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First OECD PISA financial literacy test finds many young people confused by money matters

July 25, 2014 Comments off

First OECD PISA financial literacy test finds many young people confused by money matters
Source: OECD

Around one in seven students in the 13 OECD countries and economies that took part in the first OECD PISA international assessment of financial literacy are unable to make even simple decisions about everyday spending, and only one in ten can solve complex financial tasks.

Some 29 000 15 year-olds in 18 countries and economies* took part in the test, which assessed the knowledge and skills of teenagers in dealing with financial issues, such as understanding a bank statement, the long-term cost of a loan or knowing how insurance works.

Shanghai-China had the highest average score in financial literacy, followed by the Flemish Community of Belgium, Estonia, Australia, New Zealand, the Czech Republic and Poland.

The gender gap in financial literacy was much smaller than in OECD PISA tests in maths or reading, with there being no significant difference between the performance of boys and girls, except in Italy.

But the inequality gap mirrors that in key school subjects: more socio-economically advantaged students scored much higher than less-advantaged students on average across participating OECD countries and economies. Non-immigrant students also performed slightly better than immigrant students from a similar socio-economic status. The gap between the two groups is larger than the OECD average in the Flemish Community of Belgium, Estonia, France, Slovenia and Spain.

The survey also revealed that skills in mathematics and reading are very closely related to financial literacy. However, high proficiency in one of these subjects does not always signal strong performance in financial literacy.
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Perception of Weight Status in U.S. Children and Adolescents Aged 8–15 Years, 2005–2012

July 24, 2014 Comments off

Perception of Weight Status in U.S. Children and Adolescents Aged 8–15 Years, 2005–2012
Source: National Center for Health Statistics

Key findings
Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2012

  • About 30% of children and adolescents aged 8–15 years in the United States misperceive their weight status. Weight status misperception is more common among boys (32.3%) than girls (28.0%).
  • About one-third of Mexican-American (34.0%) and non-Hispanic black (34.4%) children and adolescents misperceive their weight status compared with non-Hispanic white children and adolescents (27.7%).
  • Approximately 81% of overweight boys and 71% of overweight girls believe they are about the right weight.
  • Nearly 48% of obese boys and 36% of obese girls consider themselves to be about the right weight.

NSCAW Child Well-Being Spotlight: Teenage Girls in the Child Welfare System Report High Rates of Risky Sexual Activity and Pregnancy

July 21, 2014 Comments off

NSCAW Child Well-Being Spotlight: Teenage Girls in the Child Welfare System Report High Rates of Risky Sexual Activity and Pregnancy
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (Administration for Children & Families)

This National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW) spotlight describes the high rates of risky sexual activity and pregnancy among teenage girls in the second cohort of NSCAW (NSCAW II). According to data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW), 16.8% of girls ages 14-17, and 45.1% of girls ages 18-20, had experienced at least one pregnancy.

IIHS issues recommendations on used vehicles for teens after research finds many aren’t driving the safest ones

July 17, 2014 Comments off

IIHS issues recommendations on used vehicles for teens after research finds many aren’t driving the safest ones
Source: Insurance Institute for Highway Safety

Many teenagers are driving vehicles that don’t offer good crash protection and lack important safety technology, new research by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety shows. To help guide parents toward safer choices, IIHS has compiled its first-ever list of recommended used vehicles for teens.

IIHS is known for its ratings of new vehicles, but for many families, a 2014 TOP SAFETY PICK or TOP SAFETY PICK+ isn’t in the budget. In a national phone survey conducted for IIHS of parents of teen drivers, 83 percent of those who bought a vehicle for their teenagers said they bought it used.

With that reality in mind, the Institute has compiled a list of affordable used vehicles that meet important safety criteria for teen drivers (see below). There are two tiers of recommended vehicles with options at various price points, ranging from less than $5,000 to nearly $20,000, so parents can buy the most safety for their money, whatever their budget.

TV Watching and Computer Use in U.S. Youth Aged 12–15, 2012

July 15, 2014 Comments off

TV Watching and Computer Use in U.S. Youth Aged 12–15, 2012
Source: National Center for Health Statistics

Key findings

Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey, 2012

  • Nearly all (98.5%) youth aged 12–15 reported watching TV daily.
  • More than 9 in 10 (91.1%) youth aged 12–15 reported using the computer daily outside of school.
  • In 2012, 27.0% of youth aged 12–15 had 2 hours or less of TV plus computer use daily.
  • Among youth aged 12–15, girls (80.4%) were more likely to use the computer 2 hours or less daily when compared with boys (69.4%).
  • Fewer non-Hispanic black youth aged 12–15 (53.4%) reported watching 2 hours or less of TV daily than non-Hispanic white (65.8%) and Hispanic (68.7%) youth.

