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Archive for the ‘marriage and divorce’ Category

Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men?

December 22, 2014 Comments off

Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men?
Source: Institute for the Study of Labor

Substitutes for marital sexual gratification may impact the decision to marry. Proliferation of the Internet has made pornography an increasingly low-cost substitute. We investigate the effect of Internet usage, and of pornography consumption specifically, on the marital status of young men. We show that increased Internet usage is negatively associated with marriage formation. Pornography consumption specifically has an even stronger effect. Instrumental variables and a number of robustness checks suggest that the effect is causal.

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2013 Demographics: Profile of the Military Community

December 8, 2014 Comments off

2013 Demographics: Profile of the Military Community (PDF)
Source: U.S. Department of Defense

Overview of Military Personnel

The total number of military personnel is over 3.6 million strong, including DoD Active Duty military personnel (1,370,329); DHS’s Active Duty Coast Guard members (40,420); DoD Ready Reserve and DHS Coast Guard Reserve members (1,102,419); members of the Retired Reserve (214,938) and Standby Reserve (14,408); and DoD appropriated and non-appropriated fund civilian personnel (874,054). DoD’s Active Duty and DHS’s Coast Guard Active Duty members comprise the largest portion of the military force (39.0%), followed by Ready Reserve members (30.5%) and DoD civilian personnel (24.2%).

Four-in-Ten Couples are Saying “I Do,” Again

November 17, 2014 Comments off

Four-in-Ten Couples are Saying “I Do,” Again
Source: Pew Research Social & Demographic Trends

In 2013, fully four-in-ten new marriages included at least one partner who had been married before, and two-in-ten new marriages were between people who had both previously stepped down the aisle, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of newly released data from the U.S. Census Bureau.1

This snapshot is only the latest manifestation of a decades-long rise in the number of Americans who have ever remarried. All told, almost 42 million adults in the U.S. have been married more than once, up from 22 million in 1980. The number of remarried adults has tripled since 1960, when there were 14 million.

Can Marriage Conquer “Consular Nonreviewability” for a Spouse’s Visa Denial?, CRS Legal Sidebar (October 30, 2014)

November 3, 2014 Comments off

Can Marriage Conquer “Consular Nonreviewability” for a Spouse’s Visa Denial?, CRS Legal Sidebar (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via Federation of American Scientists)

In essence, this is the question that the U.S. Supreme Court has agreed to answer by taking the case of Kerry v. Din. In Kerry, Fauzia Din, a U.S. citizen, asks the Court to recognize marriage as a constitutionally protected interest of a U.S. citizen which can trigger limited judicial review of her spouse’s visa denial and require the government to identify the specific laws and facts that are grounds for denying the visa. A Supreme Court ruling favorable to Ms. Din would establish an exception, based on a spousal constitutional interest, to the general rule of consular nonreviewability. This is the principle that a decision by a Department of State (DOS) consular officer to grant or refuse a visa is not subject to review by the courts. Regardless of the outcome, a Supreme Court decision would resolve an apparent conflict between the decision in Din v. Kerry by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit and the prior decisions of other federal appellate circuits about whether a U.S. citizen’s marriage is a constitutionally protected interest implicated by a visa denial, an interest which only the Ninth Circuit has recognized to date. A Supreme Court ruling could also clarify the level of detail and specificity the government is required to disclose about a visa denial. In federal appellate cases before Din v. Kerry, the government apparently had given visa applicants more specific information explaining a visa denial, although it is not clear whether this level of detail was legally required.

Husbands’ job loss and wives’ labor force participation during economic downturns: are all recessions the same?

October 8, 2014 Comments off

Husbands’ job loss and wives’ labor force participation during economic downturns: are all recessions the same?
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

Earlier research showed an added-worker effect for wives when their husbands stopped working during the Great Recession (December 2007–June 2009) but not when husbands stopped working in recent years of prosperity (2004–2005). By including one recession per decade for the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s, this article builds upon that research by using Current Population Survey data to compare wives’ labor force responses to their husbands stopping work across three recessions to determine whether wives’ employment responses during the Great Recession differed from those during earlier recessions. Additionally, we hypothesize motivations for wives entering the labor force and consider the occupations they enter. Across all three recessions included in this study, wives entered the labor force more often when their husband stopped working. More nuanced analyses show that during both the Great Recession and the 1990–1991 recession, wives were more likely to seek work and find a job if their husband became not employed, while in the 1981–1982 recession wives were more likely to seek work but less likely to find a job. We also find that wives who started a job during the Great Recession or the 1990–1991 recession were more likely to enter service occupations than professional or managerial occupations, but this was not the case during the 1981–1982 recession. Furthermore, during the three recessions, college-educated wives who started a job were more likely than wives with less education to enter professional and managerial occupations relative to service occupations or other occupations. However, these newly employed college-educated wives were somewhat more likely to enter service or other occupations than their college-educated counterparts who were employed continuously.

Mapping the Marriage Market for Young Adults

October 3, 2014 Comments off

Mapping the Marriage Market for Young Adults
Source: Pew Research Social & Demographic Trends

The share of American adults who have never been married is at a record high (20%), and young adults are at the leading edge of this national trend. For those in the “marriage market,” location matters. Pew Research Center has compiled census data on the number of unmarried men and women ages 25 to 34 in many of the nation’s metropolitan areas. We’ve also sorted the data by employment status. Finding a spouse with a steady job is a high priority for 78% of never-married women who may want to get married in the future(and 46% of men), though the pool of employed young men has shrunk.

CBO — Labor Force Participation Elasticities of Women and Secondary Earners within Married Couples

October 2, 2014 Comments off

Labor Force Participation Elasticities of Women and Secondary Earners within Married Couples
Source: Congressional Budget Office

Labor supply elasticities are often used to evaluate the effect of changes in tax rates on the total hours worked in the economy. Historically, married women have tended to have larger labor supply elasticities than their spouses because they were the secondary earners in a couple. However, those elasticities have fallen sharply in recent decades—a decline that has been attributed to greater labor force participation rates and increased career orientation among married women. Indeed, a growing share of wives earn more than their husbands, raising the question whether a person’s sex or relative earnings is the relevant factor affecting the sensitivity of participation to wage and tax rates. In this paper, we use administrative data to examine whether women or lower-earning spouses have larger labor supply elasticities. We present descriptive evidence on the share of women who are the primary earner and the frequency of transitions into and out of employment by sex and relative earnings. We find that lower earning spouses are more likely to start and stop working than women, except when a couple starts a family. We then model an individual’s work decision using a dynamic probit model to isolate the labor supply response to changes in tax rates. We estimate that the participation elasticity with respect to the net-of-tax rate of the secondary earner—the spouse who typically has lower earnings—is about 0.03, slightly higher than that for women, though both of these overall elasticities are small. Participation elasticities with respect to income for both women and secondary earners are effectively zero. Our estimates are robust to several alternative models, including alternative specifications of secondary earner.

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