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Body Mass Index, Sex, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among Hispanic/Latino Adults: Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

July 30, 2014 Comments off

Body Mass Index, Sex, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among Hispanic/Latino Adults: Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos
Source: Journal of the American Heart Association

Background
All major Hispanic/Latino groups in the United States have a high prevalence of obesity, which is often severe. Little is known about cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among those at very high levels of body mass index (BMI).

Methods and Results
Among US Hispanic men (N=6547) and women (N=9797), we described gradients across the range of BMI and age in CVD risk factors including hypertension, serum lipids, diabetes, and C‐reactive protein. Sex differences in CVD risk factor prevalences were determined at each level of BMI, after adjustment for age and other demographic and socioeconomic variables. Among those with class II or III obesity (BMI ≥35 kg/m2, 18% women and 12% men), prevalences of hypertension, diabetes, low high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and high C‐reactive protein level approached or exceeded 40% during the fourth decade of life. While women had a higher prevalence of class III obesity (BMI ≥40 kg/m2) than did men (7% and 4%, respectively), within this highest BMI category there was a >50% greater relative prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia in men versus women, while sex differences in prevalence of these CVD risk factors were ≈20% or less at other BMI levels.

Conclusions
Elevated BMI is common in Hispanic/Latino adults and is associated with a considerable excess of CVD risk factors. At the highest BMI levels, CVD risk factors often emerge in the earliest decades of adulthood and they affect men more often than women.

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2014 Multicultural Population Quick Facts

July 22, 2014 Comments off

2014 Multicultural Population Quick Facts
Source: AARP Research

This set of fact sheets provides a one-page snapshot of 50+ African American and Hispanic populations in select metropolitan markets.

Each fact sheet includes information on the population size, education, employment, income, grandparents living with grandchildren, food insecurity and buying power. Hispanic/Latino fact sheets also include data on citizenship status and English language use.

Data points are based on the most recent available from cited sources and represent the 50+ population unless otherwise indicated.

From Living Arrangements to Labor Force Participation, New Analysis Looks at State of the Nation’s 65-and-Older Population

July 2, 2014 Comments off

From Living Arrangements to Labor Force Participation, New Analysis Looks at State of the Nation’s 65-and-Older Population
Source: U.S. Census Bureau

A new report released today by the U.S. Census Bureau provides the latest, comprehensive look at the nation’s population aged 65 and older, comprising 40.3 million in 2010.

The 65+ in the United States: 2010 report contains many findings about the 65-and-older population on topics such as socio-economic characteristics, size and growth, geographic distribution, and longevity and health. For example, Americans 65 and older living in a nursing home fell 20 percent between 2000 and 2010, from 1.6 million to 1.3 million. Meanwhile, the share in other care settings has been growing.

In the report, a number of trends and characteristics are separated by age, sex, race and Hispanic origin for the older population. The report incorporates research and findings from many recent studies that draw heavily from the 2010 Census and nationally representative surveys, such as the Current Population Survey, American Community Survey and National Health Interview Survey.

Latino Jobs Growth Driven by U.S. Born

June 24, 2014 Comments off

Latino Jobs Growth Driven by U.S. Born
Source: Pew Research Hispanic Trends Project

For the first time in nearly two decades, immigrants do not account for the majority of Hispanic workers in the United States. Meanwhile, most of the job gains made by Hispanics during the economic recovery from the Great Recession of 2007-09 have gone to U.S.-born workers, according to a new Pew Research Center analysis of government data.

In 2013, 49.7% of the more than 22 million employed Latinos were immigrants. This share was down sharply from the pre-recession peak of 56.1% in 2007. Although Latinos have gained 2.8 million jobs since the recession ended in 2009, only 453,000 of those went to immigrants. Moreover, all of the increase in employment for Latino immigrants happened in the first two years of the recovery, from 2009 to 2011. Since then, from 2011 to 2013, the employment of Latino immigrants is unchanged.

This development is mostly due to the waning inflow of Hispanic immigrants. The Great Recession, a tepid jobs recovery, tighter border controls and more deportations have served to mitigate migration to the U.S. from Latin America, especially Mexico, in recent years.1 Since the recession started in December 2007, the growth in the Latino immigrant workforce (people ages 16 and older) has slowed dramatically even as the Latino U.S.-born workforce continues to expand at a rapid pace.

Health of Hispanic Moms and Babies a Growing Concern, New Report Says

June 19, 2014 Comments off

Health of Hispanic Moms and Babies a Growing Concern, New Report Says
Source: March of Dimes

Hispanic women are significantly more likely to have a baby with a neural tube birth defect, and nearly a quarter of all preterm births in the United States are Hispanic, according to a new report from the March of Dimes.

Hispanic Nativity Shift; U.S. births drive population growth as immigration stalls

May 19, 2014 Comments off

Hispanic Nativity Shift; U.S. births drive population growth as immigration stalls
Source: Pew Research Hispanic Trends Project

After four decades of rapid growth (Brown, 2014), the number of Latino immigrants in the U.S. reached a record 18.8 million in 2010, but has since stalled, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of U.S. Census Bureau data.1 Since 2000, the U.S.-born Latino population continued to grow at a faster rate than the immigrant population. As a result, the foreign-born share of Latinos is now in decline.

Among Hispanic adults in 2012, 49.8% were born in another country, down from a peak of 55% in 2007. Among all Hispanics, the share foreign-born was 35.5% in 2012, down from about 40% earlier in the 2000s.

