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Archive for the ‘gender and sexuality’ Category

Gender Differences in Primary Substance of Abuse across Age Groups

April 16, 2014 Comments off

Gender Differences in Primary Substance of Abuse across Age Groups
Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

+ In 2011, about 609,000 of the 1.84 million admissions to substance abuse treatment were female (33.1 percent), and 1.23 million were male (66.9 percent)
+ Compared with their male counterparts, a larger proportion of female admissions aged 12 to 17 reported alcohol as their primary substance of abuse (21.7 vs. 10.5 percent)
+ Marijuana as the primary substance of abuse was less common among female than male admissions aged 12 to 17 (60.8 vs. 80.7 percent) and 18 to 24 (22.1 vs. 33.4 percent)
+ Within the 65 or older age group, the proportion of female admissions reporting primary abuse of prescription pain relievers (e.g., oxycodone) was nearly 3 times that of their male counterparts (7.2 vs. 2.8 percent)

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Growing Gap Between First Sex and First Birth Means Women Face Longer Period of Risk for Unintended Pregnancy

April 15, 2014 Comments off

Growing Gap Between First Sex and First Birth Means Women Face Longer Period of Risk for Unintended Pregnancy
Source: Guttmacher Institute

The typical age at which teens first have sex has remained relatively stable over the past several decades, increasing slightly to 17.8 for women and 18.1 for men in the most recent cohort for whom data are available. For women coming of age in the mid-2000s, the median age at first sex was about the same as that of women 35 years earlier, according to “Trends in Ages at Key Reproductive Transitions in the United States, 1951–2010,” by Lawrence B. Finer and Jesse M. Philbin. However, the typical time between first sex and first birth has increased from three years for women born in 1940 to almost 10 years for women born in 1982.

“This is the period of highest risk for unintended pregnancy,” says Dr. Finer. “Later childbearing means many women are at risk for a decade or more before they have kids. The growing length of this period makes it vital that women have access to a wide range of effective methods of contraception—not just the condoms and pills that women commonly use now, but also highly effective long-acting methods like the IUD and the implant. The latter methods don’t require any regular action on the woman’s part, which might be particularly helpful for teens and young adults.”

Effect of Drinking on All-Cause Mortality in Women Compared with Men: A Meta-Analysis

April 11, 2014 Comments off

Effect of Drinking on All-Cause Mortality in Women Compared with Men: A Meta-Analysis
Source: Journal of Women’s Health

Background:
Alcoholic beverages are consumed by humans for a variety of dietary, recreational, and other reasons. It is uncertain whether the drinking effect on risk of all-cause mortality is different between women and men. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of drinking on the risk of all-cause mortality in women compared with men.

Methods:
We selected cohort studies with measures of relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for all-cause mortality for drinkers versus nondrinkers by sex. Sex-specific RR and 95% CI were used to estimate the female-to-male ratio of RR (RRR) and 95% CI. Pooled estimates of RRR across studies were obtained by the fixed-effects model or the random-effects model (if heterogeneity was detected). Second-order fractional polynomials and random effects meta-regression models were used for modeling the dose-risk relationship.

Results:
Twenty-four studies were considered eligible. A total of 2,424,964 participants (male: 1,473,899; female: 951,065) were enrolled and 123,878 deaths (male: 76,362; female: 47,516) were observed. Compared with nondrinkers, the pooled female-to-male RRR for drinkers was 1.07 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.12). Subgroup analyses showed that the increased risk among female drinkers appeared to be consistent. J-shaped dose–response relationship was confirmed between alcohol and all-cause mortality in men and women, respectively. Moreover, the female-to-male RRR of all-cause mortality were 1.52 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.29), 1.95 (95% CI: 1.08, 3.49), and 2.36 (95% CI: 1.15, 4.88), respectively, for those who consumed 75, 90, and 100 g/day of alcohol.

Conclusions:
Females had an increased risk for all-cause mortality conferred by drinking compared with males, especially in heavy drinkers. The present study suggested that female drinkers, particularly heavy drinkers, should moderate or completely reduce their level of consumption to have a health benefit.

