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Evidence-Based HIV/STD Prevention Intervention for Black Men Who Have Sex with Men

April 23, 2014 Comments off

Evidence-Based HIV/STD Prevention Intervention for Black Men Who Have Sex with Men
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC)

This report summarizes published findings of a community-based organization in New York City that evaluated and demonstrated the efficacy of the Many Men, Many Voices (3MV) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention intervention in reducing sexual risk behaviors and increasing protective behaviors among black men who have sex with men (MSM). The intervention addressed social determinants of health (e.g., stigma, discrimination, and homophobia) that can influence the health and well-being of black MSM at high risk for HIV infection. This report also highlights efforts by CDC to disseminate this evidence-based behavioral intervention throughout the United States. CDC’s Office of Minority Health and Health Equity selected the intervention analysis and discussion to provide an example of a program that might be effective for reducing HIV infection- and STD-related disparities in the United States.

3MV uses small group education and interaction to increase knowledge and change attitudes and behaviors related to HIV/STD risk among black MSM. Since its dissemination by CDC in 2004, 3MV has been used in many settings, including health department- and community-based organization programs. The 3MV intervention is an important component of a comprehensive HIV and STD prevention portfolio for at-risk black MSM. As CDC continues to support HIV prevention programming consistent with the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and its high-impact HIV prevention approach, 3MV will remain an important tool for addressing the needs of black MSM at high risk for HIV infection and other STDs.

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Bio-Piracy or Prospering Together? Fuzzy Set and Qualitative Analysis of Herbal Patenting by Firms

April 23, 2014 Comments off

Bio-Piracy or Prospering Together? Fuzzy Set and Qualitative Analysis of Herbal Patenting by Firms (PDF)
Source: Harvard Business Working Papers

Since the 1990s, several western firms have filed patents based on medicinal herbs from emerging markets, evoking protests from local stakeholders against ‘bio-piracy’. We explore conditions under which firms and local stakeholders share rents from such patents. Our theoretical model builds on two distinct strategy literatures: firms appropriating rents from new technologies and firms managing stakeholders. We predict that a win-win outcome emerges when the patent strength is moderate and when local stakeholders form a coalition with larger national stakeholders to initiate litigation against the focal firm. We test our predictions using a two-pronged empirical strategy. Our empirical context relates to herbal patents from emerging markets and given that we have a small sample (N=17), we employ a fuzzy set QCA methodology. In addition, we develop four in-depth qualitative case studies to support our predictions.

AMA: Physicians Generate $1.6 Trillion in Economic Activity, Support 10 Million Jobs

April 23, 2014 Comments off

AMA: Physicians Generate $1.6 Trillion in Economic Activity, Support 10 Million Jobs
Source: American Medical Association

A new report released today by the American Medical Association (AMA) shows that physicians have a huge influence on national and state economies beyond their role of safeguarding a healthy community and productive workforce. Patient care physicians enable economic growth, opportunity and prosperity by contributing $1.6 trillion in economic activity and supporting 10 million jobs nationwide in 2012.

The report notes that given the changing health care environment, it is paramount to quantify the economic impact physicians have on society. To provide lawmakers, regulators and policymakers with reliable information, the report measured the economic impact of physicians at the national level and in each of the 50 states and District of Columbia according to key economic barometers:

  • Output: Each physician supported an average of $2.2 million in economic output and contributed to a total of $1.6 trillion in economic output nationwide.
  • Jobs: Each physician supported an average of 13.84 jobs and contributed to a total of 10 million jobs nationwide.
  • Wages and Benefits: Each physician supported an average of $1.1 million in total wages and benefits and contributed to a total of $775.5 billion in wages and benefits nationwide.
  • Tax Revenues: Each physician supported $90,449 in local and state tax revenues and contributed to a total of $65.2 billion is local and state tax revenues nationwide.

