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Body Mass Index, Sex, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among Hispanic/Latino Adults: Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

July 30, 2014 Comments off

Body Mass Index, Sex, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among Hispanic/Latino Adults: Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos
Source: Journal of the American Heart Association

Background
All major Hispanic/Latino groups in the United States have a high prevalence of obesity, which is often severe. Little is known about cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among those at very high levels of body mass index (BMI).

Methods and Results
Among US Hispanic men (N=6547) and women (N=9797), we described gradients across the range of BMI and age in CVD risk factors including hypertension, serum lipids, diabetes, and C‐reactive protein. Sex differences in CVD risk factor prevalences were determined at each level of BMI, after adjustment for age and other demographic and socioeconomic variables. Among those with class II or III obesity (BMI ≥35 kg/m2, 18% women and 12% men), prevalences of hypertension, diabetes, low high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and high C‐reactive protein level approached or exceeded 40% during the fourth decade of life. While women had a higher prevalence of class III obesity (BMI ≥40 kg/m2) than did men (7% and 4%, respectively), within this highest BMI category there was a >50% greater relative prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia in men versus women, while sex differences in prevalence of these CVD risk factors were ≈20% or less at other BMI levels.

Conclusions
Elevated BMI is common in Hispanic/Latino adults and is associated with a considerable excess of CVD risk factors. At the highest BMI levels, CVD risk factors often emerge in the earliest decades of adulthood and they affect men more often than women.

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Australia’s female political leaders: a quick guide

July 21, 2014 Comments off

Australia’s female political leaders: a quick guide
Source: Parliamentary Library of Australia

This Quick Guide draws together information about women who have held leadership positions in Australia from Federation to May 2014. It includes vice-regal appointments, presiding officers, government, opposition and parliamentary party leaders, and parliamentary party presidents.

This Quick Guide includes dates in office, positions held and significant firsts. It also includes women who have served as deputy leaders in the Commonwealth Parliament. The final table presents women who have held executive (non-parliamentary) leadership positions in the parliamentary parties.

This information has been compiled from a range of sources including the Commonwealth Parliamentary Handbook, the Australian Electoral Commission, vice-regal, parliamentary and political party websites, biographies and archives relating to women in politics, and media articles relating to individual appointments.

A hyperlink to individual biographies is included where available, together with selected online sources for further reading. Using the arrows that appear in the header, the information may be ordered by name, party, jurisdiction, chamber and year of election/appointment.

Unsafe and Harassed in Public Spaces: A National Street Harassment Report

July 17, 2014 Comments off

Unsafe and Harassed in Public Spaces: A National Street Harassment Report
Source: Stop Street Harassment

In 2014, SSH commissioned a 2,000-person nationally representative survey in the USA with firm GfK. The survey found that 65% of all women had experienced street harassment. Among all women, 23% had been sexually touched, 20% had been followed, and 9% had been forced to do something sexual.

Among men, 25% had been street harassed (a higher percentage of LGBT-identified men than heterosexual men reported this) and their most common form of harassment was homophobic or transphobic slurs (9%).

Sexual Orientation and Health Among U.S. Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2013

July 15, 2014 Comments off

Sexual Orientation and Health Among U.S. Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2013 (PDF)
Source: National Center for Health Statistics

Objective—
To provide national estimates for indicators of health-related behaviors, health status, health care service utilization, and health care access by sexual orientation using data from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).

Methods—
NHIS is an annual multipurpose health survey conducted continuously throughout the year. Analyses were based on data collected in 2013 from 34,557 adults aged 18 and over. Sampling weights were used to produce national estimates that are representative of the civilian noninstitutionalized U.S. adult population. Differences in health-related behaviors, health status, health care service utilization, and health care access by sexual orientation were examined for adults aged 18–64, and separately for men and women.

Results—
Based on the 2013 NHIS data, 96.6% of adults identified as straight, 1.6% identified as gay or lesbian, and 0.7% identified as bisexual. The remaining 1.1% of adults identified as ‘‘something else,’’ stated ‘‘I don’t know the answer,’’ or refused to provide an answer. Significant differences were found in health-related behaviors, health status, health care service utilization, and health care access among U.S. adults aged 18–64 who identified as straight, gay or lesbian, or bisexual.

Conclusion—
NHIS sexual orientation data can be used to track progress toward meeting the Healthy People 2020 goals and objectives related to the health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons. In addition, the data can be used to examine a wide range of health disparities among adults identifying as straight, gay or lesbian, or bisexual.