After Decades of Decline, A Rise in Stay-at-Home Mothers

April 8, 2014 Comments off

After Decades of Decline, A Rise in Stay-at-Home Mothers
Source: Pew Research Social & Demographic Trends

The share of mothers who do not work outside the home rose to 29% in 2012, up from a modern-era low of 23% in 1999, according to a new Pew Research Center analysis of government data. This rise over the past dozen years represents the reversal of a long-term decline in “stay-at-home” mothers that had persisted for the last three decades of the 20th century. The recent turnaround appears to be driven by a mix of demographic, economic and societal factors, including rising immigration as well as a downturn in women’s labor force participation, and is set against a backdrop of continued public ambivalence about the impact of working mothers on young children.

The broad category of “stay-at-home” mothers includes not only mothers who say they are at home in order to care for their families, but also those who are at home because they are unable to find work, are disabled or are enrolled in school.

CRS — Membership of the 113th Congress: A Profile (updated)

April 7, 2014 Comments off

Membership of the 113th Congress: A Profile (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via U.S. State Department Foreign Press Center)

This report presents a profile of the membership of the 113th Congress (2013-2014). Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age, occupation, education, length of congressional service, religious affiliation, gender, ethnicity, foreign births, and military service.

Do Financial Knowledge, Behavior, and Well-Being Differ by Gender?

April 3, 2014 Comments off

Do Financial Knowledge, Behavior, and Well-Being Differ by Gender?
Source: Urban institute

Using the National Financial Capability Survey, we examine differences among men and women in financial knowledge, behavior, and well-being. We find that women are less financially knowledgeable than men. Women are less willing than men to take financial risks and have more credit cards than men. However, women are equally likely to pay their credit cards in full every month and are equally likely to save for retirement. More differences by gender arise when we separate men and women by family type. Unmarried women with dependent children are worse-off and likely have other financial stresses.

Employer-sponsored benefits extended to domestic partners

April 2, 2014 Comments off

Employer-sponsored benefits extended to domestic partners
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

As part of compensation packages offered to employees, it is common for employers to extend certain benefits to an employee’s family members. For example, employment-based health benefits typically include insurance coverage for the family, and traditional (defined-benefit) pension plans provide survivor benefits to spouses of married employees. As employers recognize different family structures, many have adapted by offering similar benefits to employees who have varied family units. For example, employers often vary employee contributions for health benefits based on family makeup by identifying different contribution amounts for married employees with children and for single employees with children. New data provide a picture of how frequently certain benefits are extended to unmarried opposite-sex and unmarried same-sex partners. For example, 72 percent of civilian workers had access to employment-based health benefits in March 2013, with nearly all the employers extending these benefits to spouses and children, but only 32 percent of civilian workers had health benefits extended to unmarried same-sex domestic partners and 26 percent had benefits extended to unmarried opposite-sex domestic partners.

Invasive Cancer Incidence — United States, 2010

March 31, 2014 Comments off

Invasive Cancer Incidence — United States, 2010
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

Cancer has many causes, some of which can, at least in part, be avoided through interventions known to reduce cancer risk (1). Healthy People 2020 objectives call for reducing colorectal cancer incidence to 38.6 per 100,000 persons, reducing late-stage breast cancer incidence to 41.0 per 100,000 women, and reducing cervical cancer incidence to 7.1 per 100,000 women (2). To assess progress toward reaching these Healthy People 2020 targets, CDC analyzed data from U.S. Cancer Statistics (USCS) for 2010. USCS includes incidence data from CDC’s National Program of Cancer Registries and the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program and mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System (3). In 2010, a total of 1,456,496 invasive cancers were reported to cancer registries in the United States (excluding Arkansas and Minnesota), an annual incidence rate of 446 cases per 100,000 persons, compared with 459 in 2009 (4). Cancer incidence rates were higher among men (503) than women (405), highest among blacks (455), and ranged by state from 380 to 511 per 100,000 persons. Many factors, including tobacco use, obesity, insufficient physical activity, and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, contribute to the risk for developing cancer, and differences in cancer incidence indicate differences in the prevalence of these risk factors. These differences can be reduced through policy approaches such as the Affordable Care Act,* which could increase access for millions of persons to appropriate and timely cancer preventive services, including help with smoking cessation, cancer screening, and vaccination against HPV (5).

