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Divorce among physicians and other healthcare professionals in the United States: analysis of census survey data

February 20, 2015 Comments off

Divorce among physicians and other healthcare professionals in the United States: analysis of census survey data
Source: British Medical Journal (BMJ)

Objectives
To estimate the prevalence and incidence of divorce among US physicians compared with other healthcare professionals, lawyers, and non-healthcare professionals, and to analyze factors associated with divorce among physicians.

Design
Retrospective analysis of nationally representative surveys conducted by the US census, 2008-13.

Setting
United States.

Participants
48 881 physicians, 10 086 dentists, 13 883 pharmacists, 159 044 nurses, 18 920 healthcare executives, 59 284 lawyers, and 6 339 310 other non-healthcare professionals.

Main outcome measures
Logistic models of divorce adjusted for age, sex, race, annual income, weekly hours worked, number of years since marriage, calendar year, and state of residence. Divorce outcomes included whether an individual had ever been divorced (divorce prevalence) or became divorced in the past year (divorce incidence).

Results
After adjustment for covariates, the probability of being ever divorced (or divorce prevalence) among physicians evaluated at the mean value of other covariates was 24.3% (95% confidence interval 23.8% to 24.8%); dentists, 25.2% (24.1% to 26.3%); pharmacists, 22.9% (22.0% to 23.8%); nurses, 33.0% (32.6% to 33.3%); healthcare executives, 30.9% (30.1% to 31.8%); lawyers, 26.9% (26.4% to 27.4%); and other non-healthcare professionals, 35.0% (34.9% to 35.1%). Similarly, physicians were less likely than those in most other occupations to divorce in the past year. In multivariable analysis among physicians, divorce prevalence was greater among women (odds ratio 1.51, 95% confidence interval 1.40 to 1.63). In analyses stratified by physician sex, greater weekly work hours were associated with increased divorce prevalence only for female physicians.

Conclusions
Divorce among physicians is less common than among non-healthcare workers and several health professions. Female physicians have a substantially higher prevalence of divorce than male physicians, which may be partly attributable to a differential effect of hours worked on divorce.

See also: Doctors and divorce (editorial)

“She said yes!” – Liminality and Engagement Announcements on Twitter

February 19, 2015 Comments off

“She said yes!” – Liminality and Engagement Announcements on Twitter (PDF)
Source: Georgia Institute of Technology

Social media sites enable people to share milestones in their lives, but relatively little is understood about how and why they are used in the context of major life changes. We utilize social media as a lens to explore the behavior of individuals undergoing a major life transition – those who use Twitter to announce that they are engaged to be married. Inspired by the anthropological concept “liminality”, we identify behavior manifested in Twitter that characterize this transitional phase. A large-scale quantitative study of Twitter postings of engaged individuals spanning two years shows that this phase marks notable changes in behavior that can be gleaned from social media. A follow-up survey provides qualitative explanations for the statistical analysis. Our findings reveal how individuals may be utilizing social media in the context of a major milestone in life, and bear implications for social media design and applications.

Hat tip: http://researchbuzz.me/

UK — Measuring National Well-being – Our Relationships, 2015

February 17, 2015 Comments off

Measuring National Well-being – Our Relationships, 2015
Source: Office for National Statistics

This article focuses on people’s relationships with both family and friends. However, these relationships do not operate in isolation, and relationships within the wider community and the workplace are also analysed. The ONS Measuring National Well-being programme aims to produce accepted and trusted measures of the well-being of the nation – how the UK as a whole is doing.

A Diamond is Forever’ and Other Fairy Tales: The Relationship between Wedding Expenses and Marriage Duration

February 12, 2015 Comments off

A Diamond is Forever’ and Other Fairy Tales: The Relationship between Wedding Expenses and Marriage Duration
Source: Social Science Research Network

In this paper, we evaluate the association between wedding spending and marriage duration using data from a survey of over 3,000 ever-married persons in the United States. Controlling for a number of demographic and relationship characteristics, we find evidence that marriage duration is inversely associated with spending on the engagement ring and wedding ceremony.

Who’s Your Mommy/Daddy? Citizenship Policy Evolves with Medical Technology, CRS Legal Sidebar (January 27, 2015)

February 11, 2015 Comments off

Who’s Your Mommy/Daddy? Citizenship Policy Evolves with Medical Technology, CRS Legal Sidebar (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via Federation of American Scientists)

Who can be the foreign-born child of a U.S. citizen? Once upon a time, when Congress enacted the birthright citizenship laws (last amended in 1994), the answer was relatively simple. U.S. citizens needed to meet certain requirements to transmit U.S. citizenship to their non-adopted children born abroad; other requirements applied to international adoptions. The citizenship statutes do not define who is a biological or natural parent or child for purposes of citizenship transmission because there was no need to do so when they were enacted. However, developments in modern reproductive technology and its increased accessibility to and use by couples as a method for having children have complicated the legal definition of the parent-child relationship. Furthermore, contemporaneous changes in the legal definition of what constitutes a marriage or marital-type relationship have additionally complicated the legal definition of a parent-child relationship or family unit. Legal commentators and immigration and family advocates seem to agree that the federal laws have not kept pace with these technological and legal developments. The federal government has attempted to resolve the conundrum posed by the impact of reproductive technology on certain citizenship laws by changing its interpretation of the parent-child relationship and its method of determining the existence of this relationship.

CRS — Same-Sex Marriage: A Legal Overview (January 30, 2015)

February 10, 2015 Comments off

Same-Sex Marriage: A Legal Overview (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via Federation of American Scientists)

Same-sex marriage has engendered heated debate throughout the country. There is no federal same-sex marriage prohibition after the Supreme Court’s decision in United States v. Windsor, which struck down the portion of the Defense of Marriage Act that defined marriage as a union between a man and a woman. However, many states have passed statutes or constitutional amendments that prohibit same-sex couples from marrying, and that deny recognition of samesex marriages that were legally formed in other states. These state same-sex marriage bans may impact gay individuals’ rights and claims to state and federal benefits. For example, such restrictions may affect tax liabilities and entitlements to Social Security.

Until recently, state same-sex marriage bans were seemingly insulated from Fourteenth Amendment challenges in federal courts because of a 1972 Supreme Court decision, Baker v. Nelson, wherein the Court summarily dismissed such a challenge for lack of a substantial federal question. However, in recent years, some courts have held that Supreme Court decisions subsequent to Baker—namely, Romer v. Evans, Lawrence v. Texas, and Windsor—have rendered Baker non-binding. These courts have thus considered whether state same-sex marriage bans violate the Fourteenth Amendment.

IRS — Accumulation and Distribution of Individual Retirement Arrangements, 2011–2012

January 28, 2015 Comments off

Accumulation and Distribution of Individual Retirement Arrangements, 2011–2012
Source: Internal Revenue Service

Twelve tables presenting statistics for taxpayers with individual retirement arrangements (six each for Tax Years 2011 and 2012) are now available. The tables are organized by adjusted gross income, age, and marital status. Information for both traditional and Roth IRAs is provided.

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