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Archive for the ‘research institutes’ Category

Moving Up or Standing Still? Access to Middle-Skilled Work for Newly Arrived Migrants in the European Union

July 22, 2014 Comments off

Moving Up or Standing Still? Access to Middle-Skilled Work for Newly Arrived Migrants in the European Union
Source: Migration Policy Institute

Over the past 15 years, migration in Europe has changed considerably. The economic boom in the early and mid-2000s and expanded mobility owing to European Union enlargement helped create new populations of migrants from both within and beyond the European Union. These recent migrants are more educated than earlier arrivals and many are highly skilled. Against the backdrop of the global economic crisis, which profoundly affected many migrant-receiving countries in Europe, governments are grappling with questions of how to ensure that immigrants are able to find employment and progress into better jobs over time.

This overview report caps a series of six country case studies evaluating the employment outcomes for foreign-born workers in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. The study examines how easy it is for newcomers in the European Union to establish themselves in destination-country labor markets in the first ten years after arrival, and how well they are able to move out of unskilled work and into middle-skilled jobs.

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SNAP Error Rates at All-Time Lows; Steady Improvement in Payment Accuracy Reflects Program’s Extensive Quality Control System

July 21, 2014 Comments off

SNAP Error Rates at All-Time Lows; Steady Improvement in Payment Accuracy Reflects Program’s Extensive Quality Control System
Source: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities

The percentage of SNAP (formerly food stamp) benefit dollars issued to ineligible households or to eligible households in excessive amounts fell for the seventh consecutive year in 2013 to 2.61 percent, newly released U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) data show. That’s the lowest national overpayment rate since USDA began the current system of measuring error rates in 1981. The underpayment error rate fell to 0.6 percent, also the lowest on record. (See Figure 1.) The combined payment error rate — that is, the sum of the overpayment and underpayment error rates — fell to an all-time low of 3.2 percent.[1] Less than 1 percent of SNAP benefits go to households that are ineligible. In other words, more than 99 percent of SNAP benefits are issued to eligible households.

Halbig v Burwell: Potential Implications for ACA Coverage and Subsidies

July 18, 2014 Comments off

Halbig v Burwell: Potential Implications for ACA Coverage and Subsidies
Source: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

A new report quantifies what’s at stake—in terms of health coverage and dollars—in the Halbig v. Burwell decision expected soon. Urban Institute researchers estimate that 7.3 million people, or about 62 percent of the 11.8 million people expected to enroll in federally facilitated marketplaces by 2016, could lose out on $36.1 billion in subsidies. Residents in Texas and Florida would lose the most, $5.6 billion and $4.8 billion respectively in subsidies at risk in this court decision.

The Cost of Abortion, When Providers Offer Services, and Harassment of Abortion Providers All Remained Stable Between 2008 And 2012

July 18, 2014 Comments off

The Cost of Abortion, When Providers Offer Services, and Harassment of Abortion Providers All Remained Stable Between 2008 And 2012
Source: Guttmacher Institute

Access to abortion services is affected by a variety of factors, including the cost of the procedure, the gestational age limits at which providers offer services and antiabortion harassment. According to “Secondary Measures of Access to Abortion Services in the U.S., 2011-2012: Gestational Age Limits, Cost and Harassment,” by Jenna Jerman and Rachel Jones of the Guttmacher Institute, there was relatively little change in any of these measures between 2008 and 2011–2012. The new analysis relies on data from the Institute’s 16th census of all known abortion providers in the United States.

In 2011–2012, the median cost of a surgical abortion at 10 weeks’ gestation was $495, and an early medication abortion cost $500. By comparison, the inflation-adjusted charge in 2009 for the same procedures was $503 and $524, respectively. The cost varied by facility size: facilities with the largest caseloads charged the least ($450), while those that performed fewer than 30 procedures per year charged the most ($650). Because women were more likely to obtain abortions at facilities that charged less, on average, women paid $480 for a surgical procedure at 10 weeks in 2011–2012, compared with $483 in 2009 (adjusted for inflation).

Brazil’s Economic Identity

July 17, 2014 Comments off

Brazil’s Economic Identity
Source: Center for Strategic & International Studies

As the sixth BRICS summit comes to a close on July 16, this paper brings clarity to Brazil’s role in the global economy—its identity, its self-perception, and what can be expected of it. Though Brazil is no longer an “optional market” for the world’s major players, Brazil’s economic identity is ill-understood—and leans heavily on the country’s development agenda. For Brazil, this agenda informs its global strategy, demanding cautious involvement in global markets and new strategic partnerships in technology and manufacturing.