Invasive cancers include all cancers except in situ cancers (other than in the urinary bladder) and basal and squamous cell skin cancers.

Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years — Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2010

March 31, 2014 Comments off

Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years — Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2010
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC)

For 2010, the overall prevalence of ASD among the ADDM sites was 14.7 per 1,000 (one in 68) children aged 8 years. Overall ASD prevalence estimates varied among sites from 5.7 to 21.9 per 1,000 children aged 8 years. ASD prevalence estimates also varied by sex and racial/ethnic group. Approximately one in 42 boys and one in 189 girls living in the ADDM Network communities were identified as having ASD. Non-Hispanic white children were approximately 30% more likely to be identified with ASD than non-Hispanic black children and were almost 50% more likely to be identified with ASD than Hispanic children. Among the seven sites with sufficient data on intellectual ability, 31% of children with ASD were classified as having IQ scores in the range of intellectual disability (IQ ≤70), 23% in the borderline range (IQ = 71–85), and 46% in the average or above average range of intellectual ability (IQ >85). The proportion of children classified in the range of intellectual disability differed by race/ethnicity. Approximately 48% of non-Hispanic black children with ASD were classified in the range of intellectual disability compared with 38% of Hispanic children and 25% of non-Hispanic white children. The median age of earliest known ASD diagnosis was 53 months and did not differ significantly by sex or race/ethnicity.

WEGrow — Unlocking the Growth Potential of Women Entrepreneurs in Latin America and the Caribbean

March 28, 2014 Comments off

WEGrow — Unlocking the Growth Potential of Women Entrepreneurs in Latin America and the Caribbean
Source: Multilateral Investment Fund
From press release

The new study “WEGrow: Unlocking the Growth Potential of Women Entrepreneurs in Latin America and the Caribbean,” finds that these entrepreneurs are opportunity-driven rather than necessity-driven, and that they mention economic independence, passion and creating jobs as their main reasons for launching their business ventures. According to the study, 85% of high-growth women entrepreneurs have the ambition to keep growing their business. These high-growth businesses belong to traditional or non-mature sectors such as food and beverages and services, which tend to have lower rates of potential growth than sectors like software and Internet, which are preferred by high-growth men entrepreneurs.

Unanticipated Effects of California’s Paid Family Leave Program

March 28, 2014 Comments off

Unanticipated Effects of California’s Paid Family Leave Program (PDF)
Source: Institute for the Study of Labor

We examine the effect of California Paid Family Leave (CPFL) on young women’s (less than 42 years of age) labor force participation and unemployment. CPFL enables workers to take at most six weeks of paid leave over a 12 month period in order to bond with new born or adopted children, or to care for sick family members or ailing parents. The policy benefits women, especially young women, since they are more prone to take such a leave. However, the effect of the policy on labor market outcomes is less clear. We apply difference-in-difference techniques to identify the effects of the CPFL legislation on young women’s labor force participation and unemployment. We find that the labor force participation rate, the unemployment rate, and the duration of unemployment among young women rose in California compared to states that did not adopt paid family leave. The latter two findings regarding higher young women’s unemployment and unemployment duration are unanticipated effects of the CPFL program. We utilize a unique placebo test to validate the robustness of these results.

Arab Women Rising: 35 Entrepreneurs Making a Difference in the Arab World

March 24, 2014 Comments off

Arab Women Rising: 35 Entrepreneurs Making a Difference in the Arab World
Source: Knowledge@Wharton

Recent decades have seen greatly expanded opportunities for women throughout the Arab world, leveling the playing field as never before.

In Arab Women Rising, Knowledge@Wharton contributors Nafeesa Syeed and Rahilla Zafar share the entrepreneurial journeys of 35 women, from a flower farmer tending her fields in the Tunisian countryside to a Saudi royal advocating for expanded women’s rights throughout the kingdom.

