Archive for the ‘International Labour Organization’ Category

Maternity protection makes headway amid vast global gaps

July 17, 2014 Comments off

Maternity protection makes headway amid vast global gaps
Source: International Labour Organization


  • 66 out of 185 countries and territories have ratified at least one of the three ILO maternity protection Conventions.
  • 53 per cent (98 countries) meet the ILO standard of at least 14 weeks maternity leave.
  • 58 per cent (107 countries) now finance maternity leave cash benefits through social security. Between 1994 and 2013 financing of cash benefits through employer liability fell from 33 to 25 per cent.
  • A large majority of women workers, around 830 million, are not adequately covered in practice, mainly in developing countries.
  • 45 per cent (74 countries) provide cash benefits of at least two-thirds of earnings for at least 14 weeks – an overall increase of 3 per cent since the last ILO review in 2010.
  • A statutory right to paternity leave is found in 78 of the 167 countries. Leave is paid in 70 of these, underlining the trend of greater involvement of fathers around childbirth. In 1994, paternity leave existed in 40 of 141 countries with available data.
  • 75 per cent (121 countries out of 160) provide for daily nursing breaks after maternity leave.
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World of Work Report 2014

July 7, 2014 Comments off

World of Work Report 2014
Source: International Labour Organization

This year’s edition focuses on developing countries and argues that quality jobs are a key driver for development. It draws on evidence from over 140 developing countries and finds that a common factor amongst those countries that have achieved higher per capita income and sustained growth was quality jobs.

Profits and Poverty: The Economics of Forced Labour

May 22, 2014 Comments off

Profits and Poverty: The Economics of Forced Labour
Source: International Labour Organization
From press release:

Forced labour in the private economy generates US$ 150 billion in illegal profits per year, about three times more than previously estimated, according to a new report from the International Labour Organization (ILO).

The ILO report, Profits and Poverty: The Economics of Forced Labour, said two thirds of the estimated total of US$ 150 billion, or US$ 99 billion, came from commercial sexual exploitation, while another US$ 51 billion resulted from forced economic exploitation, including domestic work, agriculture and other economic activities.

2013 Labour Overview. Latin America and the Caribbean

May 20, 2014 Comments off

2013 Labour Overview. Latin America and the Caribbean
Source: International Labour Organization

Twenty years after the Labour Overview was first published, we analyze the challenges facing Latin America and the Caribbean today. We also take a retrospective look at two very distinct decades for the labour markets of the region and envision the immediate future with concern arising from some current features of the region’s economies and labour markets. The loss of economic dynamism affected the labour market in Latin America and the Caribbean. In 2013, labour indicators reveal that advances made in previous years have stagnated.

Maternity and paternity at work: Law and practice across the world

May 14, 2014 Comments off

Maternity and paternity at work: Law and practice across the world
Source: International Labour Organization

This report provides a picture of where we stand and what we have learned so far about maternity and paternity rights across the world. It offers a rich international comparative analysis of law and practice relating to maternity protection at work in 185 countries and territories, comprising leave, cash benefits, employment protection and non-discrimination, health protection, breastfeeding arrangements at work and childcare. Expanding on previous editions, it is based on an extensive set of new legal and statistical indicators, including coverage in law and in practice of paid maternity leave as well as statutory provision of paternity and parental leave and their evolution over the last 20 years.

The report also takes account of the recent economic crisis and austerity measures. It shows how well national laws and practice conform to the ILO Maternity Protection Convention, 2000 (No. 183), its accompanying Recommendation (No. 191) and the Workers with Family Responsibilities Convention, 1981 (No. 156), and offers guidance on policy design and implementation.

This report shows that a majority of countries have established legislation to protect and support maternity and paternity at work, even if those provisions do not always meet the ILO standards. One of the persistent challenges is the effective implementation of legislation, to ensure that all workers are able to benefit from these essential labour rights.

Long-term unemployment, the new challenge for many countries

January 6, 2014 Comments off

Long-term unemployment, the new challenge for many countries
Source: International Labour Organization

Unemployment spells for workers are becoming longer in some countries compared to the pre-crisis situation in 2008, according to the new edition of the ILO Key Indicators of the Labour Market (KILM).

For example, in Spain, the United Kingdom, the United States, Serbia and Bulgaria, long-term unemployment has increased by 40 per cent or more in comparison to 2008.

