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Do (Even) Depressed Individuals Believe That Life Gets Better and Better? The Link Between Depression and Subjective Trajectories for Life Satisfaction

October 24, 2014 Comments off

Do (Even) Depressed Individuals Believe That Life Gets Better and Better? The Link Between Depression and Subjective Trajectories for Life Satisfaction
Source: Clinical Psychological Science

We investigated the widespread belief that life gets better and better over time—as revealed in individuals’ “subjective trajectories” for life satisfaction (LS) derived from their ratings of recollected past, current, and anticipated future LS—among depressed (i.e., current major depressive disorder, fully remitted, partially remitted) and nondepressed groups using a two-wave longitudinal sample of American adults. Linear and inclining subjective trajectories (past LS < current LS < future LS) were normative among nondepressed individuals, as were nonlinear but inclining subjective trajectories (past LS ~ current LS < future LS) among depressed individuals. Furthermore, Wave 1 temporal-perspective LS ratings uniquely predicted risk of depression 10 years later (Wave 2), even after we controlled for baseline depression status. Thus, the use of a novel temporally expanded perspective revealed that even depressed individuals view their lives as improving over time and that such beliefs predict heightened (rather than less) risk of future depression.

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Ebola Virus Disease: Information for U.S. Healthcare Workers

October 24, 2014 Comments off

Ebola Virus Disease: Information for U.S. Healthcare Workers
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration

National Call on Preparing Nurses to Safely Care for Patient with Ebola recording and transcript, plus information from the CDC, curated by CDC experts.

MedlinePlus Mobile Update: Full Access from Your Phone

October 24, 2014 Comments off

MedlinePlus Mobile Update: Full Access from Your Phone
Source: National Library of Medicine

The National Library of Medicine (NLM) released new versions of the MedlinePlus and MedlinePlus en español mobile sites in October 2014. The mobile sites can be accessed at http://m.medlineplus.gov and http://m.medlineplus.gov/spanish/, respectively (see Figure 1).

Like the original 2010 versions, these newly redesigned sites are optimized for mobile phones and tablets. Unlike the original mobile sites that contained only a subset of the information available on MedlinePlus, the new sites have all the content that you will find on MedlinePlus and MedlinePlus en español. They also have an improved design for easier use on mobile devices.

Estimating the Future Number of Cases in the Ebola Epidemic — Liberia and Sierra Leone, 2014–2015

October 24, 2014 Comments off

Estimating the Future Number of Cases in the Ebola Epidemic — Liberia and Sierra Leone, 2014–2015
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC)

The first cases of the current West African epidemic of Ebola virus disease (hereafter referred to as Ebola) were reported on March 22, 2014, with a report of 49 cases in Guinea. By August 31, 2014, a total of 3,685 probable, confirmed, and suspected cases in West Africa had been reported. To aid in planning for additional disease-control efforts, CDC constructed a modeling tool called EbolaResponse to provide estimates of the potential number of future cases. If trends continue without scale-up of effective interventions, by September 30, 2014, Sierra Leone and Liberia will have a total of approximately 8,000 Ebola cases. A potential underreporting correction factor of 2.5 also was calculated. Using this correction factor, the model estimates that approximately 21,000 total cases will have occurred in Liberia and Sierra Leone by September 30, 2014. Reported cases in Liberia are doubling every 15–20 days, and those in Sierra Leone are doubling every 30–40 days. The EbolaResponse modeling tool also was used to estimate how control and prevention interventions can slow and eventually stop the epidemic. In a hypothetical scenario, the epidemic begins to decrease and eventually end if approximately 70% of persons with Ebola are in medical care facilities or Ebola treatment units (ETUs) or, when these settings are at capacity, in a non-ETU setting such that there is a reduced risk for disease transmission (including safe burial when needed). In another hypothetical scenario, every 30-day delay in increasing the percentage of patients in ETUs to 70% was associated with an approximate tripling in the number of daily cases that occur at the peak of the epidemic (however, the epidemic still eventually ends). Officials have developed a plan to rapidly increase ETU capacities and also are developing innovative methods that can be quickly scaled up to isolate patients in non-ETU settings in a way that can help disrupt Ebola transmission in communities. The U.S. government and international organizations recently announced commitments to support these measures. As these measures are rapidly implemented and sustained, the higher projections presented in this report become very unlikely.

See also:
Importation and Containment of Ebola Virus Disease — Senegal, August–September 2014
Control of Ebola Virus Disease — Firestone District, Liberia, 2014
Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak — Nigeria, July–September 2014
Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak — West Africa, September 2014
Frequently Asked Questions About “Alternative” Therapies for Ebola (NCCAM)

Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa — The First 9 Months of the Epidemic and Forward Projections

October 24, 2014 Comments off

Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa — The First 9 Months of the Epidemic and Forward Projections
Source: New England Journal of Medicine

As of September 14, 2014, a total of 4507 confirmed and probable cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD), as well as 2296 deaths from the virus, had been reported from five countries in West Africa — Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, Senegal, and Sierra Leone. In terms of reported morbidity and mortality, the current epidemic of EVD is far larger than all previous epidemics combined. The true numbers of cases and deaths are certainly higher. There are numerous reports of symptomatic persons evading diagnosis and treatment, of laboratory diagnoses that have not been included in national databases, and of persons with suspected EVD who were buried without a diagnosis having been made

Bullying of Students with Disabilities Addressed in Guidance to America’s Schools

October 23, 2014 Comments off

Bullying of Students with Disabilities Addressed in Guidance to America’s Schools
Source: U.S. Department of Education

As part of National Bullying Prevention Awareness Month, the U.S. Education Department’s Office for Civil Rights (OCR) today issued guidance to schools reminding them that bullying is wrong and must not be tolerated—including against America’s 6.5 million students with disabilities.

The Department issued guidance in the form of a letter to educators detailing public schools’ responsibilities under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act and Title II of Americans with Disabilities Act regarding the bullying of students with disabilities. If a student with a disability is being bullied, federal law requires schools to take immediate and appropriate action to investigate the issue and, as necessary, take steps to stop the bullying and prevent it from recurring.

SSDI Reform: Promoting Gainful Employment while Preserving Economic Security

October 23, 2014 Comments off

SSDI Reform: Promoting Gainful Employment while Preserving Economic Security
Source: Cato Institute

The Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) program faces imminent insolvency. Annual expenditures totaled $143 billion in 2013, but program receipts amounted to $111 billion—a shortfall that is projected to continue indefinitely. According to the Social Security Trustees, the program’s trust fund will be fully depleted in 2016, compelling either a large benefit cut or a large tax hike—neither option being politically popular. Regardless of the program’s insolvency, SSDI creates substantial work disincentives, causing many with medical impairments who could work to withdraw from the labor force and apply for SSDI. That undesirable outcome arises from the complicated rules and procedures that SSDI uses to establish benefit eligibility. But rectifying SSDI’s processes is a monumental task, unlikely to be accomplished in the short term.

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