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Single black female BA seeks educated husband: Race, assortative mating and inequality

April 17, 2015 Comments off

Single black female BA seeks educated husband: Race, assortative mating and inequality
Source: Brookings Institution

There is a growing trend in the United States towards assortative mating — a clunky phrase that refers to people’s tendency to choose spouses with similar educational attainment. Rising numbers of college-educated women play a key role in this change. It is much easier for college graduates to find and marry each other when there are more equal numbers of each gender within an educational bracket.

Race is a factor in patterns of assortative mating. Black women face more difficult “marriage markets” than white women, given current rates of intermarriage according to work from University of Maryland sociologist Philip N. Cohen. Black women have the lowest rates of “marrying out” across race lines, in part because of racist attitudes to inter-marriage. Just 49 percent of college-educated black women marry a well-educated man (i.e., with at least some post-secondary education), compared to 84 percent of college-educated white women, according to an analysis of PSID data by Yale sociologist Vida Maralani.

Education for All Global Monitoring Report launched around the World

April 16, 2015 Comments off

EFA Global Monitoring Report launched around the World
Source: UNESCO

The 2015 EFA Global Monitoring Report: Education for All 2000-2015: Achievements and Challenges was launched yesterday from three global launch locations: Paris, New Delhi and New York.

The new Report gives the verdict on global progress towards the six Education for All goals set in Dakar at the start of the Millennium. It concludes that only a third of countries have met all of the measurable Education for All goals; only a half have reached the most watched goal of universal primary education.

State Higher Education Finance Report — FY 2014

April 16, 2015 Comments off

State Higher Education Finance Report — FY 2014 (PDF)
Source: State Higher Education Executive Officers Association

A recession beginning in 2008 dramatically reduced state revenue and ended the growth in state and local support achieved between 2004 and 2008. In 2014, for the second straight year, overall state and local funding for higher education increased, reaching $86.3 billion, up 5.7 percent from 2013, but still below 2008-2011 levels. Initial estimates from the Grapevine survey of FY 2015 appropriations for higher education show continued growth overall of 5.2 percent in nominal terms. These data all point to continuing economic recovery and restoration of state funding for higher education on average nationally.

In addition to state and local revenues, public institutions collected net tuition revenue of $64.3 billion in 2014, for a total of about $150.7 billion available to support higher education. For the first time since the recession, the share of overall funding for public and private higher education from tuition decreased slightly to 42.7 percent (see Figure 1). Net tuition revenue as a share of public higher education revenue was 47.1 percent.

Of the $86.3 billion in state and local support during 2014, 76.8 percent was allocated to the general operating expenses of public higher education. Special purpose or restricted state appropriations for research, agricultural extension, and medical education accounted for another 12.2 percent of the total. The percent of total support allocated for financial aid to students attending public institutions declined 0.3 percent to 7.7 percent in 2014, although funding was increased slightly. The remaining 3.2 percent supported students attending independent institutions, operating expenses at independent institutions, and non-credit and continuing education expenditures.

Broadband Infrastructure Case Studies Released – How Broadband Changes the Game

April 14, 2015 Comments off

Broadband Infrastructure Case Studies Released – How Broadband Changes the Game
Source: National Telecommunications & Information Administration

Over the past five years through our national broadband grant program, NTIA has seen first-hand the economic and societal impact that broadband has on communities across the country. At the Broadband Communities conference in Austin, Texas this week, NTIA’s BroadbandUSA team will share our plans to leverage that expertise by providing communities with technical assistance and field-tested ideas. I will be speaking along with my NTIA colleagues Doug Kinkoph and Anne Neville.

An important component of our on-going work with communities is to build on the lessons learned from an independent evaluation of the Broadband Technology Opportunities Program (BTOP) to make sound decisions going forward. In 2010 NTIA hired ASR Analytics, LLC to conduct a comprehensive study on the societal and economic impacts of the program. In advance of the Broadband Communities conference, NTIA is today releasing the final case studies from the evaluation. The principal author of the study, Dr. Stephen Rhody, will present and discuss the findings.

The reports released today are the final ASR case studies focusing on 12 of the 109 Comprehensive Community Infrastructure (CCI) projects NTIA funded through BTOP to build middle-mile networks in 45 states and U.S. territories. These grantees deployed more than 113,000 miles of fiber across the country. In the process, they connected or upgraded 25,300 community anchor institutions and signed more than 860 interconnection agreements with local service providers.

