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Archive for the ‘Transportation Research Board’ Category

How the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and Other Privacy Laws Affect Public Transportation Operations

July 23, 2014 Comments off

How the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and Other Privacy Laws Affect Public Transportation Operations
Source: Transportation Research Board

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Legal Research Digest 46: How the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and Other Privacy Laws Affect Public Transportation Operations explores whether the privacy and security rules established by HIPAA apply to transit agencies that possess patrons’ health information.

The first seven sections of this digest discuss HIPAA and whether various entities are subject to HIPAA’s privacy and security provisions applicable to the protection of protected health information, as defined by HIPAA. This digest also analyzes how protected health information is defined by HIPAA and discusses HIPAA’s Privacy Rule and Security Rule as defined by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services in its most recent final rule.

This digest summarizes other important aspects of HIPAA including whether protected health information must be produced in response to a subpoena, discovery request, or a request under a freedom of information act (FOIA) or similar law. The remainder of the digest discusses the privacy of health information under other federal and state laws. The digest also covers industry standards and best practices used by transit agencies to protect the privacy of patrons’ health information.

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Making Effective Fixed-Guideway Transit Investments: Indicators of Success

July 22, 2014 Comments off

Making Effective Fixed-Guideway Transit Investments: Indicators of Success
Source: Transportation Research Board

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 167: Making Effective Fixed-Guideway Transit Investments: Indicators of Success provides a data-driven, indicator-based model for predicting the success of a fixed-guideway transit project. The handbook and final research report make up Parts 1 and 2 of TCRP Report 167, and the spreadsheet tool is available separately for download.

Evaluating the Effect of Smart Growth Policies on Travel Demand

July 21, 2014 Comments off

Evaluating the Effect of Smart Growth Policies on Travel Demand
Source: Transportation Research Board

TRB’s second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2) has released a project brief that provides transportation planning agencies with improved tools and methods to accurately and comprehensively integrate transportation investment decision making with land development and growth management.

Recommended Bicycle Lane Widths for Various Roadway Characteristics

July 19, 2014 Comments off

Recommended Bicycle Lane Widths for Various Roadway Characteristics
Source: Transportation Research Board

TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 766: Recommended Bicycle Lane Widths for Various Roadway Characteristics presents an analysis of the research and design guidance for bicycle lane widths on existing travel lane widths and parking lane widths. The conclusions are most applicable to urban and suburban roadways with level grade and a posted speed limit of 30 mph and should be used cautiously for the design of roadways with motor vehicle speeds outside of the range of 25 to 35 mph, and in particular for higher-speed roadways.

Understanding the Value of Social Media at Airports for Customer Engagement

July 18, 2014 Comments off

Understanding the Value of Social Media at Airports for Customer Engagement
Source: Transportation Research Board

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 56: Understanding the Value of Social Media at Airports for Customer Engagement compiles current literature and practice on how airport operators utilize social media to enhance customer engagement.

Making Effective Fixed-Guideway Transit Investments: Indicators of Success

July 5, 2014 Comments off

Making Effective Fixed-Guideway Transit Investments: Indicators of Success
Source: Transportation Research Board

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 167: Making Effective Fixed-Guideway Transit Investments: Indicators of Success provides a data-driven, indicator-based model for predicting the success of a fixed guideway transit project. The handbook and final research report make up Parts 1 and 2 of TCRP Report 167, and the spreadsheet tool is available separately for download.

Airport Response to Special Events

June 13, 2014 Comments off

Airport Response to Special Events
Source: Transportation Research Board

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) has release the prepublication version of Synthesis 57: Airport Response to Special Events, which explores how airports plan, manage, and recover from special events in order to help minimize the event’s effects on an airport’s regular operations.

The synthesis explores issues related to planning, organizing, and applying lessons learned, as well as addressing potential surprises and impacts on operations and customer services related to a variety of non-aeronautical events that occur both on and off an airport. ACRP Synthesis 57 offers six case examples designed to help demonstrate how airports of all sizes plan, manage, and recover from special events.

ACRP Synthesis 57 can serve as a companion document to ACRP Synthesis 41: Conducting Aeronautical Special Events at Airports. ACRP Synthesis 41 focuses on aeronautical events such as air shows, airport open houses, aircraft static displays, and fly-ins.

Best Practices Manual for Working In or Near Airport Movement Areas

May 29, 2014 Comments off

Best Practices Manual for Working In or Near Airport Movement Areas
Source: Transportation Research Board

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 101: Best Practices Manual for Working In or Near Airport Movement Areas consists of a best practices database; training tools, aids, and checklists; and a 45-minute video that provide guidance on best practices for a myriad of airport activities.

