In the EU28, 10 million part-timers are underemployed…and 11 million persons considered as a potential additional labour force
The EU28 population aged 15 to 74 can be classified into three groups: in 2013, these were 216.4 million persons in employment, 26.2 million unemployed and 137.2 million economically inactive. Among those in employment, 43.7 million were part-time workers, of which 9.9 million (23% of part-time workers) are underemployed, meaning they wished to work more hours and were available to do so.
Among the economically inactive population (those persons neither employed nor unemployed), there were 9.3 million persons aged 15 to 74 available to work, but not seeking2 and 2.2 million seeking work, but not available in the EU28 in 2013. While not part of the economically active population, both groups have a certain attachment to the labour market and could be considered as a potential additional labour force of 11.5 million persons, equivalent to 4.7% of the labour force.
Hourly labour costs ranged from €3.7 to €40.1 across the EU28 Member States in 2013 (PDF)
In 2013, average hourly labour costs in the whole economy (excluding agriculture and public administration) were estimated to be €23.7 in the EU283 and €28.4 in the euro area (EA17). However, this average masks significant differences between EU Member States, with the lowest hourly labour costs recorded in Bulgaria (€3.7), Romania (€4.6), Lithuania (€6.2) and Latvia (€6.3), and the highest in Sweden (€40.1), Denmark (€38.4), Belgium (€38.0), Luxembourg (€35.7) and France (€34.3).
Eurostat regional yearbook 2013
Statistical information is an important tool for understanding and quantifying the impact of political decisions in a specific territory or region. The Eurostat regional yearbook 2013 gives a detailed picture relating to a broad range of statistical topics across the regions of the Member States of the European Union (EU), as well as the regions of EFTA and candidate countries. Each chapter presents statistical information in maps, figures and tables, accompanied by a description of the main findings, data sources and policy context. These regional indicators are presented for the following 11 subjects: economy, population, health, education, the labour market, structural business statistics, tourism, the information society, agriculture, transport, and science, technology and innovation. In addition, four special focus chapters are included in this edition: these look at European cities, the definition of city and metro regions, income and living conditions according to the degree of urbanisation, and rural development.
The Statistical Atlas is an interactive map viewer, which contains statistical maps from the Eurostat regional yearbook and provides the possibility to download these maps as high-resolution PDFs.
The most recent version of the Eurostat regional yearbook is available in Statistics Explained, which also contains translations of all of the articles in German and French as well as three articles in the 18 official Community languages.
Renewable energy The contribution of renewable energy up to 12.4% of energy consumption in the EU27 in 2010
In 2010, energy from renewable sources was estimated1 to have contributed 12.4% of gross final energy consumption in the EU27, compared with 11.7% in 2009 and 10.5% in 2008. The 2009 Directive on renewable energy2 set individual targets for all Member States, such that the EU will reach a 20% share of total energy consumption from renewable sources by 2020. These targets take into account the Member States’ different starting points, renewable energy potential and economic performance.
These figures are published by Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union in connection with the EU Sustainable Energy Week3 from 18 to 22 June 2012, which promotes energy efficiency and renewable energy.
Highest share of renewables in Sweden, Latvia, Finland, Austria and Portugal
The highest share of renewable energy in total consumption in 2010 was found in Sweden (47.9% of renewable energy sources in total consumption), Latvia (32.6%), Finland (32.2%), Austria (30.1%) and Portugal (24.6%), and the lowest in Malta (0.4%), Luxembourg (2.8%), the United Kingdom (3.2%) and the Netherlands (3.8%).
Between 2006 and 2010, all Member States increased their share of renewable energy in total consumption. The largest increases were recorded in Estonia (from 16.1% in 2006 to 24.3% in 2010), Romania (from 17.1% to 23.4%), Denmark (from 16.5% to 22.2%), Sweden (from 42.7% to 47.9%) and Spain (from 9.0% to 13.8%).
Agriculture and fishery statistics pocketbook: Agricultural diversity in the EU seen through figures
Which Member States are the main producers of cereals? Which Member State produces the most drinking milk and the most cheese and where is the most beef, pork and poultry meat produced?
Answers to these questions can be found in the 2011 edition of the Pocketbook on Agriculture and fishery statistics issued by Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union.