The latest edition of KILM – an online reference tool offering data and analysis on the world’s labour market – includes information about the dynamics of job losses and job creation in 70 developed and emerging economies.

The new figures show that in countries with similar unemployment rates, there can be substantial differences in labour market trends.

ILO says global number of child labourers down by a third since 2000

October 9, 2013 Comments off

ILO says global number of child labourers down by a third since 2000
Source: International Labour Organization

A new report by the International Labour Organization (ILO), Marking progress against child labour, says that the global number of child labourers has declined by one third since 2000, from 246 million to 168 million. But even the latest improved rate of decline is not enough to achieve the goal of eliminating the worst forms of child labour by 2016 – agreed by the international community through the ILO.

The latest ILO estimates, published in the lead-up to the Global Conference on Child Labour, which takes place in Brasilia next month, show that most of the progress was made between 2008 and 2012, when the global number fell from 215 to 168 million.

More than half of the 168 million child labourers worldwide are involved in hazardous work. This is work that directly endangers their health, safety and moral development. The current number of children in hazardous work stands at 85 million, down from 171 million in 2000.

Hazardous work is often treated as a proxy for the Worst Forms of Child Labour, since children in hazardous work account for the overwhelming majority of those in the worst forms.

Promoting integration for migrant domestic workers in Europe: A synthesis of Belgium, France, Italy and Spain

September 30, 2013 Comments off

Promoting integration for migrant domestic workers in Europe: A synthesis of Belgium, France, Italy and Spain
Source: International Labour Organization

This report is based on the findings of research conducted in Belgium, France, Italy and Spain, as part of project on “integration of migrant domestic workers in Europe”, implemented by the ILO and its partners with the financial support of the European Union.

Global Wage Report 2012/13: Wages and equitable growth

June 14, 2013 Comments off

Global Wage Report 2012/13: Wages and equitable growth (PDF)

Source: International Labour Organization

This Global Wage Report presents data on trends in wages around the world and compares them with trends in labour productivity, analysing their complex effects on the global economy with a view to shedding some light on the current debates over distribution, competitiveness and labour costs. When wages rise in line with productivity increases they are both sustainable and create a stimulus for further economic growth by increasing households’ purchasing power. However for a decade or more before the crisis, the link between wages and labour productivity was broken in many countries and this contributed to the creation of global economic imbalances. The report shows that since the 1980s a majority of countries have experienced a downward trend in the “labour income share”, which means that a lower share of national income has gone into labour compensation and a higher share into capital incomes. This has happened most frequently where wages have stagnated but also in some countries where real wages have grown strongly. On a social and political level this trend risks creating perceptions that workers and their families are not receiving their fair share of the wealth they create. On an economic level, it could endanger the pace and sustainability of future economic growth by constraining wage-based household consumption. This is particularly true where the era of debt-based consumption has now led to an extended period in which households must pay off earlier debts.

Handbook of good human resource practices in the teaching profession

September 4, 2012 Comments off

Handbook of good human resource practices in the teaching profession
Source: International Labour Organization

The handbook draws upon experiences and good practices in a wide range of ILO member States, giving a large number of examples of good practice and lessons learned. The methods it outlines are intended to be applicable to all schools and education systems, and to be adapted to accommodate differences in resource availability, culture, ethnicity, gender, political and governance structures.

Social Protection Floor for a Fair and Inclusive Globalization

October 31, 2011 Comments off

Social Protection Floor for a Fair and Inclusive Globalization
Source: International Labour Organization

In many ways the power of the social protection floor lies in its simplicity. The floor is based on the idea that everyone should enjoy at least basic income security sufficient to live, guaranteed through transfers in cash or in kind, such as pensions for the elderly and persons with disabilities, child benefits, income support benefits and/or employment guarantees and services for the unemployed and working poor. Together, in cash and in kind transfers should ensure that everyone has access to essential goods and services, including essential health services, primary education, housing, water and sanitation.

This report, prepared under the guidance of Ms Michelle Bachelet and members of the Advisory Group, shows that the extension of social protection, drawing on social protection floors, can play a pivotal role in relieving people of poverty and deprivation. It can in addition help people adapt their skills to overcome the constraints that block their full participation in a changing economic and social environment, contributing to improved human capital development and stimulating greater productive activity. The report also shows how social protection has helped to stabilize aggregate demand in times of crisis and to increase resilience against economic shocks, contributing to accelerate recovery towards more inclusive and sustainable development paths.