The guidance is designed to help introduce new employees, tenants, or contractors to the airport environment.

The video, Staying Safe on the Airfield, follows an airport operations supervisor training a new employee by discussing hazards and the appropriate best practices for eliminating or mitigating risks while working in or near the airport movement area. The database, video, and training tools, and aids and checklists are provided on a CD-ROM that is included with the print version of the report.

System-Specific Spare Bus Ratios Update

April 29, 2014 Comments off

System-Specific Spare Bus Ratios Update
Source: Transportation Research Board

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 109: System-Specific Spare Bus Ratios Update documents successful practices in the United States and Canada, and presents information on efforts employed to achieve optimal bus fleet size and effective spare bus ratios. The synthesis is designed to provide guidance to transit agencies on how various factors may affect optimal fleet size.

Commonsense Approaches for Improving Transit Bus Speeds

April 23, 2014 Comments off

Commonsense Approaches for Improving Transit Bus Speeds
Source: Transportation Research Board

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 110: Commonsense Approaches for Improving Transit Bus Speeds explores approaches transit agencies have taken to realize gains in average bus speeds.

The report also identifies metrics pertaining to measures such as changes in travel speed and its components, operating cost, and ridership. It shows the results of each or a combination of approaches implemented.

Critical Issues in Aviation and the Environment 2014

April 21, 2014 Comments off

Critical Issues in Aviation and the Environment 2014
Source: Transportation Research Board

Critical Issues in Aviation and the Environment 2014 explores issues that address the major environmental components affected by aviation activities, sustainable solutions that have evolved and continue to be developed to minimize aviation’s environmental impacts, and key processes that link aviation and the environment. The focus of the e-circular is on the state of science and on identification of priority research with potential to yield benefits during the next several years to several decades.

Impacts of Aging Travelers on Airports

April 14, 2014 Comments off

Impacts of Aging Travelers on Airports
Source: Transportation Research Board

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 51: Impacts of Aging Travelers on Airports describes the challenges of wayfinding, fatigue, technology and equipment, and needed amenities, as well as the practices that airports are enacting to accommodate and improve the airport experience of aging travelers. The report is designed to help users better understand the aging demographic, and define issues and implement effective practices to accommodate aging travelers at airports.

Community Tools to Improve Transportation Options for Veterans, Military Service Members, and Their Families

April 13, 2014 Comments off

Community Tools to Improve Transportation Options for Veterans, Military Service Members, and Their Families
Source: Transportation Research Board

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 164: Community Tools to Improve Transportation Options for Veterans, Military Service Members, and Their Families explores ways to enhance transportation options for veterans, military service members, and their families by building on the concepts of transportation coordination and mobility management.

The report provides guidance and tools to assess transportation needs of veterans, service members, and their families and ways to potentially improve public transit, specialized transportation, volunteer services, and other local transportation options needed to meet those needs.

The report includes foundational information on community transportation services and initiatives currently available for veterans, service members, and their families. The report is designed to guide users through an organized process to help improve transportation options, building on the framework of coordination.

Monitoring Bicyclist and Pedestrian Travel and Behavior

March 24, 2014 Comments off

Monitoring Bicyclist and Pedestrian Travel and Behavior
Source: Transportation Research Board

The circular identifies a selection of recent advancements in bicycle and pedestrian data monitoring pertaining to both traffic volumes and behavioral data. The circular also introduces a selection of ongoing projects expected to contribute to the field of bicycle and pedestrian data.

Sustainable Energy and Transportation Strategies, Research, and Data

March 8, 2014 Comments off

Sustainable Energy and Transportation Strategies, Research, and Data
Source: Transportation Research Board

TRB’s Conference Proceedings on the Web 14: Sustainable Energy and Transportation Strategies, Research, and Data includes summaries of plenary session presentations that were made during a November 2012 conference in Washington, D.C. The conference explored potential research needed to further advance the development of alternatives to petroleum-based transportation and to lower greenhouse gas emissions.

Framing Surface Transportation Research for the Nation’s Future

March 7, 2014 Comments off

Framing Surface Transportation Research for the Nation’s Future
Source: Transportation Research Board

TRB has released the final version of Special Report 313: Framing Surface Transportation Research for the Nation’s Future explores opportunities for improving the productivity of U.S. expenditures on surface transportation research by building on lessons learned from the strategic approach to developing priorities and investing in transportation research in other countries and nontransportation sectors in the United States.