In Post-Recession Era, Young Adults Drive Continuing Rise in Multi-Generational Living

July 17, 2014 Comments off

In Post-Recession Era, Young Adults Drive Continuing Rise in Multi-Generational Living
Source: Pew Research Social & Demographic Trends

A record 57 million Americans, or 18.1% of the population of the United States, lived in multi-generational family households in 2012, double the number who lived in such households in 1980.

After three decades of steady but measured growth, the arrangement of having multiple generations together under one roof spiked during the Great Recession of 2007-2009 and has kept on growing in the post-recession period, albeit at a slower pace, according to a new Pew Research Center analysis of U.S. Census Bureau data.

Young adults ages 25 to 34 have been a major component of the growth in the population living with multiple generations since 1980—and especially since 2010. By 2012, roughly one-in-four of these young adults (23.6%) lived in multi-generational households, up from 18.7% in 2007 and 11% in 1980.

NCSL — Child Migrants to the United States

July 17, 2014 Comments off

Child Migrants to the United States
Source: National Conference of State Legislatures

The U.S. is experiencing a dramatic increase in the number of unaccompanied children arriving on the southern border, gaining humanitarian and political attention and challenging federal and state resources and management. As of June 14, 2014, more than 52,000 children have been apprehended, a doubling of arrivals compared to last year.

Federal responsibility for unaccompanied children is divided between the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Children in DHS custody who are under age 18 without a parent or guardian must be screened and transferred to HHS within 72 hours. The Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) in HHS reunites the child with family or a friend, or in approximately 10 percent of the cases, places them in foster care, pending court review of their immigration claims. After being placed either with a sponsor or in foster care, every child is put into deportation proceedings. The children may then be granted permission to stay (for example, through family visas, special immigrant juvenile visas or asylum); choose to leave voluntarily; or be removed from the United States.

The surge in children crossing the border has placed an immense strain on federal agencies to process and care for them. The agencies have responded by identifying shelters and processing facilities, redirecting staff and funds, and activating an interagency group coordinated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). DHS and the Department of Justice (DOJ) have assigned more staff to apprehend and process children and families crossing the Texas border. ORR has requested approval from Congress to address a budget shortfall for unaccompanied children by shifting funding from state-administered refugee programs.
Potential state impacts include: budget shortfalls in state administered refugee programs and implications for state services; state licensing and oversight of care providers for unaccompanied children; and communication/coordination of federal enforcement and emergency response with state law enforcement.

In a June 30, 2014 letter to congressional leaders, the president provided an update on the administration’s response to the humanitarian crisis and a request for support for an emergency supplementation appropriation. The request for $3.7 billion in emergency funding, submitted July 8, 2014, would provide an additional $3.7 billion in emergency funding: $1.6 billion to DOJ and DHS; $1.8 billion to HHS; and $300 million to the Department of State.
This brief highlights recent trends in arrivals of unaccompanied children, an overview of the federal unaccompanied minor program, federal budget proposals to respond to the increased arrivals, and benefit eligibility for unaccompanied migrant children.

ACAView: Tracking the Impact of Health Care Reform: First Observations Around the Affordable Care Act

July 16, 2014 Comments off

ACAView: Tracking the Impact of Health Care Reform: First Observations Around the Affordable Care Act
Source: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

ACAView is a joint initiative between the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and athenahealth to measure the impact of the Affordable Care Act on providers, patients and physicians from 2014 through 2016.

This first comprehensive report analyzes the impact of the ACA through May 2014. The report focuses on the provider perspective, showcasing how the ACA affects the practice patterns and economics of physicians and other care team members around the country.

Key findings from the report include:

  • Influx in New Patient Volume Not Detected
  • Health Care Reform Widening the Medicaid Gap
  • No Increase in Chronic Disease Diagnoses Among New Patients

Congress Should End – Not Extend – the Ban on State and Local Taxation of Internet Access Subscriptions

July 16, 2014 Comments off

Congress Should End – Not Extend – the Ban on State and Local Taxation of Internet Access Subscriptions
Source: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities

The Internet Tax Freedom Act (ITFA), enacted in 1998 and temporarily renewed in 2001, 2004, and 2007, imposed a moratorium on new state and local taxes on monthly Internet access fees while preserving (“grandfathering”) existing Internet access taxes. The House Judiciary Committee recently approved a bill to eliminate the grandfather provision and permanently ban all state and local taxation of Internet access subscriptions. This represents the first time that Congress has seriously considered a permanent ban on taxing Internet service for all states, including those now using these taxes to help support public services. Rather than extend ITFA indefinitely, Congress should lift the ban and let states decide whether they and their local governments will impose their sales and telecommunications taxes on Internet access charges.