The pocketbook presents selected tables and graphs providing a statistical overview of the agricultural sector in the European Union. The most recent data are presented for the 27 Member States as well as the EFTA countries when available. This pocketbook, intended for both generalists and specialists, is divided into seven chapters: milk and milk products, agricultural accounts and prices, main agricultural products, agriculture and the environment, land cover and land use, rural regions and fishery statistics.
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Statistics on the food chain: From farm to fork
The food chain usually starts on the farm, within the agricultural sector, where some of the products are already processed. Most of the food consumed in the EU is however processed within the manufacturing sector, before it is distributed through wholesalers and finally purchased by consumers in shops or restaurants.
An overview shows that there were just over 48 million people employed within the EU27’s food chain in 2008, equivalent to more than a fifth of total employment. The food chain was made-up of almost 17 million different holdings/enterprises and generated 750 billion euro of value added, equivalent to around 6% of the GDP of the EU27. Four fifths of the holdings/enterprises within the food chain were agricultural holdings. These holdings also generated the majority of employment (56%) within the food chain. However, value added was more evenly spread over the different actors in the food chain, with 26% each of total value added recorded in agriculture and food & beverage manufacturing, 20% in food & beverage retailing, 17% in food & beverage services1 and 11% in food & beverage wholesaling. This information is extracted from two publications2 issued by Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union.
Forests cover around 40% of the EU27 land area
In 2010, forest and other wooded land covered 178 million hectares in the EU27, or around 40% of its land area. The EU27 accounted for about 4% of the world’s total forest area. In the EU27, three quarters of forest area was available for wood supply in 2010. In forests available for wood supply, the volume of increment (new growth) exceeded the volume of fellings by more than one third in 2010.
In 2009, renewable sources of energy2 provided 9% of total gross inland energy consumption2 in the EU27. Wood and wood waste was the leading renewable source of energy, with almost half of the EU27′s consumption of renewables coming from wood and wood waste.
This information comes from the publication Forestry in the EU and the world3, issued by Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union in connection with the International Year of Forests 2011. The International Year of Forests offers an opportunity to raise public awareness of the significant environmental and economic contributions of forests to making this planet livable, to highlight challenges the world’s forests are facing and what is being done to manage forests sustainably.
EU27 Member States granted citizenship to 776,000 persons in 2009
In 2009, 776 000 persons acquired citizenship of an EU27 Member State. In 2008 it was 699 000 persons. The main contribution to this increase at EU level came from the United Kingdom and was a consequence of the unusually low number of citizenships that, for purely administrative reasons, the United Kingdom granted in 2008.
The new citizens in the EU27 in 2009 came mainly from Africa (29% of the total number of citizenships acquired), Asia (24%), non-EU27 Europe (22%), North and South America (15%) and Oceania (1%). Citizens of one EU27 Member State who acquired citizenship in another Member State accounted for 8% of the total.
These data on the acquisition of citizenship of the EU27 Member States are taken from a report2 issued by Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union.
Highest number of citizenships granted per 100 resident foreigners in Portugal, Sweden, Poland and the United Kingdom
In 2009, the highest number of citizenships were granted by the United Kingdom (204 000 persons), France
(136 000) and Germany (96 000), which together accounted for more than half of all citizenships granted by the EU27 Member States.
The number of citizenships granted can be related to the number of resident foreigners i.e. non-nationals resident in the Member State. The highest rates were registered in Portugal (5.8 citizenships granted per 100 resident foreigners), Sweden (5.3), Poland and the United Kingdom (both 4.8), and the lowest rates in the Czech Republic (0.3), Lithuania and Slovakia (both 0.5). On average, 2.4 citizenships were granted per 100 resident foreigners in the EU27.
When compared with the total population of each Member State, the highest rates of citizenship granted were recorded in Luxembourg (8.1 citizenships granted per 1 000 inhabitants), Cyprus (5.1), the United Kingdom (3.3) and Sweden (3.2). Eight Member States granted less than one citizenship per 1 000 inhabitants. On average, 1.6 citizenships were granted per 1 000 inhabitants in the EU27.
In 2010, the government deficit1 of both the euro area2 (EA17) and the EU27 decreased compared with 2009, while the government debt1 and GDP increased. In the euro area the government deficit to GDP ratio decreased from 6.3% in 20093 to 6.0% in 2010, and in the EU27 from 6.8% to 6.4%. In the euro area the government debt to GDP ratio increased from 79.3% at the end of 2009 to 85.1% at the end of 2010, and in the EU27 from 74.4% to 80.0%.