Earlier, NTIA released ASR’s overall impact study, which found that on average, in only two years, BTOP grant communities experienced an estimated two percent greater growth in broadband availability than non-grant communities. That growth is estimated to generate increased annual economic activity of between $5.17 billion and $21 billion. The additional broadband infrastructure could also be expected to create more than 22,000 long-term jobs and generate more than $1 billion in additional household income each year. And community anchor institutions, like schools and libraries, served by BTOP infrastructure grantees in the sample experienced significantly increased speeds and lower costs.

While these numbers are impressive, the value of the projects is yet to be fully realized. Their impact will be seen in how education, health care and economic development are changing on the ground in the communities served by the grants. Students have faster, lower cost connections to broadband for online learning. Businesses are expanding their operations and markets. Medical specialists treat more people in less time, remotely.

The case studies reflect a representative sample of CCI projects, taking into account the wide diversity of grantee types, technologies, partnerships, project sizes, geography, and target customers. Project selection also considered construction schedules, so that projects could demonstrate results within the study’s time frame. To prepare the cases, ASR conducted more than a hundred interviews with grantees, partners, and network users, logging thousands of miles to visit the connected communities.

Characteristics of the College-Educated Population and the Science and Engineering Workforce in the United States

April 14, 2015 Comments off

Characteristics of the College-Educated Population and the Science and Engineering Workforce in the United States
Source: National Science Foundation

T​he number of college graduates in the United States nearly doubled between 1993 and 2013, from 29 million to 55 million, according to the National Survey of College Graduates (NSCG). The number of college graduates with degrees in science and engineering (S&E) fields grew faster than the number of college graduates with degrees in non-S&E fields. Additionally, in 2013, about 1 in 10 college graduates were employed in an S&E occupation, and this proportion has remained largely unchanged since 1993. Women accounted for more than one-half of the college graduate population in the United States in 2013. However, women constituted only 29% of those employed in S&E occupations.

New State of America’s Libraries Report finds shift in role of U.S. libraries

April 13, 2015 Comments off

New State of America’s Libraries Report finds shift in role of U.S. libraries
Source: American Library Association

According to The State of America’s Libraries Report released today by the American Library Association (ALA), academic, public and school libraries are experiencing a shift in how they are perceived by their communities and society. No longer just places for books, libraries of all types are viewed as anchors, centers for academic life and research and cherished spaces.

This and other library trends of the past year are detailed in ALA’s State of America’s Libraries Report 2015, made available during National Library Week, April 12–18, both as an American Libraries digital supplement, as well as on the ALA website at ala.org/americas-libraries and as a PDF file.

As society continues to change the way it consumes information, our nation’s libraries, librarians and library workers continue to mirror the needs of their communities. From offering free technology workshops, small business centers and 24/7 virtual access to e-Books and digital materials, libraries are transforming communities, schools and campuses.

Long-Run Effects of Free School Choice: College Attainment, Employment, Earnings, and Social Outcomes at Adulthood

April 10, 2015 Comments off

Long-Run Effects of Free School Choice: College Attainment, Employment, Earnings, and Social Outcomes at Adulthood
Source: Cato Institute

search on the effectiveness of educational programs has centered on evaluating shortterm outcomes, such as standardized test scores. Education aims ultimately to improve lifetime well-being, however, so attention has shifted recently to long-term consequences. Outcomes examined in the literature include post-secondary educational attainment, early adult earnings, years of completed schooling, labor market outcomes, young adult crime, and college entry, choice and completion.

My research examines the long-term consequences of free school choice programs offered to primary school students at the transition to secondary school. The main question is whether the effects of free school choice persist beyond high school and lead to long-term enhancements in human capital and well-being.

To address this issue, I examine a school-choice experiment conducted two decades ago in Tel Aviv, Israel. In Lavy (2010) I analyzed the short- and medium-term effects on cognitive outcomes and schooling attainment during middle and high school. With the passage of time, I can now evaluate whether school choice among public schools has a long-term impact on social and economic outcomes. This research provides the first evidence of links between school choice and students’ employment, earnings, and social outcomes at adulthood. I examine the impact on various types of post-secondary schooling that vary by quality, along with the impact on employment, earnings, and welfare-dependency at about age 30. This work thus presents a wide characterization of school choice’s impact at adulthood.

My results show that the school-choice experiment increased a wide range of post-secondary schooling measures. Two decades after students made their school choice at the end of primary school, treated students are 4.7 percentage points more likely to enroll in postsecondary schooling and to complete almost an additional quarter-year of college schooling, in comparison to students in the control group. These gains reflect a 15 percent increase relative to pre-program averages, and they are similar to the program-induced gains in highschool matricualtion outcomes (Lavy 2010).

Categories: Cato Institute, education, K-12
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