Cannabis Use is Quantitatively Associated with Nucleus Accumbens and Amygdala Abnormalities in Young Adult Recreational Users

April 23, 2014 Comments off

Cannabis Use is Quantitatively Associated with Nucleus Accumbens and Amygdala Abnormalities in Young Adult Recreational Users (PDF)
Source: Neurobiology of Disease

Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States, but little is known about its effects on the human brain, particularly on reward/aversion regions implicated in addiction, such as the nucleus accumbens and amygdala. Animal studies show structural changes in brain regions such as the nucleus accumbens after exposure to9-tetrahydrocannabinol, but less is known about cannabis use and brain morphometry in these regions in humans. We collected high-resolution MRI scans on young adult recreational marijuana users and nonusing controls and conducted three independent analyses of morphometry in these structures: (1) gray matter density using voxel-based morphometry, (2) volume (total brain and regional volumes), and (3) shape (surface morphometry). Gray matter density analyses revealed greater gray matter density in marijuana users than in control participants in the left nucleus accumbens extending to subcallosal cortex, hypothalamus, sublenticular extended amygdala, and left amygdala, even after controlling for age, sex, alcohol use, and cigarette smoking. Trend-level effects were observed for a volume increase in the left nucleus accumbens only. Significant shape differences were detected in the left nucleus accumbens and right amygdala. The left nucleus accumbens showed salient exposure dependent alterations across all three measures and an altered multimodal relationship across measures in the marijuana group. These data suggest that marijuana exposure, even in young recreational users, is associated with exposure-dependent alterations of the neural matrix of core reward structures and is consistent with animal studies of changes in dendritic arborization.

Salt reduction in England from 2003 to 2011: its relationship to blood pressure, stroke and ischaemic heart disease mortality

April 23, 2014 Comments off

Salt reduction in England from 2003 to 2011: its relationship to blood pressure, stroke and ischaemic heart disease mortality
Source: British Medical Journal

Objectives
To determine the relationship between the reduction in salt intake that occurred in England, and blood pressure (BP), as well as mortality from stroke and ischaemic heart disease (IHD).

Design
Analysis of the data from the Health Survey for England.

Setting and participants
England, 2003 N=9183, 2006 N=8762, 2008 N=8974 and 2011 N=4753, aged ≥16 years.

Outcomes
BP, stroke and IHD mortality.

Results
From 2003 to 2011, there was a decrease in mortality from stroke by 42% (p<0.001) and IHD by 40% (p<0.001). In parallel, there was a fall in BP of 3.0±0.33/1.4±0.20 mm Hg (p<0.001/p<0.001), a decrease of 0.4±0.02 mmol/L (p<0.001) in cholesterol, a reduction in smoking prevalence from 19% to 14% (p<0.001), an increase in fruit and vegetable consumption (0.2±0.05 portion/day, p<0.001) and an increase in body mass index (BMI; 0.5±0.09 kg/m2, p<0.001). Salt intake, as measured by 24 h urinary sodium, decreased by 1.4 g/day (p<0.01). It is likely that all of these factors (with the exception of BMI), along with improvements in the treatments of BP, cholesterol and cardiovascular disease, contributed to the falls in stroke and IHD mortality. In individuals who were not on antihypertensive medication, there was a fall in BP of 2.7±0.34/1.1±0.23 mm Hg (p<0.001/p<0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, ethnic group, education, household income, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable intake and BMI. Although salt intake was not measured in these participants, the fact that the average salt intake in a random sample of the population fell by 15% during the same period suggests that the falls in BP would be largely attributable to the reduction in salt intake rather than antihypertensive medications.

Conclusions
The reduction in salt intake is likely to be an important contributor to the falls in BP from 2003 to 2011 in England. As a result, it would have contributed substantially to the decreases in stroke and IHD mortality.

School Shooters: History, Current Theoretical and Empirical Findings, and Strategies for Prevention

April 23, 2014 Comments off

School Shooters: History, Current Theoretical and Empirical Findings, and Strategies for Prevention
Source: Sage Open

Situations involving active shooters in schools have increased in recent years. We define an “active shooter incident” as an occurrence where one or more individuals participate in an ongoing, random, or systematic shooting spree with the objective of multiple or mass murders. Attempts to build a profile of active school shooters have been unsuccessful to date, although there is some evidence to suggest that mental instability, social isolation, a self-perception of catastrophic loss, and access to weapons play a role in the identification of the shooter in a school shooting incident. This article details theories and after-the-fact findings of investigations on previous school shooters, and we offer an application of Levin and Madfis’s Five Stage Sequential Model to Adam Lanza, the perpetrator of the massacre at Sandy Hook Elementary School in December, 2012. Prevention strategies, suggestions for positive school climates, school security for the physical plants, and threat assessments are discussed, and implications for future research are offered.