CFPB — Ensuring equal treatment for same-sex married couples

July 11, 2014 Comments off

Ensuring equal treatment for same-sex married couples
Source: Consumer Financial Protection Bureau

On June 26, 2013, in United States v. Windsor, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down Section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act as unconstitutional. This decision has important consequences for our work.

In order to fully implement this decision, we took steps to clarify how the decision affects the rules that we are responsible for. Recently, Director Cordray issued a memo to staff clarifying that, to the extent permitted by federal law, it is our policy to recognize all lawful marriages valid at the time of the marriage in the jurisdiction where the marriage was celebrated. This aligns our policy with other agencies across the federal government.

This policy applies to all of the laws, regulations, and policies that we administer, including the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA), Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA), Truth in Lending Act (TILA), and Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA). That means that when it comes to administering, enforcing, or interpreting the laws, regulations, and policies within our jurisdiction, we use and interpret the terms like “spouse,” “marriage,” “married,” “husband,” “wife,” and any other similar terms related to family or marital status to include lawful same-sex marriages and lawfully married same-sex spouses.

Census Bureau Reports Majority of STEM College Graduates Do Not Work in STEM Occupations

July 10, 2014 Comments off

Census Bureau Reports Majority of STEM College Graduates Do Not Work in STEM Occupations
Source: U.S. Census Bureau

The U.S. Census Bureau reported today that 74 percent of those who have a bachelor’s degree in science, technology, engineering and math — commonly referred to as STEM — are not employed in STEM occupations. In addition, men continue to be overrepresented in STEM, especially in computer and engineering occupations. About 86 percent of engineers and 74 percent of computer professionals are men.

According to new statistics from the 2012 American Community Survey, engineering and computer, math and statistics majors had the largest share of graduates going into a STEM field with about half employed in a STEM occupation. Science majors had fewer of their graduates employed in STEM. About 26 percent of physical science majors; 15 percent of biological, environmental and agricultural sciences majors; 10 percent of psychology majors; and 7 percent of social science majors were employed in STEM.

Approximately 14 percent of engineers were women, where they were most underrepresented of all the STEM fields. Representation of women was higher among mathematicians and statisticians (45 percent), life scientists (47 percent) and social scientists (63 percent). The rates of mathematicians and statisticians, and life scientists are not statistically different from each other.

Pillow Talk and Cognitive Decision-making Processes: Exploring the Influence of Orgasm and Alcohol on Communication after Sexual Activity

July 9, 2014 Comments off

Pillow Talk and Cognitive Decision-making Processes: Exploring the Influence of Orgasm and Alcohol on Communication after Sexual Activity
Source: Communication Monographs

This study explores individuals’ postcoital disclosures by investigating the role of orgasm and alcohol on communication after sexual activity over a two-week period. Assessments of the risks and benefits of disclosing were expected to influence the associations among orgasm, alcohol, and postcoital communication. The results revealed that individuals who orgasmed perceived greater benefits to disclosing to their partners after sexual activity. They also disclosed more positively valenced information and information of greater magnitude compared to those who did not orgasm, although risk–benefit assessments did not mediate this relationship. Additionally, the more alcohol individuals consumed, the fewer benefits they assessed to disclosing, the less deep and positively valenced their disclosures were, and the more unintentional they were in their disclosures. Similarly, the relationship between alcohol and the dimensions of disclosure was not mediated by risk–benefit assessments. Finally, individuals who consumed more alcohol and did not orgasm disclosed less positively valenced information than individuals who consumed less alcohol and did not orgasm across occasions. The implications of these findings for couples’ communication and future research on the postcoital time interval are discussed.

See: Orgasms and alcohol influence pillow talk (Science Daily)

Human Rights Campaign Foundation 2014 Corporate Equality Index

July 8, 2014 Comments off

Human Rights Campaign Foundation 2014 Corporate Equality Index (PDF)
Source: Human Rights Campaign

Human Rights Campaign Foundation’s 2014 Corporate Equality Index is the national benchmarking tool on corporate policies and practices pertinent to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender employees.

In the 2014 CEI report, 304 major businesses — spanning nearly every industry and geography — earned a top score of 100 percent and the distinction of “Best Places to Work for LGBT Equality.”

