Archive for the ‘Mexico’ Category

National Funding of Road Infrastructure

July 10, 2014 Comments off

National Funding of Road Infrastructure
Source: Law Library of Congress

This report examines the funding of roads and highways in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, England and Wales, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, South Africa, and Sweden. It provides a description of the infrastructure in the jurisdiction, information on the ownership and responsibility of the roads, and taxes or other ways of collecting money to fund the nation’s infrastructure. If applicable, a discussion of reforms or new initiatives is examined.

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Dramatic Surge in the Arrival of Unaccompanied Children Has Deep Roots and No Simple Solutions

June 13, 2014 Comments off

Dramatic Surge in the Arrival of Unaccompanied Children Has Deep Roots and No Simple Solutions
Source: Migration Policy Institute

The phenomenon of unaccompanied children arriving at the U.S.-Mexico border, typically after an arduous and often dangerous journey through Central America and Mexico, has reached a crisis proportion, with a 90 percent spike in arrivals from last year and predictions of future increases ahead. While the immediate humanitarian situation has galvanized the attention of the Obama administration, policymakers, and the country at large, it is painfully clear that there are no simple solutions, whether in the short or medium term, to address the complex set of push and pull factors driving the rise in arrivals of unaccompanied alien children (UACs).

On the Distributed Costs of Drug-Related Homicides

May 27, 2014 Comments off

On the Distributed Costs of Drug-Related Homicides
Source: Center for Global Development

Reliable estimates of the effects of violence on economic outcomes are scarce. We exploit the manyfold increase in homicides in 2008-2011 in Mexico resulting from its war on organized drug traffickers to estimate the effect of drug-related homicides on house prices. We use an unusually rich dataset that provides national coverage on house prices and homicides and exploit within-municipality variations. We find that the impact of violence on housing prices is borne entirely by the poor sectors of the population. An increase in homicides equivalent to one standard deviation leads to a 3% decrease in the price of low-income housing. In spite of this large burden on the poor, the willingness to pay in order to reverse the increase in drug-related crime is not high. We estimate it to be approximately 0.1% of Mexico’s GDP.

Country Analysis Brief: Mexico

April 28, 2014 Comments off

Country Analysis Brief: Mexico
Source: Energy Information Administration

Mexico is one of the 10 largest oil producers in the world, the third-largest in the Americas after the United States and Canada, and an important partner in the U.S. energy trade. However, Mexico’s oil production has steadily decreased since 2005 as a result of natural production declines from Cantarell and other large offshore fields. The rate of total production decline has abated in past several years. In December 2013, in an effort to address the declines of its domestic oil production, the Mexican government enacted constitutional reforms that ended the 75-year monopoly of Petroleós Mexicanos (PEMEX), the state-owned oil company.

Oil is a crucial component of Mexico’s economy. The oil sector generated 13% of the country’s export earnings in 2013, a proportion that has declined over the past decade, according to Mexico’s central bank. More significantly, earnings from the oil industry (including taxes and direct payments from PEMEX) accounted for about 32% of total government revenues in 2013. Declines in oil production have a direct impact on the country’s economic output and on the government’s fiscal health, particularly as refined product consumption and import needs grow.

CRS — NAFTA at 20: Overview and Trade Effects

April 25, 2014 Comments off

NAFTA at 20: Overview and Trade Effects (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via Federation of American Scientists)

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) entered into force on January 1, 1994. The agreement was signed by President George H.W. Bush on December 17, 1992, and approved by Congress on November 20, 1993. The NAFTA Implementation Act was signed into law by President William J. Clinton on December 8, 1993 (P.L. 103-182). The overall economic impact of NAFTA is difficult to measure since trade and investment trends are influenced by numerous other economic variables, such as economic growth, inflation, and currency fluctuations. The agreement may have accelerated the trade liberalization that was already taking place, but many of these changes may have taken place with or without an agreement. Nevertheless, NAFTA is significant because it was the most comprehensive free trade agreement (FTA) negotiated at the time and contained several groundbreaking provisions. A legacy of the agreement is that it has served as a template or model for the new generation of FTAs that the United States later negotiated and it also served as a template for certain provisions in multilateral trade negotiations as part of the Uruguay Round.

A tale of two Mexicos: Growth and prosperity in a two-speed economy

March 28, 2014 Comments off

A tale of two Mexicos: Growth and prosperity in a two-speed economy
Source: McKinsey & Company

In the 20 years since the North American Free Trade Agreement went into effect, Mexico has become a global manufacturing leader and a prime destination for investors and multinationals around the world. Yet the country’s economic growth continues to disappoint, and the rise in living standards has stalled. The root cause is a chronic productivity problem that stems from the economy’s two-speed nature. A modern, fast-growing Mexico, with globally competitive multinationals and cutting-edge manufacturing plants, exists amid a far larger group of traditional Mexican enterprises that do not contribute to growth. These two Mexicos are moving in opposite directions. The largest companies are raising productivity by an impressive 5.8 percent a year, while the productivity of small, slow-growing enterprises is falling by 6.5 percent a year. And with employment growing faster in the traditional Mexico, more labor is shifting to low-productivity work.