HHS OIG — Annual Fee on Branded Prescription Drug Companies Under the Affordable Care Act

April 23, 2014 Comments off

Annual Fee on Branded Prescription Drug Companies Under the Affordable Care Act
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General

WHY WE DID THIS STUDY
Section 9008 of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), as amended, directs branded prescription drug companies to pay to the Secretary of the Treasury fees totaling $2.5 billion in 2011, $2.8 billion in 2012, and $2.8 billion in 2013. Companies are required to pay their fees to the Department of the Treasury (Treasury) each year by September 30. An amount equal to the fees received by Treasury each year is to be transferred to the Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance (Medicare Part B) Trust Fund (hereinafter referred to as the Trust Fund). The total annual fee amount to be paid will rise to $4.1 billion in 2018, then will return to $2.8 billion in 2019 and remain at that level thereafter.

HOW WE DID THIS STUDY
We requested from CMS the total amount received by the Trust Fund for the 2011 and 2012 fee years and the dates these transfers were completed. We then compared these data to the Trust Fund data publicly available on Treasury’s Web site. We also requested CMS’s policies and procedures, conducted interviews, and sent questionnaires to the agency regarding these fees.

WHAT WE FOUND
We found that the Trust Fund received $2.5 billion for the 2011 fee, which equals the full amount that was to be paid by the companies for 2011. Of this amount, $1.876 billion was received by the Trust Fund in September 2011 and $624 million was received in December 2011. For the 2012 fee, the Trust Fund received all but $245,000 of the $2.8 billion amount that the ACA provides for the 2012 fee. The Trust Fund received $2.184 billion in September 2012, $603 million in April 2013, and $13 million in May 2013. According to CMS, after we sent our data request for the 2011 and 2012 fee years, the Trust Fund received approximately $2.6 billion in October 2013 and $199 million in December 2013, which is all but $693,000 of the $2.8 billion amount that the ACA provides for the 2013 fee. This means that between September 2011 and December 2013, the Trust Fund received all but $938,000 of the total $8.1 billion amount the ACA provides for the first 3 fee years. For the 2011 and 2012 fees, CMS used data that it received from Treasury to report on the fee’s activity and make actuarial projections.

WHAT WE CONCLUDE
Although the funds from the annual fee are allocated to the Part B Trust Fund, the ACA grants to Treasury the responsibility of administering the fee process, including transferring the fee to the Trust Fund. To the extent that the fees were not in the Trust Fund, the Trust Fund may have missed an opportunity to earn interest income on these fees. Our results indicate that it may be beneficial for CMS to periodically monitor the status of this fee in the Trust Fund, and to contact Treasury if CMS finds that the full amount to be collected under the ACA each year has not been received.

One Year after West, Texas: One in Ten Students Attends School in the Shadow of a Risky Chemical Facility

April 23, 2014 Comments off

One Year after West, Texas: One in Ten Students Attends School in the Shadow of a Risky Chemical Facility
Source: Center for Effective Government

One year after the fertilizer facility explosion in West, Texas, which destroyed and severely damaged nearby schools, an analysis by the Center for Effective Government finds that nearly one in ten American schoolchildren live and study within one mile of a potentially dangerous chemical facility.

The analysis, displayed through an online interactive map, shows that 4.6 million children at nearly 10,000 schools across the country are within a mile of a facility that reports to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Risk Management Program. Factories, refineries, and other facilities that report to the program produce, use, and/or store significant quantities of certain hazardous chemicals identified by EPA as particularly risky to human health or the environment if they are spilled, released into the air, or are involved in an explosion or fire.

Pet Dog Ownership Decisions for Parents of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

April 23, 2014 Comments off

Pet Dog Ownership Decisions for Parents of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (PDF)
Source: Journal of Pediatric Nursing (pre-publication dissertation)

This study compared the social skills of children wit h Autism Spectrum Disorder who lived with dogs and those who did not live with dogs. Interaction with dogs was investigated in this population, along with the attachment of those children who lived with dogs. This cross – sectional, descriptive study was conducted using a telephone survey. Seventy caregivers rated their child using the Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scale, and responded to open – ended questions regarding their child’s interaction with dogs. Children living with dogs completed the Companion A nimal Bonding Scale . Two – sample t – tests were used for comparison of children with and without dogs. Thematic analysis was used to evaluate the qualitative data. In seven of eight social skill areas, the mean social skill scores of children with dogs were greater than for those without dogs . Eighty – nine percent of parents with dogs described their child as “ very attached ” and children reported high bonding to their dogs using the CABS. Parents indicat ed the benefits of dog ownership for their child with ASD were companionship, unconditional love and responsibility opportunities. The findings suggest that dog ownership may be beneficial for some children with ASD.

