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Archive for the ‘adolescents’ Category

Distraction and Teen Crashes: Even Worse than We Thought

March 25, 2015 Comments off

Distraction and Teen Crashes: Even Worse than We Thought
Source: AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety

The most comprehensive research ever conducted into crash videos of teen drivers has found significant evidence that distracted driving is likely much more serious a problem than previously known, according to the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety. The unprecedented video analysis finds that distraction was a factor in nearly 6 out of 10 moderate-to-severe teen crashes, which is four times as many as official estimates based on police reports.

Fast Times During Spring Breaks: Are Traffic Fatalities Another Consequence?

March 20, 2015 Comments off

Fast Times During Spring Breaks: Are Traffic Fatalities Another Consequence?
Source: Economic Inquiry

Every year in the United States, millions of college students travel for spring break, spending billions of dollars. We examine a potential adverse consequence of spring break that has received little attention in the literature—traffic safety. In particular, we estimate the impact of spring break season on fatal passenger vehicle crashes. Using daily county-level longitudinal data on traffic fatalities in popular spring break destinations from 1982 to 2011, we conduct separate analyses by age groups, license status, and alcohol involvement in the crash. Our findings indicate that passenger vehicle fatalities are significantly overrepresented during the spring break season. (JEL I12, I18, H73)

Public Health Implications of Raising the Minimum Age of Legal Access to Tobacco Products (2015)

March 19, 2015 Comments off

Public Health Implications of Raising the Minimum Age of Legal Access to Tobacco Products (2015)
Source: Institute of Medicine

Tobacco use by adolescents and young adults poses serious concerns. Nearly all adults who have ever smoked daily first tried a cigarette before 26 years of age. Current cigarette use among adults is highest among persons aged 21 to 25 years. The parts of the brain most responsible for cognitive and psychosocial maturity continue to develop and change through young adulthood, and adolescent brains are uniquely vulnerable to the effects of nicotine.

At the request of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Public Health Implications of Raising the Minimum Age of Legal Access to Tobacco Products considers the likely public health impact of raising the minimum age for purchasing tobacco products. The report reviews the existing literature on tobacco use patterns, developmental biology and psychology, health effects of tobacco use, and the current landscape regarding youth access laws, including minimum age laws and their enforcement. Based on this literature, the report makes conclusions about the likely effect of raising the minimum age to 19, 21, and 25 years on tobacco use initiation. The report also quantifies the accompanying public health outcomes based on findings from two tobacco use simulation models. According to the report, raising the minimum age of legal access to tobacco products, particularly to ages 21 and 25, will lead to substantial reductions in tobacco use, improve the health of Americans across the lifespan, and save lives. Public Health Implications of Raising the Minimum Age of Legal Access to Tobacco Products will be a valuable reference for federal policy makers and state and local health departments and legislators.

Improving mental health services for young people

March 19, 2015 Comments off

Improving mental health services for young people
Source: Department of Health

Future in mind – promoting, protecting and improving our children and young people’s mental health and wellbeing’ makes a number of proposals the government wishes to see by 2020. These include:

  • tackling stigma and improving attitudes to mental illness
  • introducing more access and waiting time standards for services
  • establishing ‘one stop shop’ support services in the community
  • improving access for children and young people who are particularly vulnerable

The report sets out how much of this can be achieved through better working between the NHS, local authorities, voluntary and community services, schools and other local services. It also makes it clear that many of these changes can be achieved by working differently, rather than needing significant investment.

State Policies Concerning LGBTQ Youth

March 17, 2015 Comments off

State Policies Concerning LGBTQ Youth (PDF)
Source: Center for the Study of Social Policy

Areas Covered: Public accommodations, social services (general), child welfare (specific services and programs), foster care (including child care centers, housing and training), juvenile detention/services, school and educational facilities and social worker guidelines

Dental Caries and Sealant Prevalence in Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2011–2012

March 13, 2015 Comments off

Dental Caries and Sealant Prevalence in Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2011–2012
Source: National Center for Health Statistics

Key findings
Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011–2012

  • Approximately 23% of children aged 2–5 years had dental caries in primary teeth.
  • Untreated tooth decay in primary teeth among children aged 2–8 was twice as high for Hispanic and non-Hispanic black children compared with non-Hispanic white children.
  • Among those aged 6–11, 27% of Hispanic children had any dental caries in permanent teeth compared with nearly 18% of non-Hispanic white and Asian children.
  • About three in five adolescents aged 12–19 had experienced dental caries in permanent teeth, and 15% had untreated tooth decay.
  • Dental sealants were more prevalent for non-Hispanic white children (44%) compared with non-Hispanic black and Asian children (31% each) aged 6–11.

Suicide Trends Among Persons Aged 10–24 Years — United States, 1994–2012

March 9, 2015 Comments off

Suicide Trends Among Persons Aged 10–24 Years — United States, 1994–2012
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC)

Suicide is the second leading cause of death among persons aged 10–24 years in the United States and accounted for 5,178 deaths in this age group in 2012 (1). Firearm, suffocation (including hanging), and poisoning (including drug overdose) are the three most common mechanisms of suicide in the United States. Previous reports have noted that trends in suicide rates vary by mechanism and by age group in the United States (2), with increasing rates of suffocation suicides among young persons (3–5). To test whether this increase is continuing and to determine whether it varies by demographic subgroups among persons aged 10–24 years, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System mortality data for the period 1994–2012. Trends in suicide rates were examined by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, region of residence, and mechanism of suicide. Results of the analysis indicated that, during 1994–2012, suicide rates by suffocation increased, on average, by 6.7% and 2.2% annually for females and males, respectively. Increases in suffocation suicide rates occurred across demographic and geographic subgroups during this period. Clinicians, hotline staff and others who work with young persons need to be aware of current trends in suffocation suicides in this group so that they can accurately assess risk and educate families. Media coverage of suicide incidents and clusters should follow established guidelines to avoid exacerbating risk for “suicide contagion” among vulnerable young persons.* Suicide contagion is a process by which exposure to the suicide or suicidal behavior of one or more persons influences others who are already vulnerable and thinking about suicide to attempt or die by suicide. Early prevention strategies are needed to reduce the likelihood of young persons developing suicidal thoughts and behavior.

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