This Knowledge@Wharton collection tells the stories of:

  • Pioneers who are establishing exciting technology companies in a region where mobile usage is on the upswing
  • Small and midsize business owners who started enterprises specializing in everything from public relations to the arts
  • Innovators who have rolled out new products, revamped fashions, and integrated new services into their industries
  • Visionaries tapping the big-picture potential the region holds in such growing fields as entertainment and science
  • Women effectively spearheading change in their communities by starting social enterprises

Inspiring and powerful, Arab Women Rising is a guide to understanding the modern business environment created and led by a new generation of women entrepreneurs in the Middle East and North Africa.

Preschool selection considerations and experiences of school mistreatment among lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parents

March 23, 2014 Comments off

Preschool selection considerations and experiences of school mistreatment among lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parents
Source: The Williams Institute (UCLA)

Lesbian, Gay, or Bisexual parents of preschoolers may be particularly sensitive to family, racial and sexual diversity issues as they evaluate and select preschools for their children. Additionally, heterosexual adoptive parent families may be especially sensitive to adoption-related stigma and exclusion. Early childhood educators should recognize the growing diversity of contemporary families and consider adoption, family structure, and race as important components of curriculum development. Preschool-age children are beginning to develop an understanding of basic concepts such as race, ethnicity, gender, and families, yet their educators are often uncertain about how to enact more inclusive and affirming approaches to LGB families. Educators and administrators may require additional professional training to increase their knowledge and awareness of LGB and adoptive-parent families for the benefit of their overall approach to teaching.

Female Executives in Hospitality: Reflections on Career Journeys and Reaching the Top

March 21, 2014 Comments off

Female Executives in Hospitality: Reflections on Career Journeys and Reaching the Top
Source: Center for Hospitality Research, Cornell School of Hotel Administration

Structured interviews with twenty women who are top corporate executives or entrepreneurs in the hospitality industry revealed the talent, resourcefulness, and support required to achieve such a position. During the interviews, these successful women cited these three keys to career advancement: (1) the importance of taking thoughtful risks, including non-linear assignments; (2) the criticality of networking; and (3) the significance of finding a sponsor. Two notable challenges for these executives were the possibility that they would be regarded as a token and the need to integrate their work and family life. They noted that keys to meeting work and family responsibilities were having flexibility and autonomy in their schedules and engaging a strong support network, which usually included a life partner. Eight of the twenty had stepped away from corporate roles to run their own businesses. These entrepreneurs acknowledged the considerable work responsibilities resulting from their choice; however, gaining control of their careers made the effort worthwhile and the experience meaningful.

Free registration required to access full report.

Gender Differences in Self-employment of Older Workers in the United States and New Zealand

March 20, 2014 Comments off

Gender Differences in Self-employment of Older Workers in the United States and New Zealand (PDF)
Source: Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This study examined differences in self-employment of workers age 50+ in the United States (N = 3,948) and New Zealand (N = 1,434). Separate logistic regression analyses were conducted by country and gender. For both U.S. men and women, lower income, higher wealth, and having an employed spouse increased the likelihood of self-employment. Older age, lower income, higher wealth, and household composition increased the odds of being self-employed for men in New Zealand. Women in New Zealand were more likely to be self-employed if they were in a blue-collar occupation, had higher household wealth, higher education, and did not receive pension income. Selfemployment can enable older adults to remain in the labor force longer, thereby fostering continued productivity and engagement.

The Miracle Drugs: Hormone Replacement Therapy and Labor Market Behavior of Middle-Aged Women

March 20, 2014 Comments off

The Miracle Drugs: Hormone Replacement Therapy and Labor Market Behavior of Middle-Aged Women (PDF)
Source: Institute for the Study of Labor

In an aging society, determining which factors contribute to the employment of older individuals is increasingly important. We examine the impact of medical innovations on the employment of middle-aged women focusing on the specific case of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT), a common treatment for the alleviation of negative menopausal symptoms. HRT medications were among the most popular prescriptions in the United States until 2002 when the Women’s Health Initiative Study – the largest randomized control trial on women ever undertaken – documented the health risks associated with their long term use. We exploit the release of these findings within a Fixed Effect Instrumental Variable framework to address the endogeneity in HRT use. Our results indicate substantial benefits of HRT use to the short-term employment of middle-aged women.

