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Archive for the ‘caregiving’ Category

New From the GAO

December 19, 2014 Comments off

New GAO Reports
Source: Government Accountability Office

1. Fair Labor Standards Act: Extending Protections to Home Care Workers. GAO-15-12, December 17.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-15-12
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/667603.pdf

2. Federal Emergency Management Agency: Opportunities Exist to Strengthen Oversight of Administrative Costs for Major Disasters. GAO-15-65, December 17.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-15-65
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/667607.pdf

3. Department of Homeland Security: Continued Action Needed to Strengthen Management of Administratively Uncontrollable Overtime. GAO-15-95, December 17.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-15-95
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/667618.pdf

4. Tax-Exempt Organizations: Better Compliance Indicators and Data, and More Collaboration with State Regulators Would Strengthen Oversight of Charitable Organizations. GAO-15-164, December 17.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-15-164
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/667596.pdf

5.   State and Local Governments’ Fiscal Outlook: 2014 Update. GAO-15-224SP, December 17.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-15-224SP
Podcast: http://www.gao.gov/multimedia/podcasts/667597

6.   Dodd-Frank Regulations: Regulators’ Analytical and Coordination Efforts. GAO-15-81, December 18.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-15-81
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/667634.pdf

7.   Electronic Submissions in Federal Procurement: Implementation by the Army Corps of Engineers and Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Reclamation. GAO-15-253R, December 18.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-15-253R

8.   Federal Food Safety Oversight: Additional Actions Needed to Improve Planning and Collaboration. GAO-15-180, December 18.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-15-180
Highlights –  http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/667657.pdf

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Reforms to Help Meet the Growing Demand for Long-Term Care Services

December 18, 2014 Comments off

Reforms to Help Meet the Growing Demand for Long-Term Care Services
Source: Center for American Progress

Long-term care is a growing challenge in many countries, but this issue brief focuses specifically on Germany and the United States.

About 12 million elderly or disabled Americans rely on long-term care to help them with tasks ranging from eating and bathing to housekeeping and cooking.

The need for long-term care can arise at any age—about 40 percent of people who need this care are under age 65—but the doubling of the elderly population over the coming decades means a substantial increase in the number of people who will need long-term care. The first of the Baby Boom generation reached the traditional retirement age of 65 three years ago, and each day for the next 18 years, about 8,000 more Americans will reach that milestone. As dramatic as these numbers may seem, the U.S. population is aging at a slower pace than other industrialized nations: By 2050, 1 in 5 American residents will be ages 65 and older, as opposed to fewer than 1 in 7 today. Germany, on the other hand, is a particularly fast-aging society: Today, 1 in 5 German residents are already ages 65 and older, and almost 1 in 3 will be those ages by 2050. At the same time, the German workforce is shrinking, and its overall population is projected to decline by 13 percent by 2050.

And thanks to public health improvements and medical breakthroughs, millions of seniors in industrialized nations—including in the United States and Germany—are, on average, living longer and are healthier and more active during their retirement years. But the increased longevity of the senior population also means that millions more people are likely to need long-term care, especially as more seniors age into their 80s and beyond, when the rates of dementia and other cognitive and physical conditions increase. In addition, these conditions require more comprehensive, costly care. For instance, the rate of dementia is less than 1 percent for people under 65 years old, but it rapidly increases to more than 40 percent for those over 85 years old. By 2050, the annual number of new cases of Alzheimer’s is projected to more than double.

Together, these demographic changes have placed enormous pressure on the United States’ inadequate mechanisms for financing long-term supports and services. Policymakers should consider comprehensive changes that will enhance how we pay for these services, balancing public and private insurance with family and friend caregiving. Germany—with its even greater demographic challenges—has taken precisely this approach and therefore provides an illustrative example for the United States.

Men as caregivers of the elderly: support for the contributions of sons

December 10, 2014 Comments off

Men as caregivers of the elderly: support for the contributions of sons
Source: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare

Emerging practice research on filial sources of health care support has indicated that there is a growing trend for sons to assume some responsibility for the health care needs of their aging parents. The purpose of this work is to propose that outcomes observed through a secondary analysis of data from a previous mixed methods research project, conducted with a sample of 60 elderly women residing in independent living centers, supports this concept in elder care. The present study is a retrospective interpretation utilizing the original database to examine the new question, “What specific roles do sons play in caregiving of their elderly mothers?” While daughters presently continue to emerge in existing health care studies as the primary care provider, there is a significant pattern in these data for older patients to depend upon sons for a variety of instrumental activities of daily living. As the baby-boomers age, there is more of cohort trend for their families to be smaller, adult daughters to be employed, and for adult children to be more geographically mobile. These factors may combine to make health care support networks more limited for the current aging population, challenging the elderly and their health care providers to revisit the cultural gender norms that are used to identify caregivers.