LGBT Parents on American Television

July 3, 2014 Comments off

LGBT Parents on American Television
Source: University of Southern Mississippi (Kahn)

Television is an ever changing medium used in mass communication, and people often rely on this medium for knowledge about different subjects. This study demonstrates how television depictions of marginalized groups can change over time. Focusing specifically on a subset of the LGBT community – parents – this study documents the evolution of LGBT parents on American television. A total of 14 television shows were selected for a qualitative analysis. The parents depicted in these shows were analyzed according to gender, race, class and sexuality. The results were then summarized and put into historical context. This study contributes to the fields of both media research and queer studies.

Violence Against Women: Effective Interventions and Practices with Perpetrators –- A Literature Review

July 2, 2014 Comments off

Violence Against Women: Effective Interventions and Practices with Perpetrators — A Literature Review
Source: Scottish Centre for Crime & Justice Research

The key focus of the report is on reviewing evidence about reducing re-offending in crimes of violence against women. The research evidence available provides a number of valuable insights into what works to reduce reoffending in the area of violence against women.

From Living Arrangements to Labor Force Participation, New Analysis Looks at State of the Nation’s 65-and-Older Population

July 2, 2014 Comments off

From Living Arrangements to Labor Force Participation, New Analysis Looks at State of the Nation’s 65-and-Older Population
Source: U.S. Census Bureau

A new report released today by the U.S. Census Bureau provides the latest, comprehensive look at the nation’s population aged 65 and older, comprising 40.3 million in 2010.

The 65+ in the United States: 2010 report contains many findings about the 65-and-older population on topics such as socio-economic characteristics, size and growth, geographic distribution, and longevity and health. For example, Americans 65 and older living in a nursing home fell 20 percent between 2000 and 2010, from 1.6 million to 1.3 million. Meanwhile, the share in other care settings has been growing.

In the report, a number of trends and characteristics are separated by age, sex, race and Hispanic origin for the older population. The report incorporates research and findings from many recent studies that draw heavily from the 2010 Census and nationally representative surveys, such as the Current Population Survey, American Community Survey and National Health Interview Survey.

Identifying Judicial Empathy: Does Having Daughters Cause Judges to Rule for Women’s Issues?

June 27, 2014 Comments off

Identifying Judicial Empathy: Does Having Daughters Cause Judges to Rule for Women’s Issues? (PDF)
Source: American Journal of Political Science (forthcoming)

In this article, we consider whether personal relationships can affect the way that judges decide cases. To do so, we leverage the natural experiment of a child’s gender to identify the effect of having daughters on the votes of judges. Using new data on the family lives of U.S. Courts of Appeals judges, we find that, conditional on the number of children a judge has, judges with daughters consistently vote in a more feminist fashion on gender issues than judges who have only sons. This result survives a number of robustness tests and appears to be driven primarily by Republican judges.More broadly, this result demonstrates that personal experiences influence how judges make decisions, and this is the first article to show that empathy may indeed be a component in how judges decide cases.

Home Hours in the United States and Europe

June 26, 2014 Comments off

Home Hours in the United States and Europe
Source: Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta

Using data from the Multinational Time Use Study, this paper documents the trends and levels of time allocation, with a focus on home hours, for a relatively large set of industrialized countries during the past 50 years. Three patterns emerge. First, home hours have decreased in both the United States and European countries. Second, female time allocation contributes more to the cross-country difference in both the trends and the levels of market hours and home hours per person. Third, time allocations between the United States and Europe are more similar for the prime-age group than for the young and old groups.

PRRI — Fact Sheet | Gay and Lesbian Issues

June 23, 2014 Comments off

Fact Sheet | Gay and Lesbian Issues
Source: Public Religion Research Institute

All the information you need about public opinion on gay marriage, DOMA, gay adoption, ENDA, and more.

Transgender Military Service in the United States

June 23, 2014 Comments off

Transgender Military Service in the United States
Source: Williams Institute

An estimated 150,000 transgender individuals have served in the U.S. armed forces, or are currently on active duty. In addition, an estimated 134,000 transgender individuals are veterans or are retired from Guard or Reserve service, 8,800 transgender adults are currently on active duty in the U.S. armed forces, and an estimated 6,700 transgender individuals are serving in the Guard or Reserve forces. Transgender individuals assigned female at birth are nearly three times more likely than all adult women, and those assigned male at birth are 1.6 times more likely than all adult men, to serve.

