Archive

Archive for the ‘education’ Category

Sources of Increasing Differential Mortality Among the Aged by Socioeconomic Status

July 16, 2015 Comments off

Sources of Increasing Differential Mortality Among the Aged by Socioeconomic Status
Source: Center for Retirement Research at Boston College

This paper uses data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to explore the extent and causes of widening differences in life expectancy by socioeconomic status (SES) for older persons. We construct alternative measures of SES using educational attainment and average (career) earnings in the prime working ages of 41-50. We also use information on causes of death, health status and various behavioral indicators (smoking, drinking, and obesity) that are believed to be predictors of premature death in an effort to explain the causes of the growing disparities in life expectancy between people of high and low SES.

The paper finds that:

  • There is strong statistical evidence in the HRS of a growing inequality of mortality risk by SES among more recent birth cohorts compared with cohorts born before 1930.
  • Both educational attainment and career earnings as constructed from Social Security records are equally useful indicators of SES, although the distinction in mortality risk by education is greatest for those with and without a college degree.
  • There has been a significant decline in the risk of dying from cancer or heart conditions for older Americans in the top half of the income distribution, but we find no such reduction of mortality risk in the bottom half of the distribution.
  • The inclusion of the behavioral variables and health status result in substantial improvement in the predictions of mortality, but they do not identify the sources of the increase in differential mortality.

Striking a Chord: The Public’s Hopes and Beliefs for K-12 Music Education in the United States: 2015

July 15, 2015 Comments off

Striking a Chord: The Public’s Hopes and Beliefs for K-12 Music Education in the United States: 2015
Source: National Association of Music Merchants Foundation

Music has been found in every society since the dawn of recorded human history. What is it about this art form that has so permeated hearts and minds through the ages? Modern research has been instrumental in shedding light on this important question and is leading us to a deeper understanding of the power of music to improve the human condition and positively impact our lives and communities.

Striking a Chord: The Public’s Hopes and Beliefs for K-12 Music Education in the United States: 2015, conducted by Grunwald Associates LLC. In this study, we invited communites nationwide to provide us with information about their music education programs. Owing to many political and economic factors, it is a common narrative that acccess to music education in not universal and is often under threat for reduction or elimination. Against this backdrop, this study measures the beliefs and attitudes about music education through the eyes of the two most important and knowledgeable stakeholder groups: teachers and parents.

The Income-Achievement Gap and Adult Outcome Inequality

July 14, 2015 Comments off

The Income-Achievement Gap and Adult Outcome Inequality (PDF)
Source: Federal Reserve Board

This paper discusses various methods for assessing group differences in academic achievement using only the ordinal content of achievement test scores. Researchers and policymakers frequently draw conclusions about achievement differences between various populations using methods that rely on the cardinal comparability of test scores. This paper shows that such methods can lead to erroneous conclusions in an important application: measuring changes over time in the achievement gap between youth from high- and low-income households. Commonly-employed, cardinal methods suggest that this “income-achievement gap” did not change between the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth (NLSY) 1979 and 1997 surveys. In contrast, ordinal methods show that this gap narrowed substantially for reading achievement and may have narrowed for math achievement as well. In fact, any weighting scheme that places more value on higher test scores must conclude that the reading income-achievement gap decreased between these two surveys. The situation for math achievement is more complex, but low-income students in the middle and high deciles of the low-income math achievement distribution unambiguously gained relative to their high-income peers. Furthermore, an anchoring exercise suggests that the narrowing of the income-achievement gap corresponds to an economically significant convergence in lifetime labor wealth and school completion rates for youth from high- and low-income backgrounds.

See also: Achievement Gap Estimates and Deviations from Cardinal Comparability (PDF)

2015 Synthesis of Findings: Child Welfare – Early Education Partnerships to Expand Protective Factors for Children With Child Welfare Involvement Discretionary Grant Cluster

July 12, 2015 Comments off

Child Welfare – Early Education Partnerships to Expand Protective Factors for Children With Child Welfare Involvement Discretionary Grant Cluster (PDF)
Source: Child Welfare Information Gateway

The Children’s Bureau funded these projects to build capacity among State, local, or Tribal child welfare agencies and early childhood systems. The goal was to maximize the identification, enrollment, attendance, and supports of infants and young children, ages birth to 5 years, in foster care or under the supervision of child welfare services, into comprehensive, high-quality early care and education services. Communities built infrastructure to enhance their capacity to deliver multidisciplinary interventions to improve the socio-emotional and behavioral well-being of young children and their families through collaborative service delivery.

Bankruptcy and Bad Behavior – The Real Moral Hazard: Law Schools Exploiting Market Dysfunction

July 9, 2015 Comments off

Bankruptcy and Bad Behavior – The Real Moral Hazard: Law Schools Exploiting Market Dysfunction
Source: American Bankruptcy Institute Law Review, Forthcoming (via SSRN)

The widespread discussion about the market for law graduates ignores an essential fact: it’s not a single market at all. Employment opportunities vary dramatically across schools, yet tuition prices fail to reflect those differences. As a consequence, many schools with the worst placement rates burden their students with the highest levels of educational debt. How is that possible?

The answer is market dysfunction. Current federal student loan and bankruptcy policies encourage all law school deans to maximize tuition and fill classrooms, regardless of their students’ job prospects upon graduation. This law school moral hazard combines with prelaw students’ unrealistic expectations about their legal careers to produce enormous debt for a JD degree that, for many graduates, does not even lead to a JD-required job.

This article proposes a way to identify three distinct law school submarkets. Using those submarkets, it offers a plan to create a more functional market that enhances law school accountability, encourages meaningful price differences among schools based on outcomes, and spurs innovation.

Computer science in high school graduation requirements

July 7, 2015 Comments off

Computer science in high school graduation requirements (PDF)
Source: Education Commission of the States

Computer science and coding skills are widely recognized as a valuable asset in the current and projected job market. The Bureau of Labor Statistics projects 37.5 percent growth from 2012 to 2022 in the “computer systems design and related services” industry — from 1,620,300 jobs in 2012 to an estimated 2,229,000 jobs in 2022.

Yet some reports point to an alarming absence of female and minority students in courses such as Advanced Placement (AP) computer science. Of AP Computer Science A exam takers in the Class of 2013, 81 percent were male and 82.5 percent were white or Asian/Asian American/Pacific Islander. Code.org reports nine out of 10 K-12 schools don’t offer computer programming coursework.

This ECS Education Trends report identifies states that are allowing or requiring districts to apply computer science coursework toward completion of high school graduation requirements in math, science or foreign language. This report also highlights several states that require computer science courses to fulfill requirements for a specialized diploma or endorsement to the standard high school diploma.

The Livability Index: Great Neighborhoods for All Ages

July 6, 2015 Comments off

The Livability Index: Great Neighborhoods for All Ages
Source: AARP Public Policy

The Livability Index is a signature initiative of the Public Policy Institute to measure the quality of life in American communities across multiple dimensions: housing, transportation, neighborhood characteristics, environment, health, opportunity, and civic and social engagement.

An interactive, easily navigated website, the Livability Index allows users to compare communities, adjust scores based on personal preferences and learn how to take action to make their own communities move livable.

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 1,052 other followers