisocial and delinquent behavior. Yet, it is clear that parental incarceration affects families in different ways and that experiences before, during, and after incarceration contribute to youths’outcomes. Furthermore, as many youth faced with the incarceration of a parent do well, a parent’s incarceration is clearly not an insurmountable barrier to a young person realizing his or her full potential.

The broader research literature supports mentoring programs as a promising form of support for youth with incarcerated parents. Findings indicate that participation in a mentoring program can benefit a young person in several different areas, including emotional well-being, social relationships, avoiding problem behavior, and academic achievement.

Delays in Youth Justice

March 18, 2014 Comments off

Delays in Youth Justice (PDF)
Source: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs

Historically, the American juvenile justice system has sought to take an individualized approach to each case, focusing more on solving problems than on punishing offenders. But solving problems related to human behavior takes time and can collide with the principles of swift and certain intervention. Delays in the processing of youth through the justice system can have negative results not only for the youth themselves but also for their families and communities.

Improving the timeliness of the justice process is far more than a technical matter for managers and judges; it is a critical part of policy and practice in ensuring the juvenile justice system fulfills its basic mission.

This bulletin reviews a research effort in juvenile case processing that looked at two information sources, a nationwide sample of counties and an indepth investigation of three Midwestern courts…

See also: Young Offenders: What Happens and What Should Happen (PDF)

Audit of the Department of Justice’s Efforts to Address Mortgage Fraud

March 18, 2014 Comments off

Audit of the Department of Justice’s Efforts to Address Mortgage Fraud (PDF)
Source: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Inspector General

DOJ and its components have repeatedly stated publicly that mortgage fraud is a high priority and during this audit we found some examples of DOJ-led efforts that supported those claims. Two such examples are the Criminal Division’s leadership of its mortgage fraud working group and the FBI and USAOs’ participation on more than 90 local task forces and working groups. However, we also determined during this audit that DOJ did not uniformly ensure that mortgage fraud was prioritized at a level commensurate with its public statements. For example, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Criminal Investigative Division ranked mortgage fraud as the lowest ranked criminal threat in its lowest crime category.1 Additionally, we found mortgage fraud to be a low priority, or not listed as a priority, for the FBI Field Offices we visited, including Baltimore, Los Angeles, Miami, and New York. We also found that while the FBI received $196 million in appropriated funding to investigate mortgage fraud activities from fiscal years 2009 through 2011, in FY 2011 the number of FBI agents investigating mortgage fraud as well as the number of pending investigations decreased.

CRS — FBI Director: Appointment and Tenure

March 4, 2014 Comments off

FBI Director: Appointment and Tenure
Source: Congressional Research Service (via Federation of American Scientists)

The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is appointed by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The statutory basis for the present nomination and confirmation process was developed in 1968 and 1976, and has been used since the death of J. Edgar Hoover in 1972. Over this time, seven nominations have been confirmed and two have been withdrawn by the President before confirmation. The position of FBI Director has a fixed 10-year term, and the officeholder cannot be reappointed, unless Congress acts to allow a second appointment of the incumbent. There are no statutory conditions on the President’s authority to remove the FBI Director. Since 1972, one Director has been removed by the President.

Crime Against Persons With Disabilities, 2009–2012 – Statistical Tables

February 27, 2014 Comments off

Crime Against Persons With Disabilities, 2009–2012 – Statistical Tables
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics

Presents estimates of nonfatal violent victimization (rape, sexual assault, robbery, aggravated and simple assault) against persons age 12 or older with disabilities from 2009 to 2012. Findings are based on the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). The report compares the victimization of persons with and without disabilities living in noninstitutionalized households, including distributions by age, race, sex, victims’ types of disabilities, and other victim characteristics. Data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS) and the 2000 U.S. Standard Population were used to estimate age-adjusted victimization rates.

Highlights:

  • Persons age 12 or older who had disabilities experienced 1.3 million nonfatal violent crimes in 2012.
  • In 2012, the age-adjusted rate of violent victimization for persons with disabilities (60 per 1,000 persons with disabilities) was nearly three times the rate among persons without disabilities (22 per 1,000 persons without disabilities).
  • In 2012, the age-adjusted rate of violent victimization was higher for persons with disabilities than for those without disabilities for both males and females.
  • For each racial group measured, persons with disabilities had higher age-adjusted violent victimization rates than persons without disabilities in 2012.
  • In 2012, 52% of nonfatal violent crime against persons with disabilities involved victims who had multiple disability types.

GPS Monitoring: An Effective, Cost-Saving Option

February 20, 2014 Comments off

GPS Monitoring: An Effective, Cost-Saving Option (PDF)
Source: National Institute of Justice

The researchers analyzed information from the state’s data management system and examined official arrest records, parole supervision records, GPS monitoring data and state cost information. In addition, they conducted a survey of roughly 1,000 California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR) parole officers. The survey included questions about the GPS monitoring system, caseloads, program staffing and screening of high-risk sex offender parolees.