Value of 2013 U.S.-NAFTA Freight on Surface Modes Rose from 2012; Declined on Air and Vessel

March 25, 2014 Comments off

Value of 2013 U.S.-NAFTA Freight on Surface Modes Rose from 2012; Declined on Air and Vessel
Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

Three of the five transportation modes – the surface transportation modes of truck, rail and pipeline – carried more U.S. trade with North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) partners Canada and Mexico by value in 2013 than in 2012 while the value of freight transported by air and vessel decreased, according to the U.S. Department of Transportation’s Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) (Figure 1 and Table 2).

Trade by pipeline also grew the most from year-to-year, 7.7 percent, partly due to the value of petroleum products, as the overall value on all modes rose 2.6 percent. Smaller increases took place on rail (4.6 percent) and truck (2.2) while vessel trade fell for the second consecutive year (-2.4) and air trade declined for the third straight year (-1.0) (Tables 1, 2).

Topics in Migration Research (Mexico and Germany)

March 12, 2014 Comments off

Topics in Migration Research
Source: RAND Corporation

With respective emigrant and immigrant stocks that are among the largest in the world, Mexico and Germany are affected by migration like few other countries are. They also exemplify that migratory movements need not be permanent, but are also often less temporary than initially assumed. This dissertation explores topics related to the determinants and consequences of migration in these two countries.

CRS — The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Negotiations and Issues for Congress (updated)

February 19, 2014 Comments off

The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Negotiations and Issues for Congress (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via National Agricultural Law Center)

The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) is a proposed regional free trade agreement (FTA) being negotiated among the United States, Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, and Vietnam. U.S. negotiators and others describe and envision the TPP as a “comprehensive and high-standard” FTA that aims to liberalize trade in nearly all goods and services and include commitments beyond those currently established in the World Trade Organization (WTO). The broad outline of an agreement was announced on the sidelines of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) ministerial in November 2011, in Honolulu, HI. If concluded as envisioned, the TPP potentially could eliminate tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade and investment among the parties and could serve as a template for a future trade pact among APEC members and potentially other countries. Congress has a direct interest in the negotiations, both through influencing U.S. negotiating positions with the executive branch, and by passing legislation to implement any resulting agreement.

CRS — Mexico: Background and U.S. Relations

February 11, 2014 Comments off

Mexico: Background and U.S. Relations (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via Federation of American Scientists)

Congress has maintained significant interest in neighboring Mexico, a close ally and top trade partner whose political and economic situation has significant ramifications for the United States. On December 1, 2012, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) retook the Mexican presidency after 12 years in the opposition. Analysts are divided on how differently PRI President Enrique Peña Nieto will govern than his PRI predecessors who ruled Mexico from 1929 to 2000. Supporters maintain that Peña Nieto heads a “new PRI” government that is free from corruption and is enacting reforms that proved elusive for his two National Action Party (PAN) predecessors. Skeptics question the government’s commitment to transparency and human rights and whether the reforms that have been enacted will be implemented effectively.

President Peña Nieto’s first year in office has brought mixed results for Mexico. The economy faltered (GDP growth fell from 3.7% in 2012 to 1.2% in 2013) and violent crime remained elevated. Nevertheless, Peña Nieto’s “Pact for Mexico” agreement with the conservative PAN and leftist Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) facilitated the passage of significant financial, education, telecommunications, and fiscal reforms. Although the PRD recently withdrew from the Pact, Peña Nieto ended the year on a high note, signing historic constitutional reforms to open Mexico’s energy sector to private investment on December 20, 2013.

See also: Status of Mexican Trucks in the United States: Frequently Asked Questions (PDF)

December Issue of International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health Now Available

February 4, 2014 Comments off

December Issue of International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health Now Available
Source: Guttmacher Institute
Articles include:

  • Documenting the Individual- and Household-Level Cost of Unsafe Abortion in Uganda
  • Understanding Couples’ Relationship Quality And Contraceptive Use in Kumasi, Ghana
  • Consumer Perspectives on a Pericoital Contraceptive Pill In India and Uganda
  • The Oportunidades Conditional Cash Transfer Program: Effects on Pregnancy and Contraceptive Use Among Young Rural Women in Mexico
  • Reproduction, Functional Autonomy and Changing Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence Within Marriage in Rural India

OECD Review of Fisheries: Country Statistics 2013

January 13, 2014 Comments off

OECD Review of Fisheries: Country Statistics 2013
Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

Fisheries (capture fisheries and aquaculture) supply the world each year with millions of tonnes of fish (including, notably, fish, molluscs and crustaceans). Fisheries as well as ancillary activities also provide livelihoods and income. The fishery sector contributes to development and growth in many countries, playing an important role for food security, poverty reduction, employment and trade.