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A new step reinforcing the quality of European statistics
The Commission adopted on Friday 15 April a Communication to reinforce the quality of European statistics by moving from correction to prevention. The Communication ‘Towards robust quality management for European Statistics’ proposes among other things to reinforce the governance of the European Statistical System, to further standardise public accounts, to review regularly the quality of data supplied by government bodies to National Statistical Institutes and to assess the risk of revisions at an earlier stage. This is the latest step to improve the quality of European statistics, an objective which is of crucial importance in strengthening economic governance for the euro area and the EU as a whole.
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Culture in the EU27: Cultural statistics in the spotlight
Culture plays a significant role in the daily life of European citizens, and statistics can help to illustrate cultural behaviour in the EU as well as cross-cultural contacts. How many students in the EU study arts? How many writers and artists are there in the EU? Has the price of cultural goods and services increased more than the average over recent years? What percentage of the population in the EU read a book or a newspaper in a foreign language?
Answers to these questions on culture and to many more can be found in the publication Cultural statistics1, released by Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union. The publication includes chapters on cultural employment, enterprises and external trade, cultural expenditure and participation as well as a chapter on cultural sites and museums.
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In 2009, oil remained the main source of energy in the EU27, with a share of 37% in the total gross inland energy consumption1. However, there have been changes in the mix of sources contributing to gross inland energy consumption over the last decade. The share of renewable energy has almost doubled, from 5% of total gross inland energy consumption in 1999 to 9% in 2009, while gas rose from 22% to 24%. Nuclear energy remained almost stable at 14% during this period, while oil fell from 39% to 37% and solid fuels from 18% to 16%.
Road freight transport down by 10% and rail freight by 17% in 2009
At EU level, the economic crisis resulted in a decrease in road and rail freight transport1 in 2008 and 2009, after several years of an upward trend. In the EU27, road freight transport was down by 10% in 2009, after a fall of 2% in 2008. Rail freight transport was down by 17% in 2009, after a drop of 2% in 2008.
However, quarterly data indicate that both transport modes have begun to recover from the effects of the economic crisis. For both road and rail freight transport, there was a gradual improvement throughout 2009, confirmed in the two first quarters of 2010. Compared with the same quarter of the previous year, road freight increased by 3% in the first quarter of 2010 and by 4% in the second quarter, while rail freight rose by 8% in the first quarter and by 14% in the second quarter.
These figures are published in two reports2 from Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union, on road and on rail freight transport in the EU27.
Asylum in the EU27 The number of asylum applicants registered in the EU27 stable around 260 000 in 2010
In 2010, there were 257 800 asylum applicants1 registered in the EU27, or 515 applicants per million inhabitants. It is estimated that around 90% of these were new applicants and around 10% were repeat applicants2. In 2009, there were 264 000 asylum applicants.
In 2010, the main countries of citizenship of these applicants were Afghanistan (20 600 or 8% of the total number of applicants), Russia (18 500 or 7%), Serbia (17 700 or 7%), Iraq (15 800 or 6%) and Somalia (14 400 or 6%).
These data on asylum applicants in the EU27 are taken from a report3 issued by Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union.
In the EU27, 513 kg of municipal waste1 was generated per person in 2009. The amount generated per person varied from 316 kg in the Czech Republic and Poland to 833 kg in Denmark.
On average in the EU27, 504 kg of municipal waste was treated2 per person in 2009. Municipal waste was treated in different ways: 38% was landfilled3, 20% incinerated, 24% recycled and 18% composted.
This information4 is published by Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union.
Germany, Spain, Italy, France and the United Kingdom all generated around the same amount of municipal waste per person
The amount of municipal waste1 generated varies significantly across Member States. Denmark, with more than 800 kg per person, had the highest amount of waste generated in 2009, followed by Cyprus, Ireland and Luxembourg with values between 700 and 800 kg per person, and Malta and the Netherlands with values between 600 and 700 kg. Austria, Germany, Spain, Italy, France and the United Kingdom all generated between 500 and 600 kg per person, while Belgium, Portugal, Sweden, Finland, Greece, Bulgaria, Slovenia, and Hungary were between 400 and 500 kg. Values of below 400 kg per person were found in the Czech Republic, Poland, Latvia, Slovakia, Estonia, Lithuania and Romania.
Recycling and composting represent half or more of waste treatment in Austria, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and Sweden.