Who Cares – and Does It Matter? Measuring Wage Penalties for Caring Work

September 22, 2014 Comments off

Who Cares – and Does It Matter? Measuring Wage Penalties for Caring Work (PDF)
Source: Institute for the Study of Labor

Economists and sociologists have proposed arguments for why there can exist wage penalties for work involving helping and caring for others, penalties borne disproportionately by women. Evidence on wage penalties is neither abundant nor compelling. We examine wage differentials associated with caring jobs using multiple years of Current Population Survey (CPS) earnings files matched to O*NET job descriptors that provide continuous measures of ‘assisting and caring’ and ‘concern’ for others across all occupations. This approach differs from prior studies that assume occupations either do or do not require a high level of caring. Cross-section and longitudinal analyses are used to examine wage differences associated with the level of caring, conditioned on worker, location, and job attributes. Wage level estimates suggest substantive caring penalties, particularly among men. Longitudinal estimates based on wage changes among job switchers indicate smaller wage penalties, our preferred estimate being a 2 percent wage penalty resulting from a one standard deviation increase in our caring index. We find little difference in caring wage gaps across the earnings distribution. Measuring mean levels of caring across the U.S. labor market over nearly thirty years, we find a steady upward trend, but overall changes are small and there is no evidence of convergence between women and men.

Nearly Half of Family Caregivers Spend Over $5,000 Per Year on Caregiving Costs

September 17, 2014 Comments off

Nearly Half of Family Caregivers Spend Over $5,000 Per Year on Caregiving Costs
Source: Caring.com

Almost half (46%) of family caregivers spend more than $5,000 per year on caregiving expenses, according to a new Caring.com report. A family caregiver is defined as someone who takes care of a family member or friend, but is unpaid for their services. Their caregiving expenses include out-of-pocket costs for medications, medical bills, in-home care, nursing homes and more.

Of the 46% of family caregivers that spend more than $5,000 annually: * 16% spend from $5,000 to $9,999 * 11% spend from $10,000 to $19,999 * 7% spend $20,000 to $29,999 * 5% spend $30,000 to $49,999 * 7% spend $50,000 or more each year.

Thirty-two percent of family caregivers spend less than $5,000 per year, and 21% do not know how much they spend on caregiving each year.

Family Caregivers Providing Complex Chronic Care to People with Cognitive and Behavioral Health Conditions

August 28, 2014 Comments off

Family Caregivers Providing Complex Chronic Care to People with Cognitive and Behavioral Health Conditions
Source: AARP Public Policy Institute

Family caregiving is difficult and stressful. Providing care and support to people with cognitive or behavioral health conditions is doubly challenging. This paper reports on results from a national survey showing that caregivers of family members with challenging behaviors were more likely to perform more than one medical/nursing task, such as managing medications, and often do so with resistance from the person they are trying to help. Yet they receive little or no instruction or guidance on how to do this important work. This analysis offers recommendations for assisting family caregivers who play this dual role.

This is the third “Insight on the Issues” series, drawn from additional analysis of data based on a December 2011 national survey of 1,677 family caregivers, 22 percent of whom were caring for someone with one or more challenging behaviors. Earlier findings were published in the groundbreaking Public Policy Institute/United Hospital Fund report Home Alone: Family Caregivers Providing Complex Chronic Care.
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HHS OIG — Nursing Facilities’ Compliance with Federal Regulations for Reporting Allegations of Abuse or Neglect

August 19, 2014 Comments off

Nursing Facilities’ Compliance with Federal Regulations for Reporting Allegations of Abuse or Neglect
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General

WHY WE DID THIS STUDY
To protect the well-being of residents, nursing facilities must comply with Federal regulations to develop and implement written policies related to reporting allegations of abuse, neglect, mistreatment, injuries of unknown source, and misappropriation of resident property (allegations of abuse or neglect). Further, allegations of abuse or neglect must be reported to the facility administrator or designee and the State survey agency within 24 hours. Results of investigations of these allegations must be reported to the same authorities within 5 working days. Nursing facilities must also notify owners, operators, employees, managers, agents, or contractors of nursing facilities (covered individuals) annually of their obligation to report reasonable suspicions of crimes.

HOW WE DID THIS STUDY
This study included a: (1) review of sampled nursing facilities’ policies related to reporting allegations of abuse or neglect, (2) review of sampled nursing facilities’ policies related to reasonable suspicions of crimes, and (3) survey of administrators from those sampled facilities. It also included an examination of a random sample of allegations of abuse or neglect identified from the sampled nursing facilities, and a review of documentation related to those sampled allegations of abuse or neglect.

WHAT WE FOUND
It is both required and expected that nursing facilities will report any and all allegations of abuse or neglect to ensure resident safety. We found that 85 percent of nursing facilities reported at least one allegation of abuse or neglect to OIG in 2012. Additionally, 76 percent of nursing facilities maintained policies that address Federal regulations for reporting both allegations of abuse or neglect and investigation results. Further, 61 percent of nursing facilities had documentation supporting the facilities’ compliance with both Federal regulations under Section 1150B of the Social Security Act. Lastly, 53 percent of allegations of abuse or neglect and the subsequent investigation results were reported, as Federally required.

WHAT WE RECOMMEND
We recommend that CMS ensure that nursing facilities: (1) maintain policies related to reporting allegations of abuse or neglect; (2) notify covered individuals of their obligation to report reasonable suspicions of crimes; and (3) report allegations of abuse or neglect and investigation results in a timely manner and to the appropriate individuals, as required. CMS concurred with all three of our recommendations.

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