Excessive screen-time behaviors, such as using a computer and watching TV, for more than 2 hours daily have been linked with elevated blood pressure, elevated serum cholesterol, and being overweight or obese among youth (1–3). Additionally, screen-time behavior established in adolescence has been shown to track into adulthood (4). The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-supported Expert Panel and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommend that children limit leisure screen time to 2 hours or less daily (5,6). This report presents national estimates of TV watching and computer use outside of the school day.

Sexting and Sexual Behavior Among Middle School Students

July 3, 2014 Comments off

Sexting and Sexual Behavior Among Middle School Students
Source: Pediatrics

OBJECTIVE:
It is unknown if “sexting” (ie, sending/receiving sexually explicit cell phone text or picture messages) is associated with sexual activity and sexual risk behavior among early adolescents, as has been found for high school students. To date, no published data have examined these relationships exclusively among a probability sample of middle school students.

METHODS:
A probability sample of 1285 students was collected alongside the 2012 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Los Angeles middle schools. Logistic regressions assessed the correlates of sexting behavior and associations between sexting and sexual activity and risk behavior (ie, unprotected sex).

RESULTS:
Twenty percent of students with text-capable cell phone access reported receiving a sext and 5% reported sending a sext. Students who text at least 100 times per day were more likely to report both receiving (odds ratio [OR]: 2.4) and sending (OR: 4.5) sexts and to be sexually active (OR: 4.1). Students who sent sexts (OR: 3.2) and students who received sexts (OR: 7.0) were more likely to report sexual activity. Compared with not being sexually active, excessive texting and receiving sexts were associated with both unprotected sex (ORs: 4.7 and 12.1, respectively) and with condom use (ORs: 3.7 and 5.5, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS:
Because early sexual debut is correlated with higher rates of sexually transmitted infections and teen pregnancies, pediatricians should discuss sexting with young adolescents because this may facilitate conversations about sexually transmitted infection and pregnancy prevention. Sexting and associated risks should be considered for inclusion in middle school sex education curricula.

Dating Violence Among Male and Female Youth Seeking Emergency Department Care

July 3, 2014 Comments off

Dating Violence Among Male and Female Youth Seeking Emergency Department Care
Source: Annals of Emergency Medicine

Study objective
We determine prevalence and correlates of dating violence, dating victimization, and dating aggression among male and female patients aged 14 to 20 years seeking emergency department (ED) care.

Methods
This was a systematic sampling of subjects aged 14 to 20 years seeking care at a single large academic ED between September 2010 and March 2013. Participants completed a computerized, self-administered, cross-sectional survey of demographics, dating violence from physical abuse measures of the Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory, associated behaviors, and ED health service use. Separate analyses were conducted for male and female patients.

Results
Four thousand three hundred eighty-nine youths (86.1% participation rate) were screened, and 4,089 (mean age 17.5 years; 58% female patients) were eligible for analysis. Almost 1 in 5 female patients (n=215; 18.4%) and 1 in 8 male patients (n=212; 12.5%) reported past-year dating violence. Of female patients, 10.6% reported dating victimization and 14.6% dating aggression, whereas of male patients, 11.7% reported dating victimization and 4.9% reported dating aggression. Multivariate analyses showed that variables associated with any male dating violence were black race (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.26; 95% CI 1.54 to 3.32), alcohol misuse (AOR 1.03; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.06), illicit drug use (AOR 2.38; 95% CI 1.68 to 3.38), and depression (AOR 2.13; 95% CI 1.46 to 3.10); any female dating violence was associated with black race (AOR 1.68; 95% CI 1.25 to 2.25), public assistance (AOR 1.64; 95% CI 1.28 to 2.09), grades D and below (AOR 1.62; 95% CI 1.07 to 2.43), alcohol misuse (AOR 1.04; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.07), illicit drug use (AOR 2.85; 95% CI 2.22 to 3.66), depression (AOR 1.86; 95% CI 1.42 to 2.44), and any past year ED visit for intentional injury (AOR 2.64; 95% CI 1.30 to 5.40).