Important Information About Social Security Benefits For Same-Sex Couples (updated)

June 23, 2014 Comments off

Important Information About Social Security Benefits For Same-Sex Couples (PDF)
Source: Social Security Administration

On June 26, 2013, the Supreme Court ruled that Section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) is unconstitutional. Therefore, Social Security no longer is prevented from recognizing same-sex marriages for purposes of determining entitlement to or eligibility for benefits. Social Security is now processing some retirement, surviving spouse and lump-sum death payment claims for same-sex couples and paying benefits where they are due. If you are in, or are a surviving spouse of a same-sex marriage or other legal same-sex relationship, we encourage you to apply right away for benefits. You can apply for most benefits online at www.socialsecurity.gov/applyonline.

We also are considering same-sex marriages when processing some claims for Supplemental Security Income (SSI). Marriage may affect your SSI eligibility or payment amount.

The Role of Substance Use and Mental Health Problems in Medication Adherence Among HIV-Infected MSM

June 19, 2014 Comments off

The Role of Substance Use and Mental Health Problems in Medication Adherence Among HIV-Infected MSM
Source: LGBT Health

Mental health and substance abuse problems are highly prevalent among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) and frequently interfere with antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. Novel interventions that address underlying psychosocial health problems are necessary for improving ART adherence to enhance HIV-related health outcomes and suppress HIV viral load in an effort to prevent transmission to uninfected partners. This brief review describes the mental health problems and specific substances that pose the greatest threat to medication adherence among MSM and summarizes findings from recent intervention trials that simultaneously address ART adherence and comorbid psychosocial factors among HIV-infected MSM.

Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering

June 13, 2014 Comments off

Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering
Source: National Science Foundation

Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering provides statistical information about the participation of women, minorities, and persons with disabilities in science and engineering education and employment. A formal report, now in the form of a digest, is issued every 2 years.

The Shifting Landscape of LGBT Organizational Research

June 12, 2014 Comments off

The Shifting Landscape of LGBT Organizational Research (PDF)
Source: Harvard University

Over the past generation, sexual minorities—particularly lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) persons—have gained increased visibility in the public arena. Yet organizational research has lagged behind in recognizing and studying this category of organizational members. This article offers a critical review of this growing body of research. More specifically, we identify and discuss four dominant scholarly frames that have informed LGBT organizational research from the late nineteenth century to date. The frames include a “medical abnormality,” “deviant social role,” “collective identity,” and “social distinctiveness” view of sexual minorities. We argue that these frames have profoundly shaped the scope and range of organizational scholarship devoted to sexual minorities by showing that scholars using such contrasted frames have been drawn to very different research questions with respect to sexual minorities. We document and discuss the main and contrasted questions asked within each of these frames and show how they have both enabled and constrained LGBT organizational research. We conclude by calling for more attention to the frames organizational scholars adopt when studying sexual minorities, but also for more research on both minority and majority sexual orientations in organizations.

Women Wishing to Avoid Pregnancy Often Use Withdrawal in Conjunction with Other Contraceptive Methods

June 10, 2014 Comments off

Women Wishing to Avoid Pregnancy Often Use Withdrawal in Conjunction with Other Contraceptive Methods
Source: Guttmacher Institute

One-third of women at risk of unintended pregnancy used withdrawal as a contraceptive method within the past 30 days, often in combination or rotation with more effective methods, according to “Pull and Pray or Extra Protection? Contraceptive Strategies Involving Withdrawal Among U.S. Adult Women,” by Rachel K. Jones of the Guttmacher Institute et al. The new study, which is currently available online and will appear in a forthcoming issue of Contraception, also found that 13% of women surveyed reported that withdrawal was the most effective contraceptive method they had used in the last 30 days, while 15% reported that the most effective method used was a long-acting reversible method, 21% condoms and 35% the pill.

The study analyzed national data from 3,276 women aged 18–39 in 2012. It found that among the one-third of women who had used withdrawal in the last 30 days, 12% reported using only withdrawal; the majority of women who practiced withdrawal also used a hormonal method (13%) or condoms (11%) within that time frame.

Women aged 18–24 also were the most likely to have used withdrawal at least once in the last 30 days, and reliance on withdrawal generally decreased as women’s age increased. Moreover, younger women were especially likely to use withdrawal in combination or rotation with more effective methods such as IUDs, the injectable, patches and rings, or with condoms. Although 41% of 18–24-year-olds had used withdrawal at least once in the last 30 days, just 10% relied only on this method. Women in dating relationships and those strongly motivated to avoid pregnancy also had some of the highest levels of combining withdrawal use with condoms or highly effective methods.

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