The Association for University and College Counseling Center Directors Annual Survey (Reporting period: September 1, 2012 through August 31, 2013)

April 22, 2014 Comments off

The Association for University and College Counseling Center Directors Annual Survey (PDF)
Source: Association for University and College Counseling Center Directors

Anxiety continues to be the most predominant presenting concern among college students ( 46.2%; up from 41.6% in 2012 ), followed by depression ( 39.3%, up from 36.4% in 2012 ), and relationship problems (35.8% , unchanged from 2012 ). Other commo n concerns are suicidal ideation ( 17.9%, up from 16.1% in 2012 ), alcohol abuse (9.9% , down from 11% in 2012 ), and sexual assault ( 7.4%, down from 9.2 % in 2012 ).

CRS — What Is the Farm Bill? (updated)

April 22, 2014 Comments off

What Is the Farm Bill? (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via Federation of American Scientists)

The farm bill is an omnibus, multi-year piece of authorizing legislation that governs an array of agricultural and food programs. Titles in the most recent farm bill encompassed farm commodity price and income supports, farm credit, trade, agricultural conservation, research, rural development, bioenergy, foreign food aid, and domestic nutrition assistance. Although agricultural policies sometimes are created and changed by freestanding legislation or as part of other major laws, the farm bill provides a predictable opportunity for policy makers to comprehensively and periodically address agricultural and food issues. The farm bill is renewed about every five years.

Elevated Levels of Mercury Found in Fish in Western U.S. National Parks

April 22, 2014 Comments off

Elevated Levels of Mercury Found in Fish in Western U.S. National Parks
Source: U.S. Geological Survey

Mercury has been discovered in fish in some of the most remote national park lakes and streams in the western United States and Alaska. Mercury levels in some fish exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency health thresholds for potential impacts to fish, birds, and humans.

The information about mercury, and its appearance in protected areas considered to be relatively pristine and removed from environmental contaminants, is in a recently published scientific report from the U.S. Geological Survey and National Park Service.

The study of mercury in fish is the first of its kind to incorporate information from remote places at 21 national parks in 10 western states, including Alaska. Western parks were selected for this study because of the significant role that atmospheric mercury deposition plays in remote places, and the lack of broad-scale assessments on mercury in fish in remote areas of the west.

Mercury concentrations in fish sampled from these parks were generally low, but were elevated in some instances. This study examines total mercury in fish, of which 95 percent is in the form of methylmercury, the most dangerous form to human and wildlife health.

Mercury is harmful to human and wildlife health, and is among the most widespread contaminants in the world. It is distributed at a global scale from natural sources, such as volcanic eruptions and from human sources such as burning fossil fuels in power plants. Mercury is distributed at local or regional scales as a result of current and historic mining activities. These human activities have increased levels of atmospheric mercury at least three fold during the past 150 years.

Characteristics of the Population With Consumer-Driven and High-Deductible Health Plans, 2005–2013; and Labor-force Participation Rates of the Population Ages 55 and Older, 2013

April 21, 2014 Comments off

Characteristics of the Population With Consumer-Driven and High-Deductible Health Plans, 2005–2013; and Labor-force Participation Rates of the Population Ages 55 and Older, 2013 (PDF)
Source: Employee Benefit Research Institute

Characteristics of the Population With Consumer-Driven and High-Deductible Health Plans, 2005–2013

  • The population of adults within consumer-driven (CDHPs), high-deductible (HDHP) and traditional health plans was split about 50–50 between men and women in 2013.
  • The CDHP population was more likely than traditional-plan enrollees to be in households with $150,000 or more in income in every year except 2006, 2009 and 2010. They were also more likely to be in households with $100,000–$149,999 in income in most years.
  • CDHP enrollees were roughly twice as likely as individuals with traditional coverage to have college or post-graduate educations in nearly all years of the survey.
  • CDHP enrollees have consistently reported better health status than traditional-plan enrollees, exhibiting better health behavior than traditional-plan enrollees with respect to smoking and (except for 2010 and 2011), exercise, and sometimes obesity rates.