Conclusion
Nearly 1 of 6 male and female patients aged 14 to 20 years and seeking ED care report recent dating violence, and health disparities remain among this population. Dating violence was strongly associated with alcohol, illicit drug use, and depression and correlated with previous ED service use among female youths. ED interventions should consider addressing these associated health conditions, as well as improving screening protocols to address dating violence among male and female youths.

School mental health services: signpost for out-of-school service utilization in adolescents with mental disorders? A nationally representative United States cohort

June 25, 2014 Comments off

School mental health services: signpost for out-of-school service utilization in adolescents with mental disorders? A nationally representative United States cohort
Source: PLoS ONE

Background
School mental health services are important contact points for children and adolescents with mental disorders, but their ability to provide comprehensive treatment is limited. The main objective was to estimate in mentally disordered adolescents of a nationally representative United States cohort the role of school mental health services as guide to mental health care in different out-of-school service sectors.

Methods
Analyses are based on weighted data (N = 6483) from the United States National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (participants’ age: 13–18 years). Lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed using the fully structured WHO CIDI interview, complemented by parent report. Adolescents and parents provided information on mental health service use across multiple sectors, based on the Service Assessment for Children and Adolescents.

Results
School mental health service use predicted subsequent out-of-school service utilization for mental disorders i) in the medical specialty sector, in adolescents with affective (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.01, confidence interval (CI) = 1.77–5.12), anxiety (HR = 3.87, CI = 1.97–7.64), behavior (HR = 2.49, CI = 1.62–3.82), substance use (HR = 4.12, CI = 1.87–9.04), and eating (HR = 10.72, CI = 2.31–49.70) disorders, and any mental disorder (HR = 2.97, CI = 1.94–4.54), and ii) in other service sectors, in adolescents with anxiety (HR = 3.15, CI = 2.17–4.56), behavior (HR = 1.99, CI = 1.29–3.06), and substance use (HR = 2.48, CI = 1.57–3.94) disorders, and any mental disorder (HR = 2.33, CI = 1.54–3.53), but iii) not in the mental health specialty sector.

Conclusions
Our findings indicate that in the United States, school mental health services may serve as guide to out-of-school service utilization for mental disorders especially in the medical specialty sector across various mental disorders, thereby highlighting the relevance of school mental health services in the trajectory of mental care. In light of the missing link between school mental health services and mental health specialty services, the promotion of a stronger collaboration between these sectors should be considered regarding the potential to improve and guarantee adequate mental care at early life stages.

Changes in antidepressant use by young people and suicidal behavior after FDA warnings and media coverage: quasi-experimental study

June 20, 2014 Comments off

Changes in antidepressant use by young people and suicidal behavior after FDA warnings and media coverage: quasi-experimental study
Source: British Medical Journal

Objective
To investigate if the widely publicized warnings in 2003 from the US Food and Drug Administration about a possible increased risk of suicidality with antidepressant use in young people were associated with changes in antidepressant use, suicide attempts, and completed suicides among young people.

Design
Quasi-experimental study assessing changes in outcomes after the warnings, controlling for pre-existing trends.

Setting
Automated healthcare claims data (2000-10) derived from the virtual data warehouse of 11 health plans in the US Mental Health Research Network.

Participants
Study cohorts included adolescents (around 1.1 million), young adults (around 1.4 million), and adults (around 5 million).

Main outcome measures
Rates of antidepressant dispensings, psychotropic drug poisonings (a validated proxy for suicide attempts), and completed suicides.

Results
Trends in antidepressant use and poisonings changed abruptly after the warnings. In the second year after the warnings, relative changes in antidepressant use were −31.0% (95% confidence interval −33.0% to −29.0%) among adolescents, −24.3% (−25.4% to −23.2%) among young adults, and −14.5% (−16.0% to −12.9%) among adults. These reflected absolute reductions of 696, 1216, and 1621 dispensings per 100 000 people among adolescents, young adults, and adults, respectively. Simultaneously, there were significant, relative increases in psychotropic drug poisonings in adolescents (21.7%, 95% confidence interval 4.9% to 38.5%) and young adults (33.7%, 26.9% to 40.4%) but not among adults (5.2%, −6.5% to 16.9%). These reflected absolute increases of 2 and 4 poisonings per 100 000 people among adolescents and young adults, respectively (approximately 77 additional poisonings in our cohort of 2.5 million young people). Completed suicides did not change for any age group.