How Americans Feel About Religious Groups

July 16, 2014 Comments off

How Americans Feel About Religious Groups
Source: Pew Research Religion & Public Life Project

Jews, Catholics and evangelical Christians are viewed warmly by the American public. When asked to rate each group on a “feeling thermometer” ranging from 0 to 100 – where 0 reflects the coldest, most negative possible rating and 100 the warmest, most positive rating – all three groups receive an average rating of 60 or higher (63 for Jews, 62 for Catholics and 61 for evangelical Christians). And 44% of the public rates all three groups in the warmest part of the scale (67 or higher).

Buddhists, Hindus and Mormons receive neutral ratings on average, ranging from 48 for Mormons to 53 for Buddhists. The public views atheists and Muslims more coldly; atheists receive an average rating of 41, and Muslims an average rating of 40. Fully 41% of the public rates Muslims in the coldest part of the thermometer (33 or below), and 40% rate atheists in the coldest part.

Global Opposition to U.S. Surveillance and Drones, but Limited Harm to America’s Image

July 16, 2014 Comments off

Global Opposition to U.S. Surveillance and Drones, but Limited Harm to America’s Image
Source: Pew Research Global Attitudes Project

Revelations about the scope of American electronic surveillance efforts have generated headlines around the world over the past year. And a new Pew Research Center survey finds widespread global opposition to U.S. eavesdropping and a decline in the view that the U.S. respects the personal freedoms of its people. But in most countries there is little evidence this opposition has severely harmed America’s overall image.

Trends in State Courts 2014

July 15, 2014 Comments off

Trends in State Courts 2014 (PDF)
Source: National Center for State Courts

Trends in State Courts 2014 focuses on what courts can do, and are doing, to serve the needs of society’s most vulnerable groups: juveniles and the elderly. Articles in two special sections focus on many aspects of juvenile justice and elder issues, such as the Models for Change Juvenile Justice Initiative funded by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, judicial leadership in addressing juvenile mental health issues, elder courts, and Working Interdisciplinary Networks of Guardianship Stakeholders.

Trends 2014 also addresses other topics of interest to state courts, such as improvement of jury service via technology, procedural fairness, and access to justice commissions. A new section highlights court accomplishments in each state.

Using Ethical-Response Surveys to Identify Sources of Disapproval and Concern with Facebook’s Emotional Contagion Experiment and Other Controversial Studies

July 15, 2014 Comments off

Using Ethical-Response Surveys to Identify Sources of Disapproval and Concern with Facebook’s Emotional Contagion Experiment and Other Controversial Studies
Source: Microsoft Research

We surveyed 3570 workers on Amazon’s Mechanical Turk to gauge their ethical response to five scenarios describing scientific experiments—including one scenario describing Facebook’s emotional contagion experiment. We will post an update of this paper containing the results and analysis on or after 12:01AM Pacific on Monday July 14.

The Funding of State and Local Pensions: 2013-2017

July 14, 2014 Comments off

The Funding of State and Local Pensions: 2013-2017
Source: Center for State & Local Government Excellence

Key findings:

  • Despite a strong stock market, the funded status of public plans in 2013 remained unchanged at 72 percent for two reasons: actuarial smoothed assets grew modestly, and CalPERS, one of the nation’s largest plans, significantly revised its reported funded ratio.
  • Funded levels among plans vary significantly.
  • An encouraging sign is that many sponsors appear to be paying a larger share of their annual required contribution.
  • There is slight improvement in 2013 at the top: 6 percent are 100 percent funded or better; 28 percent are more than 80 percent funded.
  • Going forward, the funded ratio is projected to gradually move above 80 percent, assuming expected stock market returns.

Analysis surveyed 114 state and 36 local plans.

Gaining Ground: Americans’ Health Insurance Coverage and Access to Care After the Affordable Care Act’s First Open Enrollment Period

July 14, 2014 Comments off

Gaining Ground: Americans’ Health Insurance Coverage and Access to Care After the Affordable Care Act’s First Open Enrollment Period
Source: Commonwealth Fund

A new Commonwealth Fund survey finds that in the wake of the Affordable Care Act’s first open enrollment period, significantly fewer working-age adults are uninsured than just before the sign-up period began, and many have used their new coverage to obtain needed care.

The uninsured rate for people ages 19 to 64 declined from 20 percent in the July-to-September 2013 period to 15 percent in the April-to-June 2014 period. An estimated 9.5 million fewer adults were uninsured. Young men and women drove a large part of the decline: the uninsured rate for 19-to-34-year-olds declined from 28 percent to 18 percent, with an estimated 5.7 million fewer young adults uninsured. By June, 60 percent of adults with new coverage through the marketplaces or Medicaid reported they had visited a doctor or hospital or filled a prescription; of these, 62 percent said they could not have accessed or afforded this care previously.