This publication contains statistics on fisheries from 2005 to 2012. Data provided concern fishing fleet capacity, employment in fisheries, fish landings, aquaculture production, recreational fisheries, government financial transfers, and imports and exports of fish.

OECD countries covered

Australia, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States

Non-member economies covered

Argentina, Chinese Taipei, Thailand

Econometric Estimates of the Effects of NAFTA: A Review of the Literature

January 6, 2014 Comments off

Econometric Estimates of the Effects of NAFTA: A Review of the Literature (PDF)
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission, Office of Economics

This paper reviews a series of econometric studies of the impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement on the economies of Mexico, Canada, and the United States. It highlights eleven papers from the last decade that vary in the economic outcomes analyzed (trade flows, wages, employment, productivity, investment, and income in one or more of the countries) and in the statistical methodologies and types of data that are utilized.

Personal Vehicles Entered the United States Nearly 96 Million Times in 2012

December 11, 2013 Comments off

Personal Vehicles Entered the United States Nearly 96 Million Times in 2012
Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

Personal vehicles entered the United States nearly 96 million times in 2012, 33.1 million from Canada, and 62.7 million from Mexico, according to the U.S. Department of Transportation’s Bureau of Transportation Statistics’ (BTS). Border crossings also included 10.7 million trucks, 320 thousand buses, and 37 thousand trains in 2012 (Table 1).

BTS, a part of the Research and Innovative Technology Administration, released the data as part of the ninth annual update of the North American Transportation Statistics (NATS) Online Database. A product of the North American Transportation Statistics Interchange, the NATS Online Database contains comparable transportation-related data available from the United States, Canada, and Mexico in a one-stop online resource.

The database covers the following subject areas: demographics, transportation, the economy, transportation safety, transportation’s impact on energy and the environment, domestic and international freight activity, domestic and international passenger travel, transportation infrastructure, and vehicles. The NATS Online Database is co-sponsored by BTS, the U.S. Census Bureau, and the federal-level transportation and statistical agencies of Canada and Mexico.

CRS — U.S.-Mexico Water Sharing: Background and Recent Developments

November 26, 2013 Comments off

U.S.-Mexico Water Sharing: Background and Recent Developments (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via Federation of American Scientists)

The United States and Mexico share the Colorado River and Rio Grande pursuant to binational agreements. Compliance with these agreements becomes more complicated and controversial as water demands near or exceed available supplies and when drought and high heat further reduce availability and increase demand.

CRS — Mexico’s Oil and Gas Sector: Background, Reform Efforts, and Implications for the United States

November 26, 2013 Comments off

Mexico’s Oil and Gas Sector: Background, Reform Efforts, and Implications for the United States (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via Federation of American Scientists)

The future of oil and natural gas production in Mexico is of importance for both Mexico’s economic growth, as well as for U.S. energy security, a key congressional interest. Mexico has consistently been a top crude oil supplier to the United States. However, its oil production has declined dramatically in recent years. The Mexican Congress is in the midst of considering historic reforms to open Mexico’s oil and natural gas sector to international companies that could potentially help Mexico reverse those declines. If adopted, these reforms could create significant investment opportunities for U.S. companies, increase the already robust U.S.-Mexican energy trade, and bolster North American competitiveness.

Remittances to Latin America Recover—but Not to Mexico

November 15, 2013 Comments off

Remittances to Latin America Recover—but Not to Mexico
Source: Pew Hispanic Trends Project

Remittances to Spanish-speaking Latin American countries overall have recovered from a decline during the recent recession, with the notable exception of Mexico, according to World Bank data analyzed by the Pew Research Center.

Migrants’ remittances to Mexico, an estimated $22 billion in 2013, are 29% below their 2006 peak. For all other Spanish-speaking Latin American nations overall, the 2013 estimate of $31.8 billion slightly surpasses the 2008 peak.

Remittances from all sources to Spanish-speaking Latin American countries have more than doubled since 2000 but remain below their peak in 2007, the year in which the U.S. Great Recession began. The 2013 estimated total ($53.8 billion) is 13% below 2007’s $61.6 billion (in 2013 U.S. dollars).

The United States is the most important source of money sent home by migrants to the 17 Latin American nations as a group (including Mexico) that are the focus of this report. U.S. remittances accounted for three-quarters of the total in 2012—$41 billion out of $52.9 billion, according to World Bank data.