Labor-force Participation Rates of the Population Ages 55 and Older, 2013

  • The labor-force participation rate for those ages 55 and older rose throughout the 1990s and into the 2000s, when it began to level off but with a small increase following the 2007–2008 economic downturn.
  • For those ages 55–64, the upward trend was driven almost exclusively by the increased labor-force participation of women, whereas the male participation rate was flat to declining. However, among those ages 65 or older, the rate increased for both males and females over that period.
  • This upward trend in labor-force participation by older workers is likely related to workers’ current need for continued access to employment-based health insurance and for more years of earnings to accumulate savings in defined contribution (401(k)-type) plans and/or to pay down debt. Many Americans also want to work longer, especially those with more education for whom more meaningful jobs are available that can be performed into older ages.
  • Younger workers’ labor-force participation rates increased when that of older workers declined or remained low during the late 1970s to the early 1990s. But as younger workers’ rates began to decline in the late 1990s, those for older workers continuously increased. Consequently, it appears either that older workers filled the void left by younger workers’ lower participation, or that higher older-worker participation limited the opportunities for younger workers or discouraged them from participating in the labor force.

New From the GAO

April 21, 2014 Comments off

New GAO Reports
Source: Government Accountability Office

1. Department of Health and Human Services: Solicitations of Support for Enroll America. GAO-14-305R, March 21.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-305R

2. Private Pensions: Pension Tax Incentives Update. GAO-14-334R, March 20.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-334R

3. Internal Revenue Service: Absorbing Budget Cuts Has Resulted in Significant Staffing Declines and Uneven Performance. GAO-14-534R, April 21.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-534R

Attitudes toward Health Insurance and Their Persistence over Time, Adults, 2001–2011

April 21, 2014 Comments off

Attitudes toward Health Insurance and Their Persistence over Time, Adults, 2001–2011
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

Highlights

In 2011, 12.1 percent of adults agreed with the statement “I’m healthy enough that I really don’t need health insurance,” in contrast to only 9.0 percent of adults in the prior decade (2001). In addition, 24.3 percent of adults agreed with the statement “Health insurance is not worth the money it costs” in 2011 relative to 21.8 percent of adults in 2001.

An examination of the persistence in attitudes over a two-year interval also revealed substantial shifts in preferences within individuals over time. For years 2010 and 2011, 12.6 percent of the same individuals indicated “health insurance is not worth the money it costs” in both years, in contrast to 9.8 percent for the 2001–2002 period. In addition, 5.2 percent of the same individuals indicated “I’m healthy enough that I really don’t need health insurance” in 2010 and 2011 in contrast to 3.2 percent for 2001–2002.

In both 2001 and 2011, uninsured adults ages 18–64 were substantially more likely to indicate they were healthy and did not need health insurance, relative to their insured counterparts. They were also more likely to indicate that health insurance was not worth its cost, relative to those with coverage.

Employment Services and Supports Available to Veterans with Disabilities Through the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and Other Federal Agencies

April 19, 2014 Comments off

Employment Services and Supports Available to Veterans with Disabilities Through the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and Other Federal Agencies (PDF)
Source: Mathematica Center for Studying Disability Policy

The number of military personnel incurring disability in current military conflicts is the highest in over three decades. Since 2001, over 1.6 million service members, Reservists, and National Guard have been deployed to Iraq, Afghanistan, and other Middle Eastern nations. As noted by Lew et al. (2007), advances in medical innovations and body armor have enabled 90 percent of soldiers to survive injuries that would have likely been fatal in previous wars, but many service personnel survive with serious physical and psychological injuries.

The Federal government has recently responded to the growing number of service members with disabilities in several ways. President Obama has signed executive orders to improve federal government hiring of veterans and to require federal agencies to contract with veteran owned agencies. The 2011 American Jobs Act added tax credits to employers hiring veterans with service co nnected disabilities. That same year, the Veterans Opportunity to Work (VOW) to Hire Heroes Act was passed and signed into law . The VOW Act provides additional tax credit and training funds for unemployed veterans to prepare them for employment.

Many federal agencies will be involved in the implementation of these initiatives. Employment services and supports for veterans with disabilities is primarily provided by the VA, but the Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Labor (DoL) also operate program s specifically targeting veterans with disabilities. Veterans also access other employment service programs that target all individuals with disabilities or persons in need specialized support to obtain employment.