Remedial Reporting Steering Committee Calls for Common Method for Remedial Reporting

July 11, 2014 Comments off

Remedial Reporting Steering Committee Calls for Common Method for Remedial Reporting (PDF)
Source: Education Commission of the States

The Education Commission of the States (ECS) today revealed a lack of consistency across the states on how remediation is measured and reported through their new report, A Cure for Remedial Reporting Chaos: Why the U.S. Needs a Standard Method for Measuring Preparedness the First Year of College . The report analyzed how states identify, track and report the number of students referred to remedial instruction in postsecondary school.

Thirty states were found to issue annual reports for all institutions and postsecondary systems that offer remediation, yet, only 13 states of these states provide feedback to high schools on their graduates’ needs for college remedial classes.

+ Full Report (PDF)

Is Scrap Metal Theft Legislation Working for States?

July 10, 2014 Comments off

Is Scrap Metal Theft Legislation Working for States?
Source: Council of State Governments

Insurance companies, law enforcement officials and industry watchdogs have called scrap metal theft—including copper, aluminum, nickel, stainless steel and scrap iron—one of the fastest-growing crimes in the United States. State leaders have taken notice, passing a flurry of legislation meant to curb metal theft and help law enforcement find and prosecute criminals. Researchers at The Council of State Governments, in collaboration with the Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries, set out to determine if all that legislation is having an impact on metal theft rates.

To determine if state legislation has been effective at curbing metal theft, a thorough analysis is needed that starts with an evaluation of trends in metal theft incident rates at the state level. After an evaluation of the existing research and interviews with state and local officials and law enforcement personnel across all 50 states, CSG researchers concluded that metal theft data for states are not available for analysis.

Because metal theft is such a significant and widespread problem, and because accurately tracking metal theft is key to establishing evidence-based practices designed to both deter theft and to assist in the investigation and prosecution of theft, it is imperative that states evaluate ways to begin collecting these data.

Moving forward, it is unlikely data will be available on a scale necessary to perform meaningful analysis unless a widespread effort is launched to create systems to document, track and report metal theft crime uniformly and consistently. CSG researchers recommend continued discussion regarding the development of a uniform tracking system for metal theft or modifications to current systems.

Official Corruption Prosecutions Decline Under Obama

July 10, 2014 Comments off

Official Corruption Prosecutions Decline Under Obama
Source: Transactional Records Clearing House

The number of individuals prosecuted for criminal public corruption offenses during the Obama Administration has fallen from levels seen in the Bush and Clinton years. The latest available data from the Justice Department show that during the first seven months of FY 2014 the government reported 302 new official corruption prosecutions. If this activity continues at the same pace, the annual total of prosecutions will be 518 for this fiscal year. According to the case-by-case information analyzed by the Transactional Records Access Clearinghouse (TRAC), this estimate is down 18.6 percent over the past fiscal year when the number of prosecutions totaled 636.

Prosecutions over the past year are lower than they were ten years ago. Overall, the data show that prosecutions of this type are down 31.8 percent from the level of 760 reported in 2004 and down 27.1 percent from the level of 711 reported in 1994. These comparisons of the number of defendants charged with official corruption offenses are based on case-by-case information obtained by TRAC under the Freedom of Information Act from the Executive Office for United States Attorneys (see Table 1).

Repatriation Tax Holiday Would Lose Revenue And Is a Proven Policy Failure

July 9, 2014 Comments off

Repatriation Tax Holiday Would Lose Revenue And Is a Proven Policy Failure
Source: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities

Some policymakers are promoting another “repatriation tax holiday” to encourage multinational corporations to bring overseas profits back to the United States by offering them a temporary, very low tax rate on those profits. In particular, some have described a repatriation holiday as a “win-win” that would boost corporate investment and create jobs in the United States and also generate a tax windfall to help finance needed infrastructure spending. In reality, a repatriation tax holiday would accomplish neither goal and instead would worsen the nation’s fiscal and economic problems over time.

Circumlocution in Diagnostic Medical Queries

July 9, 2014 Comments off

Circumlocution in Diagnostic Medical Queries
Source: Microsoft Research

Circumlocution is when many words are used to describe what could be said with fewer, e.g., “a machine that takes moisture out of the air” instead of “dehumidifier”. Web search is a perfect backdrop for circumlocution where people struggle to name what they seek. In some domains, not knowing the correct term can have a significant impact on the search results that are retrieved. We study the medical domain, where professional medical terms are not commonly known and where the consequence of not knowing the correct term can impact the accuracy of surfaced information, as well as escalation of anxiety, and ultimately the medical care sought. Given a free-form colloquial health search query, our objective is to find the underlying professional medical term. The problem is complicated by the fact that people issue quite varied queries to describe what they have. Machine-learning algorithms can be brought to bear on the problem, but there are two key complexities: creating high-quality training data and identifying predictive features. To our knowledge, no prior work has been able to crack this important problem due to the lack of training data. We give novel solutions and demonstrate their efficacy via extensive experiments, greatly improving over the prior art.

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