Conclusions
Safety warnings about antidepressants and widespread media coverage decreased antidepressant use, and there were simultaneous increases in suicide attempts among young people. It is essential to monitor and reduce possible unintended consequences of FDA warnings and media reporting.

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2013

June 13, 2014 Comments off

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2013 (PDF)
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC)
From press release:

Cigarette smoking rates among high school students have dropped to the lowest levels since the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) began in 1991, according to the 2013 results released today by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

By achieving a teen smoking rate of 15.7 percent, the United States has met its national Healthy People 2020External Web Site Icon objective of reducing adolescent cigarette use to 16 percent or less.

Despite this progress, reducing overall tobacco use remains a significant challenge. For example, other national surveys show increases in hookah and e-cigarette use. In the YRBS, no change in smokeless tobacco use was observed among adolescents since 1999, and the decline in cigar use has slowed in recent years, with cigar use now at 23 percent among male high school seniors.

Fact Sheet: American Teens’ Sexual and Reproductive Health

June 11, 2014 Comments off

Fact Sheet: American Teens’ Sexual and Reproductive Health
Source: Guttmacher Institute

•Fewer than 2% of adolescents have had sex by the time they reach their 12th birthday. But adolescence is a time of rapid change. Only 16% of teens have had sex by age 15, compared with one-third of those aged 16, nearly half (48%) of those aged 17, 61% of 18-year-olds and 71% of 19-year-olds. There is little difference by gender in the timing of first sex.
•On average, young people have sex for the first time at about age 17, but they do not marry until their mid-20s.[3] This means that young adults may be at increased risk for unintended pregnancy and STIs for nearly a decade or longer.
•Teens are waiting longer to have sex than they did in the recent past. In 2006–2008, some 11% of never-married females aged 15–19 and 14% of never-married males in that age-group had had sex before age 15, compared with 19% and 21%, respectively, in 1995.

CRS — Teenage Pregnancy Prevention: Statistics and Programs

June 3, 2014 Comments off

Teenage Pregnancy Prevention: Statistics and Programs (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via Federation of American Scientists)

In 2012, U.S. teen births accounted for 7.8% of all births and 17.1% of all nonmarital births. The birth rate for U.S. teenagers (ages 15 through 19) increased in 2006 and 2007 after a steady decline since 1991. However, in each of 2008 through 2012, the teen birth rate dropped below the 2006 teen birth rate, reversing the two-year upward trend. Although the birth rate for U.S. teens has dropped in 21 of the past 23 years, it remains higher than the teen birth rate of most industrialized nations. Preventing teen pregnancy is generally considered a priority among policy makers and the public because of its high economic, social, and health costs for teen parents and their families.

Twelve Ways to Fix the Youth Unemployment Crisis

May 23, 2014 Comments off

Twelve Ways to Fix the Youth Unemployment Crisis
Source: Brookings Institution

The Great Recession was particularly devastating for America’s young workers. Nearly 6 million 16- to 24-year-olds neither have jobs nor are pursuing a degree. This disconnect can have a “scarring effect,” which can negatively impact their long-term employment prospects and lifetime earnings. In her new paper Elisabeth Jacobs analyzes the crisis of youth unemployment and America’s sprawling workforce development system. She makes recommendations for how to improve America’s higher education systems, apprenticeship programs, paid volunteering programs, primary and secondary education, and tax policy.

Primary Care Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Illicit Drug and Nonmedical Pharmaceutical Use in Children and Adolescents: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

May 7, 2014 Comments off

Primary Care Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Illicit Drug and Nonmedical Pharmaceutical Use in Children and Adolescents: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement
Source: Annals of Internal Medicine

Description:
Update of the 2008 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for illicit drug use.

Methods:
The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on interventions to help adolescents who have never used drugs to remain abstinent and interventions to help adolescents who are using drugs but do not meet criteria for a substance use disorder to reduce or stop their use.

Population:
This recommendation applies to children and adolescents younger than age 18 years who have not been diagnosed with a substance use disorder.

Recommendation:
The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of primary care–based behavioral interventions to prevent or reduce illicit drug or nonmedical pharmaceutical use in children and adolescents. (I statement)

White House — Fact Sheet: Not Alone – Protecting Students from Sexual Assault

April 30, 2014 Comments off

Fact Sheet: Not Alone – Protecting Students from Sexual Assault
Source: White House

One in five women is sexually assaulted while in college. Most often, it happens her freshman or sophomore year. In the great majority of cases, it’s by someone she knows – and also most often, she does not report what happened. And though fewer, men, too, are victimized.