T his report provides an overview of Federally – funded employment services and supports that can be accessed by veterans with disabilities, including those designed to meet the needs of the disabled veteran population specifically, the veteran population in general, and the disability population in general. The purpose is to present a comprehensive cataloging and review of all employment resources of which veterans with disabilities could access in pursuit of wage and self – employment.

The Future of U.S. Health Care Spending

April 18, 2014 Comments off

The Future of U.S. Health Care Spending
Source: Brookings Institution

For several decades health spending in the United States rose much faster than other spending. Forecasters predicted the health sector, already 17% of GDP, would soon exceed 20 to 25% of GDP, driving out other necessary public and private spending. However, in recent years health spending growth dropped dramatically and surprisingly, to a record slow pace for the fourth straight year in 2012. It is not clear why this turn around occurred or how long it will last.

On Friday, April 11th the Engelberg Center for Health Care Reform at Brookings brought together several experts to discuss three questions that will also be addressed in a forthcoming series of Brookings papers. The discussion and papers address the causes of the slowdown and the likelihood it will continue; its impact on federal and state budgets, and private spending; and identify reforms that will ensure slow cost growth while improving health.

Papers presented:

New From the GAO

April 18, 2014 Comments off

New GAO Reports
Source: Government Accountability Office

1. Nuclear Weapons: Technology Development Efforts for the Uranium Processing Facility. GAO-14-295, April 18.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-295
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/662665.pdf

2. Maritime Infrastructure: Key Issues Related to Commercial Activity in the U.S. Arctic over the Next Decade. GAO-14-299, March 19.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-299
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/661762.pdf

3. Medicare Imaging Accreditation: Effect on Access to Advanced Diagnostic Imaging Is Unclear amid Other Policy Changes. GAO-14-378, April 18.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-378
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/662659.pdf

4. Large Partnerships: Characteristics of Population and IRS Audits. GAO-14-379R, March 19.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-379R

UNODC — Global Study on Homicide 2013 (released 4/10/14)

April 18, 2014 Comments off

Global Study on Homicide 2013
Source: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
From press release (PDF):

Almost half a million people (437,000) across the world lost their lives in 2012 as a result of intentional homicide, according to a new study by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).

Launching the Global Study on Homicide 2013 in London today, Jean-Luc Lemahieu, Director for Policy Analysis and Public Affairs, said: “Too many lives are being tragically cut short, too many families and communities left shattered. There is an urgent need to understand how violent crime is plaguing countries around the world, particularly affecting young men but also taking a heavy toll on women.”

Globally, some 80 per cent of homicide victims a nd 95 per cent of perpetrato rs are men. Almost 15 per cent of all homicides stem from domestic violence (63,600). However, the overwhelming majority – almost 70 per cent – of domestic violence fatalities are women (43,600). “Home can be the most dangerous place for a woman,” said Mr . Lemahieu. “It is particularly heart-breaking when those who should be protecting their loved ones are the very people responsible for their murder.”

Over half of all homicide victims are under 30 years of age, with children under the age of 15 accounting for just over 8 per cent of all homicides (36,000), the Study highlighted.

Health Literacy and Numeracy: Workshop Summary (2014)

April 18, 2014 Comments off

Health Literacy and Numeracy: Workshop Summary (2014)
Source: Institute of Medicine

Although health literacy is commonly defined as an individual trait, it does not depend on the skills of individuals alone. Health literacy is the product of the interaction between individuals’ capacities and the health literacy-related demands and complexities of the health care system. Specifically, the ability to understand, evaluate, and use numbers is important to making informed health care choices.

Health Literacy and Numeracy is the summary of a workshop convened by The Institute of Medicine Roundtable on Health Literacy in July 2013 to discuss topics related to numeracy, including the effects of ill health on cognitive capacity, issues with communication of health information to the public, and communicating numeric information for decision making. This report includes a paper commissioned by the Roundtable, “Numeracy and the Affordable Care Act: Opportunities and Challenges,” that discusses research findings about people’s numeracy skill levels; the kinds of numeracy skills that are needed to select a health plan, choose treatments, and understand medication instructions; and how providers should communicate with those with low numeracy skills. The paper was featured in the workshop and served as the basis of discussion.

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