Race/Ethnicity, Gender and Socioeconomic Wellbeing of Individuals in Same-sex Couples

March 17, 2014 Comments off

Race/Ethnicity, Gender and Socioeconomic Wellbeing of Individuals in Same-sex Couples
Source: The Williams Institute (UCLA)

Similar patterns of racial disparities in income and employment exist among individuals in same-sex and different-sex couples. The report also found that racial/ethnic minority individuals in same-sex couples tend to live in areas where there are higher proportions of individuals of their own race or ethnicity.

Among same-sex couples, African-American, Latino, American-Indian and Alaskan Native respondents have lower incomes, lower college completion rates and higher unemployment rates than White, Asian and Pacific Islander respondents. Regardless of race or ethnicity, individuals in same-sex couples have higher unemployment rates and, yet, higher rates of college completion compared to their counterparts in different-sex couples. Among same-sex couples, American-Indian, Alaskan Native and Latino/a individuals in same-sex couples are the least likely (70%, 71%) to be covered by health insurance. Health insurance rates are generally lower for individuals in same-sex couples compared to their counterparts in different-sex couples.

Laws on Homosexuality in African Nations

March 17, 2014 Comments off

Laws on Homosexuality in African Nations
Source: Law Library of Congress

The following chart summarizes the treatment of homosexuality in the criminal laws of forty-nine African nations.  The provisions on criminal penalties only include penalties for acts involving adults, as all nations penalize sexual acts, whether homosexual or heterosexual, involving children.  Of the jurisdictions surveyed, only South Africa affirmatively permits same-sex marriage.

Tariffs, Social Status, and Gender in India

March 14, 2014 Comments off

Tariffs, Social Status, and Gender in India (PDF)
Source: Institute for the Study of Labor

This paper shows that trade policy can have significant intergenerational distributional effects across gender and social strata. We compare women and births in rural Indian districts more or less exposed to tariff cuts. For low socioeconomic status women, tariff cuts increase the likelihood of a female birth and these daughters are less likely to die during infancy and childhood. On the contrary, high-status women are less likely to give birth to girls and their daughters have higher mortality rates when more exposed to tariff declines. Consistent with the fertility-sex ratio trade-off in high son preference societies, fertility increases for low-status women and decreases for high-status women. An exploration of the mechanisms suggests that the labor market returns for low-status women (relative to men) and high-status men (relative to women) have increased in response to trade liberalization. Thus, altered expectations about future returns from daughters relative to sons seem to have caused families to change the sex-composition of and health investments in their children.

Violence against women: an EU-wide survey

March 14, 2014 Comments off

Violence against women: an EU-wide survey (PDF)
Source: European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights
From Summary Report:

Violence against women undermines women’s core fundamental rights such as dignity, access to justice and gender equality. For example, one in three women has experienced physical and/or sexual violence since the age of 15; one in five women has experienced stalking; every second woman has been confronted with one or more forms of sexual harassment.

What emerges is a picture of extensive abuse that affects many women’s lives but is systematically underreported to the authorities. The scale of violence against women is therefore not reflected by official data.

This FRA survey is the first of its kind on violence against women across the 28 Member States of the European Union. It is based on interviews with 42,000 women across the EU, who were asked about their experiences of physical, sexual and psychological violence, including incidents of intimate partner violence (‘domestic violence’). The survey also included questions on stalking, sexual harassment, and the role played by new technologies in women’s experiences of abuse. In addition, it asked about their experiences of violence in childhood. Based on the detailed findings, FRA suggests courses of action in different areas that are touched by violence against women and go beyond the narrow confines of criminal law, ranging from employment and health to the medium of new technologies.

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