Despite major progress in U.S. transportation systems and services, particularly since the 1950s and 1960s, further improvements are needed if the nation is to continue competing effectively in the global marketplace and enhancing its inhabitants’ quality of life. Research is expected to play a major role in addressing the challenges facing U.S. surface transportation.

According to the committee that produced the report, the timely development of a new national research framework that engages the public, private, academic, and nonprofit sectors and draws on the nation’s research capacity in academia, industry, and elsewhere is needed.

Who Rides and Who Pays: Comprehensive Assessment of Motorcycling Costs and Benefits in the United States

March 6, 2014 Comments off

Who Rides and Who Pays: Comprehensive Assessment of Motorcycling Costs and Benefits in the United States
Source: Transportation Research Board

This paper offers a comprehensive assessment of the benefits and costs of motorcycle use while exploring the characteristics, behaviors and attitudes of motorcycle riders. U.S. motorcyclists are at relatively high risk of crashing, per mile travelled, with rates 24 times higher than those of passenger car and light-duty truck drivers. However, motorcycles require just one quarter the parking space of a car, and can double network capacities (in terms of vehicles per hour), thereby reducing congestion.

While most motorcycles enjoy high fuel economy, their low seating capacities render them little or no better than most cars and some light-duty trucks (assuming average vehicle occupancies). They emit relatively fewer grams of CO2, NOx, SO2 and PM10 per person-mile traveled than most cars, but more VOC and CO, if a catalytic converter is not installed. Noise impacts are also a serious issue for many motorcycles, with an inconsistent patchwork of regulations applied across states and localities.

Results of a survey of current and former U.S. motorcyclists indicates almost use their motorcycles for recreational purposes and ride in groups, though about half also ride for more mandatory/less discretionary purposes and about 40% also ride solo. Less than a third has had formal motorcycle training, and helmet use appears lower among current riders who do not own a motorcycle. Engine size appears to be rising, and respondents showed strong support for policies that combat operating a vehicle under the influence (such as ignition interlock devices for offenders). Regression models illuminate key factors and marginal effects on motorcycle riding and ownership rates.

See also: Lessons Learned from Motorcyclist Surveys: Rider’s Attitudes and Behaviors in Florida (PDF)

State Department of Transportation Fleet Replacement Management Practices

March 4, 2014 Comments off

State Department of Transportation Fleet Replacement Management Practices
Source: Transportation Research Board

TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 452: State Department of Transportation Fleet Replacement Management Practices explores the current state of the practice regarding fleet replacement management and financing methods by state departments of transportation. The report also includes a discussion of the perceived strengths and weaknesses of different management and financing methods.

Transportation Research Board 2013 Annual Report

February 12, 2014 Comments off

Transportation Research Board 2013 Annual Report
Source: Transportation Research Board

The 2013 Annual Report provides a summary of the Transportation Research Board’s (TRB’s) programs and activities over the last year and an overview of the individual divisions within TRB. The mission of TRB is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal.

Motor Vehicle Crashes and Injuries Involving Teenage Drivers: Future Directions for Research

February 3, 2014 Comments off

Motor Vehicle Crashes and Injuries Involving Teenage Drivers: Future Directions for Research
Source: Transportation Research Board

This circular includes a summary of the discussions by experts on teenage driving that took place at a 2008 meeting and workshop organized by the TRB Subcommittee on Young Drivers. The meeting and workshop were convened to identify research that is needed to answer the most critical and timely scientific questions about teenage drivers. During the meeting, full-group discussions were intermixed with smaller subgroup deliberations. Each of these sessions involved a particular goal for the participating groups. The intent of this structure was to elicit and discuss as many research-specific issues as the participants considered important for identifying needed research in the young driver field. Participants reviewed ways in which the teenage driver problem has been addressed, how approaches have developed and changed over time, and commented on the past and present status of research in this area. The context and state of existing knowledge led to the identification of the following areas of research as most critical: 1) advancing the science of teenage driving; 2) learning to drive safely: how competence develops; 3) teenage driving exposure issues; 4) parenting issues: how parents influence teenage driving; and 5) passenger issues: how passengers influence teenage driving and crash risk. Following the meeting, members of the planning committee developed potential research topics and specific items for suggested research in the five priority areas. The document is intended to provide both new and veteran researchers with a guide to research questions whose answers are of particular importance for efforts to reduce motor vehicle crashes, injuries, and deaths involving teenage drivers.

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