+ Full Report (PDF)

ILO warns of major G20 labour market decline in 2012 and serious jobs shortfall by 2015

October 3, 2011 Comments off

ILO warns of major G20 labour market decline in 2012 and serious jobs shortfall by 2015
Source: International Labour Organization

The slow-down in the global economy could result in a massive jobs shortfall among G20 members by next year, warns the International Labour Organization (ILO), in a joint study prepared with the OECD at the request of the G20 for its labour ministerial meeting in Paris on 26-27 September.

The statistical update prepared by the ILO and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development also says that at current employment growth rates of 1 per cent, it won’t be possible to recover the estimated 20 million jobs lost in the G20 since the crisis began in 2008.

The joint ILO/OECD statistical update study says employment would have to grow at an annual rate of at least 1.3 per cent in order to return to the pre-crisis employment rate by 2015. Such a growth rate would generate some 21 million additional jobs per year, recover jobs lost since 2008 and absorb the increase in the working age population

However, the analysis also expresses concern that employment may in fact grow at a rate of just under one per cent (0.8) until the end of 2012, resulting in a 40 million job shortfall in G20 countries next year and a much larger shortfall by 2015.

+ Full Document (PDF)

Global Dialogue Forum on the Needs of Older Workers in relation to Changing Work Processes and the Working Environment in Retail Commerce

September 26, 2011 Comments off

Global Dialogue Forum on the Needs of Older Workers in relation to Changing Work Processes and the Working Environment in Retail Commerce
Source: International Labour Organization

In March 2009, the Governing Body of the ILO approved a recommendation of its Committee on Sectoral and Technical Meetings and Related Issues for the ILO to convene the Global Dialogue Forum on the Needs of Older Workers in Relation to Changing Work Processes and the Working Environment in Retail Commerce. The focus of the Forum would be to examine ways in which work processes and the working environment in the labour-intensive retail commerce sector could be adapted to the needs of an ageing workforce, taking into account the effects of technological and other changes in the sector. The purpose of the Global Dialogue Forum is to exchange views and experience of participants on:

(a) the employment and occupational characteristics of retail commerce and the working conditions of the sector in their countries;
(b) the current age profiles of retail commerce workers and how these and the sector’s workforce are likely to be affected by global demographic trends, especially ageing populations;
(c) the factors shaping future labour demand in retail commerce;
(d) how the retail sector could increase its competitive capacity in the labour market to attract and retain older workers with respect to terms of employment; working conditions; occupational health and safety; flexible working; and training and staff development; and
(e) how best the ILO and its constituents could support decent work in the sector in the context of global population ageing.

The Forum will bring together representatives of governments, employers’ and workers’ representatives. It is open to Governments of all interested ILO member States. In addition, representatives of intergovernmental organizations and observers representing international non-governmental organizations have been invited to attend the Forum.

+ Greying of the workforce in retail commerce: Questions and answers
+ Adapting work processes and working environments in retail commerce to older workers’ needs (PDF)

New ILO report on the situation of workers in the occupied Arab territories

June 12, 2011 Comments off

New ILO report on the situation of workers in the occupied Arab territories
Source: International Labour Organization

The annual report of the International Labour Office (ILO) on the situation of workers of the occupied Arab territories calls for replacing the current security logic “with a development logic, based on a long-term vision of the economic, employment and human security interests of all the women and men in the region.”

According to the report, despite some improvements in the movement of people, no significant change to the better regarding the situation of these workers has taken place during the past year. The report notes that such change cannot take place “unless the restrictions imposed by the Israeli occupation, and the occupation itself, are removed.”

The report underlines that all parties “have to come to a decision sooner or later on the next steps. The Palestinian economy has reached limits which cannot be surpassed without agreement and action on the two major constraints it faces: occupation and separation. Palestinian state-building should not be stifled and allowed to run out into frustration and discontent.”

+ Full Report (PDF)

Window of opportunity for Asia to improve gender equality at work – ILO, ADB

June 6, 2011 Comments off

Window of opportunity for Asia to improve gender equality at work – ILO, ADB
Source: International Labour Organization

Asian countries have a window of opportunity to tackle gender inequality in their labour markets and support sustainable crisis recovery, according to a new report prepared jointly by the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the Asian Development Bank (ADB).