An Unfolding Tragedy of Chagas Disease in North America

November 1, 2013 Comments off

An Unfolding Tragedy of Chagas Disease in North America
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

In North America, Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma cruzi) was first reported in Mexico in 1940 [1] and in the United States in Texas in 1955 [2]. However, based on ancient mummified remains discovered in the Rio Grande Valley, human T. cruzi infection has been present in North America since prehistoric times [3].

T. cruzi is a protozoan hemoflagellate that is most commonly transmitted to humans by blood-feeding triatomine bugs followed by autoinoculation [2]. Chagas disease can also be transmitted to man by non-vectorial mechanisms, namely mother-to-child-transmission [4], blood transfusion, and orally through food-borne transmission. When untreated in the acute stage, the disease becomes chronic and up to 30% or more of infected individuals will progress to Chagasic cardiomyopathy or megavisceral disease associated with debilitating morbidity or death. Today, Chagas disease is a leading cause of heart disease among people living in extreme poverty in the Western Hemisphere, especially in Latin America, where it is a major parasitic killer [2].

The established link between poverty and Chagas disease transmission derives largely from poor-quality housing that facilitates triatomine bug invasion, together with lack of access to adequate health care and antenatal care. Additional factors related to poverty also include lack of health education and environmental management leading to vector invasion and colonization [5]. Despite enormous strides made in Chagas vector control, through housing improvements and aggressive insecticidal spraying, and case reduction or even elimination in parts of Latin America [6], important areas of high endemicity persist, including in North America. Confirmatory data are scarce, but, according to some preliminary estimates, Mexico ranks number three, and the United States number seven, in terms of the number of infected individuals with Chagas disease in the Western Hemisphere, where 99% of the cases occur [2]. In Mexico, an earlier national seroprevalence survey reported a rate of 1.6% [7]. However, other reports have provided alternative estimates ranging between 1.0% and 5.9% (i.e., between one to six million cases nationwide) [1], [2]. In the U.S., approximately 300,000 cases are believed to be present [2], although one alternative estimate reports more than 250,000 cases in Texas alone [8], with up to one million or more cases nationwide (Figure 1) [9]. Thus, together with several thousand cases in Canada, there are between 1.5 million (lower estimate) and 7 million (highest estimate) cases of Chagas disease among the 500 million people living in North America. Clearly, there is a need for active surveillance data in order to better refine these prevalence data.

Newcomers to the Aloha State: Challenges and Prospects for Mexicans in Hawai`i

September 24, 2013 Comments off

Newcomers to the Aloha State: Challenges and Prospects for Mexicans in Hawai`i (PDF)
Source: Migration Policy Institute

The Mexican-origin community in Hawaiʻi, which represents a small but growing population in this multi-ethnic state, in many ways has different outcomes than Mexican immigrants and US citizens of Mexican ancestry who live in the continental United States. Hawaiʻi’s Mexican-origin residents have higher employment, reduced poverty, higher levels of English proficiency and educational attainment, and lower incidences of unauthorized status than their Mexican-origin counterparts on the U.S. continent, according to findings of this report, which is based on a qualitative survey, in-depth interviews, and analysis of Census Bureau data.

Just Published: Law Library of Congress Report on Guest Worker Programs

September 17, 2013 Comments off

Just Published: Law Library of Congress Report on Guest Worker Programs
Source: Law Library of Congress

A report titled Guest Worker Programs was recently added to the list of reports posted on the Law Library of Congress website under “Current Legal Topics” where you can also find a range of other comparative law reports on various topics.

The Guest Worker Programs report is based on a study conducted by staff of the Global Legal Research Center (GLRC). The report describes programs for the admission and employment of guest workers in fourteen selected countries:

  • Australia,
  • Brazil,
  • Canada,
  • China,
  • Germany,
  • Israel,
  • Japan,
  • Mexico,
  • Norway,
  • the Russian Federation,
  • South Korea,
  • Spain,
  • the United Arab Emirates, and
  • the United Kingdom.

It also provides information on the European Union’s Proposal for a Directive on Seasonal Employment, the Association Agreement between the European Union and Turkey regarding migrants of Turkish origin, and the Multilateral Framework of the International Labour Organization on the admission of guest workers. The complete report is also available in PDF.

The report includes a comparative analysis and individual chapters on each country, the EU, and relevant international arrangements. It provides a general overview of a variety of immigration systems, and addresses issues such as eligibility criteria for the admission of guest workers and their families, guest workers’ recruitment and sponsorship, and visa requirements. The report further discusses the tying of temporary workers to their employers in some countries; the duration and the conditions that apply to switching employers; the terms, including the renewability, of guest workers’ visas; and the availability of a path to permanent status.


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