The results showed that GPS monitoring was more effective than traditional parole in reducing recidivism and was also more cost-effective. Parolees in the traditional group — those not placed on GPS monitoring — committed new crimes and had their parole revoked more often than parolees in the GPS group. The traditional group’s recidivism rate was 38 percent higher than that of the GPS group.

FBI Releases Preliminary Semiannual Crime Statistics for 2013

February 19, 2014 Comments off

FBI Releases Preliminary Semiannual Crime Statistics for 2013
Source: Federal Bureau of Investigation

Statistics released today in the FBI’s Preliminary Semiannual Uniform Crime Report reveal declines in both the violent crime and the property crime reported in the first six months of 2013 when compared with figures for the first six months of 2012. The report is based on information from 12,723 law enforcement agencies that submitted three to six months of comparable data to the FBI Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program for the first six months of 2012 and 2013.

Survey of State Criminal History Information Systems, 2012

February 14, 2014 Comments off

Survey of State Criminal History Information Systems, 2012 (PDF)
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics

This is the twelfth survey of criminal history information systems conducted by SEARCH, The National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics, since 1989. Some of the tables include data from previous surveys. Caution should be used in drawing comparisons between the results of earlier surveys and the data reported here. Over the course of the survey years, the U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), has continued to administer assistance programs dedicated to improving criminal history records. As a result, some states focused new or additional resources on the condition of their records and, in many cases, know more about their records today than in the past. Similarly, expansion, advancement, and adoption of technology have also made a beneficial impact. Some state repositories, however, have suffered fiscal cutbacks and consequently have had to shift priorities away from certain criminal history information management tasks. For these and other reasons, trend comparisons may not as accurately reflect the status of each state’s criminal history records as the current data considered alone.

U.S. Department of Justice Antitrust Division Manual (updated January 2014)

February 10, 2014 Comments off

U.S. Department of Justice Antitrust Division Manual
Source: U.S. Department of Justice

This Manual provides only internal Department of Justice guidance. It is not intended to, does not, and may not be relied upon to create any rights, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law by any party in any matter civil or criminal. No limitations are hereby placed on otherwise lawful investigative and litigative prerogatives of the Department of Justice.

Pregnancy- and Child-Related Legal and Policy Issues Concerning Justice-Involved Women

February 7, 2014 Comments off

Pregnancy- and Child-Related Legal and Policy Issues Concerning Justice-Involved Women (PDF)
Source: National Institute of Corrections

This document provides an overview of pregnancy- and child-related legal questions concerning justice-involved women that can be raised in correctional settings. It updates and expands the Legal Appendix, written by Southwestern Law School Professor Myrna Raeder, that is included in Gender-Responsive Strategies: Research, Practice, and Guiding Principles for Women Offenders, by Barbara Bloom and colleagues, published by the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) in 2003. The information presented here is expected to be pertinent to a wide audience, only some of whom have legal training. Commissioners of correctional departments and their legal staff, wardens, sheriffs, and other prison and jail administrators; community correctional officials; service providers; and stakeholders, including advocates for inmates, should all be able to reference this document as a starting point for analyzing family issues that affect a large percentage of female inmates. A variety of resources, legal and otherwise, are cited to help further research about these issues. Administrators and policymakers may find it useful to review their policies in light of these pregnancy- and child-related legal questions and answers, with the caveat that their responses must be dictated in part by the specific laws and policies that exist in the particular jurisdiction where their facility is located, and by the specific circumstances of each issue that arises.

Mentoring Children of Incarcerated Parents

February 4, 2014 Comments off

Mentoring Children of Incarcerated Parents (PDF)
Source: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

Parents may be incarcerated in correctional facilities at either the local or state level and the length of incarceration varies by type of facility. Jails are locally-operated correctional facilities and sentences to jail (typically for misdemeanors) are usually one year or shorter, whereas prisons (state or federal) are typically further away and generally involve sentences (typically for felonies) that are longer than one year. The number of youth who have an incarcerated parent has grown considerably over the past two decades. It is estimated that 1.7 million youth in the United States have at least one parent currently in prison and that millions more have a parent in jail. As a group, these youth fare worse than other youth on a range of immediate and longer-term outcomes that relate to mental and physical health as well as educational achievement. Evidence suggests that, in combination with other sources of risk and adversity, the incarceration of a parent can increase the likelihood that youth become involved in antisocial and delinquent behavior. Yet, it is clear that parental incarceration affects families in different ways and that experiences before, during, and after incarceration contribute to youths’ outcomes. Furthermore, as many youth faced with the incarceration of a parent do well, a parent’s incarceration is clearly not an insurmountable barrier to a young person realizing his or her full potential.

The broader research literature supports mentoring programs as a promising form of support for youth with incarcerated parents. Findings indicate that participation in a mentoring program can benefit a young person in several different areas, including emotional well-being, social relationships, avoiding problem behavior, and academic achievement.

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