Archive

Archive for the ‘research institutes’ Category

Search and Breast Cancer: On Disruptive Shifts of Attention over Life Histories of an Illness

November 24, 2014 Comments off

Search and Breast Cancer: On Disruptive Shifts of Attention over Life Histories of an Illness
Source: Microsoft Research

We seek to understand the evolving needs of people who are faced with a life-changing medical diagnosis based on analyses of queries extracted from an anonymized search query log. Focusing on breast cancer, we manually tag a set of Web searchers as showing disruptive shifts in focus of attention and long-term patterns of search behavior consistent with the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. We build and apply probabilistic classifiers to detect these searchers from multiple sessions and to detect the timing of diagnosis, using a variety of temporal and statistical features. We explore the changes in information-seeking over time before and after an inferred diagnosis of breast cancer by aligning multiple searchers by the likely time of diagnosis. We automatically identify 1700 candidate searchers with an estimated 90% precision, and we predict the day of diagnosis within 15 days with an 88% accuracy. We show that the geographic and demographic attributes of searchers identified with high probability are strongly correlated with ground truth of reported incidence rates. We then analyze the content of queries over time from searchers for whom diagnosis was predicted, using a detailed ontology of cancerrelated search terms. Our analysis reveals the rich temporal structure of the evolving queries of people likely diagnosed with breast cancer. Finally, we focus on subtypes of illness based on inferred stages of cancer and show clinically relevant dynamics of information seeking based on dominant stage expressed by searchers.

About these ads

Americans’ Perceptions of Privacy are Varied

November 24, 2014 Comments off

Americans’ Perceptions of Privacy are Varied
Source: Pew Research Internet Project

To better understand how the public thinks about privacy, a representative sample of 607 adults were asked an open-ended question in an online survey: “When you hear the word “privacy,” what comes to mind for you?” The responses that followed were striking in their variance, ranging from one-word entries to lengthier descriptions that touched on multiple concepts.

Once the responses were coded, a set of key words and themes emerged as the most frequently referenced and top-of-mind for the general public. Each of the top ten themes was referenced in at least 5% of the total responses. However, a full 22% of the responses referenced some other theme that was mentioned only a handful of times or was entirely unique.

Retirement Benefit Decisions by City and County Governments

November 21, 2014 Comments off

Retirement Benefit Decisions by City and County Governments
Source: Center for State and Local Government Excellence

Key findings:

  • Workers who work a full career in their city or county can expect a retirement income of between 45 and 80 percent of their pre-retirement income.
  • Career employees of local governments who participate in Social Security can expect retirement income replacement rates of 20 to 30 percentage points higher than employees whose governments do not participate in Social Security.
  • These and other variations mean that many local workers will need to be disciplined about participating in savings plans, outside of their primary plans, to meet their retirement security goals.

Losing the Future: The Decline of U.S. Saving and Investment

November 21, 2014 Comments off

Losing the Future: The Decline of U.S. Saving and Investment
Source: Tax Foundation

Key Findings

  • Saving and investment are necessary for a society to adequately provide for its future.
  • Saving and investment have declined substantially as a percentage of GDP over the last 40 years, and have collapsed almost entirely since the financial crisis.
  • American private saving barely keeps pace with total government deficits. On the whole, the country saves very little.
  • American investment barely keeps pace with depreciation; U.S. private and public capital stock and infrastructure deteriorates almost as quickly as it can be repaired or replaced with new investment.
  • The U.S., overall, does not save enough money to fund all of the worthwhile domestic investments and relies substantially on foreign investors to make up the difference.
  • Tax reform could help the U.S. become a forward-looking economy that invests and saves at more prudent rates.

States and the (not so) new standards — where are they now?

November 20, 2014 Comments off

States and the (not so) new standards — where are they now? (PDF)
Source: Education Commission of the States

There has been a flurry of activity around the Common Core State Standards, and while it seems the landscape is changing all the time, there has been very limited change in state standards. This report captures a snapshot of where states currently stand in regard to those standards.

Homophily, Group Size, and the Diffusion of Political Information in Social Networks: Evidence from Twitter

November 20, 2014 Comments off

Homophily, Group Size, and the Diffusion of Political Information in Social Networks: Evidence from Twitter (PDF)
Source: National Bureau of Economic Research (via University of Toronto)

In this paper, we investigate political communications in social networks characterized both by homophily–a tendency to associate with similar individuals–and group size. To generate testable hypotheses, we develop a simple theory of information diffusion in social networks with homophily and two groups: conservatives and liberals. The model predicts that, with homophily, members of the majority group have more network connections and are exposed to more information than the minority group. We also use the model to show that, with homophily and a tendency to produce like-minded information, groups are disproportionately exposed to like-minded information and the information reaches like-minded individuals more quickly than it reaches individuals of opposing ideologies. To test the hypotheses of our model, we analyze nearly 500,000 communications during the 2012 US elections in a social network of 2.2 million politically-engaged Twitter users. Consistent with the model, we find that members of the majority group in each state-level network have more connections and are exposed to more tweets than members of the minority group. Likewise, we find that groups are disproportionately exposed to like-minded information and that information reaches like-minded users more quickly than users of the opposing ideology.

Map: How Many Americans Could Lose Subsidies If the Supreme Court Rules for the Plaintiffs in King vs. Burwell?

November 20, 2014 Comments off

Map: How Many Americans Could Lose Subsidies If the Supreme Court Rules for the Plaintiffs in King vs. Burwell?
Source: Kaiser Family Foundation

This map based on Foundation analysis of Congressional Budget Office estimates of Marketplace enrollment provides a state-level breakdown of the number of Americans who in 2016 could be denied financial assistance to help pay insurance premiums for plans purchased in the Affordable Care Act’s federally operated insurance exchanges.

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 960 other followers