The report, Women and Labour Markets in Asia: Rebalancing for Gender Equality, says that although Asia is helping to lead the global economy, recovery of the labour market from the recent global economic and financial crisis has not kept pace. In some developing countries, particularly in East Asia, job growth is back, but the quality of jobs being created is a major concern. In particular, 45 per cent of the vast productive potential of Asian women remains untapped, compared to just 19 per cent for Asian men.

Even before the crisis, Asia was estimated to be losing US$42-$47 billion a year because of limits on women’s access to employment opportunities and another US$16-$30 billion a year as a result of gender gaps in education, according to estimates by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. Although the region’s economic growth of 6.2 per cent in 2000-2007 greatly exceeded the global average of 4.2 per cent, average growth in women’s employment was just 1.7 per cent- below the world average of 2 per cent.

These deficits are likely to have increased during the crisis, the report says, because women disproportionately shouldered the impact due to pre-existing gender inequalities. They include discrimination throughout the region’s labour markets, inequality rooted in social-cultural norms and national policy and institutional frameworks that shape the employment opportunities of Asia’s 734 million female workers.

The report says that “there is now a window of opportunity to address systematic gender inequalities as well as the symptoms thrown up by the crisis, and achieve full labour market recovery and successful rebalancing.” It adds that “the policy goal should not be to return to the ‘normal’ pre-crisis situation…but to rebalance towards a new development trajectory that is job-rich, just, sustainable and inclusive”.

+ Full Report (PDF)

Brazil’s growth-with-equity strategy key to beating the crisis, says ILO

April 10, 2011 Comments off

Brazil’s growth-with-equity strategy key to beating the crisis, says ILO
Source: International Labour Organization

A new report by the International Labour Organization (ILO) says Brazil’s innovative income-led strategy led to a faster than expected recovery from the financial crisis, with employment creation returning to positive territory as early as February 2009 – even before economic growth resumed.

What’s more, the report says carefully conceived employment and social policies, which were implemented in parallel with supporting macroeconomic policies, meant the recession lasted only two quarters.

The study – titled “Brazil: An innovative income-led strategy” – shows Brazil created over 3 million formal jobs over the past two years and reached an economic growth of more than 7 per cent in 2010, thus returning to pre-crisis levels. Most importantly, economic and employment growth have not been achieved at the expense of equity. Quite the contrary: informality and income inequality have declined in spite of the crisis.

According to the study, published by the International Institute for Labour Studies (IILS) and undertaken in conjunction with the ILO office in Brasilia, Brazil’s success was due to its favourable pre-crisis economic condition, a quick job-centred response, and the right mix between social, labour and macroeconomic policies.

+ Full Report (PDF)
+ Executive summary and policy recommendations (PDF)

Mongolia: Measuring the Output Gap

April 10, 2011 Comments off

Mongolia: Measuring the Output Gap
Source: International Monetary Fund

This paper compares the output gap estimates for Mongolia based on a number of different methods. Special attention is paid to the substantial role of mining in the Mongolian economy. We find that a Blanchard and Quah-type joint model of output and inflation provides a more robust estimate of the output gap for Mongolia than the traditional statistical decompositions.

+ Full Paper (PDF)

ILO: learning lessons from success key to economic improvement for the Least Developed Countries

April 6, 2011 Comments off

ILO: learning lessons from success key to economic improvement for the Least Developed Countries
Source: International Labour Organization

A new report by the International Labour Office (ILO) recognizes the growth revival in least developed countries (LDC) in the last decade, but argues that major structural challenges in the nature of growth, employment and decent work remain.

The new study, entitled “Growth, Employment and Decent Work in the Least Developed Countries” has been prepared on the occasion of the Fourth United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries to be held in Istanbul from 9-13 May, 2011.

The report especially examines the relationship between GDP growth, employment and decent work in the LDCs within a longer term perspective but focusing on the last decade. It addresses a number of key issues in growth and development across the three main regions of Africa, Asia and the Island countries, also highlighting challenges and opportunities for structural changes, job creation and poverty eradication.

The ILO study includes key figures and trends. It shows that over the 2000-2009 period, employment in LDCs has grown at an annual average rate of 2.9 per cent, slightly above population growth but much weaker than GDP growth. Most of the increase took place in the services sector, with industry accounting for a mere 10 per cent of total employment in 2008 from 8 per cent in 2000. The share of wage and salary workers increased slightly, from 14 per cent in 2000 to 18 per cent in 2008 but the large majority of workers remained trapped in vulnerable forms of employment that cannot lift them above the poverty line.

+ Full Report


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