The Administration is committed to putting an end to this violence. That’s why the President established the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault on January 22, 2014, with a mandate to strengthen federal enforcement efforts and provide schools with additional tools to combat sexual assault on their campuses.

Today, the Task Force is announcing a series of actions to: (1) identify the scope of the problem on college campuses, (2) help prevent campus sexual assault, (3) help schools respond effectively when a student is assaulted, and (4) improve, and make more transparent, the federal government’s enforcement efforts. We will continue to pursue additional executive or legislative actions in the future.

Conflict and Agency among Sex Workers and Pimps: A Closer Look at Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking

April 28, 2014 Comments off

Conflict and Agency among Sex Workers and Pimps: A Closer Look at Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking
Source: Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science

The dominant understanding in the United States of the relationship between pimps and minors involved in commercial sex is that it is one of “child sex trafficking,” in which pimps lure girls into prostitution, then control, exploit, and brutalize them. Such narratives of oppression typically depend on postarrest testimonials by former prostitutes and pimps in punishment and rescue institutions. In contrast, this article presents data collected from active pimps, underage prostitutes, and young adult sex workers to demonstrate the complexity of pimp-prostitute dyads and interrogate conventional stereotypes about teenage prostitution. A holistic understanding of the factors that push minors into sex work and keep them there is needed to design and implement effective policy and services for this population.

Vital Signs: Preventing Pregnancies in Younger Teens

April 24, 2014 Comments off

Vital Signs: Preventing Pregnancies in Younger Teens
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Teen births in the US have declined over the last 20 years to the lowest level ever recorded, but still more than 86,000 teens ages 15 to 17 gave birth in 2012. Giving birth during the teen years has been linked with increased medical risks and emotional, social, and financial costs to the mother and her children. Becoming a teen mom affects whether the mother finishes high school, goes to college, and the type of job she will get, especially for younger teens ages 15 to 17. More can be done to prevent younger teens from becoming pregnant, particularly in health care.

  • Doctors, nurses, and other health care professionals can
  • Provide confidential, respectful, and culturally appropriate services that meet the needs of teen clients.
  • Encourage teens who are not sexually active to continue to wait.
  • Offer sexually active teens a broad range of contraceptive methods and encourage them to use the most effective methods.
  • Counsel teens about the importance of condom use to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS.

Recent Declines in Adolescent Inhalant Use

April 18, 2014 Comments off

Recent Declines in Adolescent Inhalant Use (PDF)
Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

+ In 2012, almost 650,000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 used inhalants in the past year.

+ Past year inhalant use among adolescents generally has been declining since about 2006; most recently, rates decreased from 3.3 percent in 2011 to 2.6 percent in 2012.

+ Rates of past year inhalant use among adolescents decreased between 2011 and 2012 for several demographic groups, including males, whites, those living in the Northeast and West, and those living in metropolitan areas.

Social Host Liability for Underage Drinking Statutes

April 16, 2014 Comments off

Social Host Liability for Underage Drinking Statutes
Source: National Conference of State Legislatures

Enacted in 1984, the National Minimum Drinking Age Act set the minimum drinking age at 21. To comply with federal law, states prohibit persons under 21 years of age from purchasing or publicly possessing alcoholic beverages.

According to the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, about 9.3 million persons aged 12 to 20 (24.3 percent of this age group) reported drinking alcohol in the past month and an estimated 11.2 percent of persons aged 12 or older drove under the influence of alcohol at least once in the past year.

In an effort to combat underage drinking, state legislators have enacted laws that assign responsibility to adults who allow minors to drink alcohol at social gatherings. Thirty-one states allow social hosts to be civilly liable for injuries or damages caused by underage drinkers. Twenty-six states and the Virgin Islands have criminal penalties for adults who host or permit parties with underage drinking to occur in the adults’ homes or in premises under the adults’ control. These social host statutory provisions do not apply to licensed establishments such as restaurants, bars, and liquor stores, which are covered by dram shop laws.

Trends in Unwanted Online Experiences and Sexting — Final Report

April 14, 2014 Comments off

Trends in Unwanted Online Experiences and Sexting — Final Report (PDF)
Source: Crimes Against Children Research Center

This bulletin summarizes findings from the Third Youth Internet Safety Survey (YISS‐3). Topics include youth reports of unwanted sexual solicitations, online harassment, unwanted exposure to sexual material, and “sexting.”

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