The slowdown in growth of the Hispanic foreign-born population coincides with a decline in Mexican migration to the U.S. Today, about as many people from Mexico are leaving the U.S. as entering, after four decades of explosive growth (Passel, Cohn and Gonzalez-Barrera, 2012). Many factors have played a role in this trend, including the U.S. economic downturn, stepped-up border enforcement, growing dangers associated with illegal border crossings and demographic and economic changes in Mexico.2

Even as the share of Latino immigrants decreases, rapid growth in the number of Latino births means the Latino population will continue to grow at a steady clip. Latinos are the nation’s largest minority, and one of its fastest growing. Since 1970, the Latino population has increased sixfold, from 9.1 million to 53 million by 2012. It is projected to grow to 129 million by 2060, according to the latest projections from the U.S. Census Bureau (2012). Its share of the U.S. population, currently at 17%, is expected to reach 31% by 2060.

State of the Media: Audio Today—a Focus on African American and Hispanic Audiences

May 15, 2014 Comments off

State of the Media: Audio Today—a Focus on African American and Hispanic Audiences
Source: Nielsen

Radio consumption across the U.S. continues to grow, as nearly 92 percent of Americans 12 or older are tuning in each week. That’s 244.4 million of us, a record high.

The growth is remarkable considering the variety and number of media choices available to consumers today over-the-air and online via smartphones, tablets, notebooks/desktop computers and digital dashboards. Radio’s hyper-local nature uniquely serves each market which keeps it tied strongly to our daily lives no matter how (or where) we tune in.

The radio landscape is a diverse community of listeners from every corner of America that reflects the same population trends of the country as a whole. Radio is one of the original mass mediums, and as the U.S. population grows and the makeup of our citizens changes, radio audiences follow suit.

Alongside the national growth, African American and Hispanic listenership has also reached a historic high, as more than 71 million from these demographics tune in each week. Combined, these listeners account for nearly a third (29.6%) of the total national audience.

These multicultural audiences are highly engaged with radio all across the country, in markets large and small, where more than 3,000 different stations program to them specifically.

Free registration required to download report.

New Report Documents Black and Latino Communities at Higher Risk for Chemical Catastrophe

May 15, 2014 Comments off

New Report Documents Black and Latino Communities at Higher Risk for Chemical Catastrophe
Source: Center for Effective Government

The Environmental Justice and Health Alliance (EJHA), a national coalition of grassroots groups working on toxic chemical exposures that impact communities of color, released a new report today in collaboration with the Center for Effective Government and Coming Clean. The report – Who’s in Danger? A Demographic Analysis of Chemical Disaster Vulnerability Zones – uses data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Census to demonstrate an association between lower average housing values, incomes, and education levels, higher rates of poverty, and that many Black, Latino, and low-income populations are living within chemical disaster “vulnerability zones” of 3,433 industrial facilities across the U.S. The risk of danger is much greater for people Black & Latino communities than for the U.S. as a whole – the very definition of an unequal or disproportionate danger.

The Shifting Religious Identity of Latinos in the United States

May 8, 2014 Comments off

The Shifting Religious Identity of Latinos in the United States
Source: Pew Research Hispanic Trends Project

Most Hispanics in the United States continue to belong to the Roman Catholic Church. But the Catholic share of the Hispanic population is declining, while rising numbers of Hispanics are Protestant or unaffiliated with any religion. Indeed, nearly one-in-four Hispanic adults (24%) are now former Catholics, according to a major, nationwide survey of more than 5,000 Hispanics by the Pew Research Center. Together, these trends suggest that some religious polarization is taking place in the Hispanic community, with the shrinking majority of Hispanic Catholics holding the middle ground between two growing groups (evangelical Protestants and the unaffiliated) that are at opposite ends of the U.S. religious spectrum.

Income of the Population 55 or Older, 2012 (released April 2014)

April 23, 2014 Comments off

Income of the Population 55 or Older, 2012
Source: Social Security Administration

This biennial report presents detailed statistical information on the major sources and amounts of income for people aged 55 or older. The tabulations focus on the major sources of total income by age, sex, marital status, race, and Hispanic origin. Several tables describe the economic situation of the aged with varying levels of Social Security benefits. Their poverty status is presented in terms of the income of the families they live with.

Race Reporting Among Hispanics: 2010

March 31, 2014 Comments off

Race Reporting Among Hispanics: 2010
Source: U.S. Census Bureau

This working paper shows how Hispanics reported their race on the 2010 Census questionnaire, with a unique emphasis on Hispanics who self-reported their origin. The paper provides an overall demographic description of the Latino population and examines different responses to the race question by selected demographic characteristics and geography.

How Do E-Verify Mandates Affect Unauthorized Immigrant Workers?

March 11, 2014 Comments off

How Do E-Verify Mandates Affect Unauthorized Immigrant Workers? (PDF)
Source: Institute for the Study of Labor

A number of states have adopted laws that require employers to use the federal government’s E-Verify program to check workers’ eligibility to work legally in the United States. Using data from the Current Population Survey, this study examines whether such laws affect labor market outcomes among Mexican immigrants who are likely to be unauthorized. We find evidence that E-Verify mandates reduce average hourly earnings among likely unauthorized male Mexican immigrants while increasing labor force participation and employment among likely unauthorized female Mexican immigrants. In contrast, the mandates appear to lead to better labor market outcomes among workers likely to compete with unauthorized immigrants. Employment and earnings rise among male Mexican immigrants who are naturalized citizens in states that adopt E-Verify mandates, and earnings rise among U.S.-born Hispanic men.

NIH releases comprehensive new data outlining Hispanic/Latino health and habits

February 27, 2014 Comments off

NIH releases comprehensive new data outlining Hispanic/Latino health and habits
Source: National Institutes of Health

A comprehensive health and lifestyle analysis of people from a range of Hispanic/ Latino origins shows that this segment of the U.S. population is diverse, not only in ancestry, culture, and economic status, but also in the prevalence of several diseases, risk factors, and lifestyle habits.

These health data are derived from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), a landmark study that enrolled about 16,415 Hispanic/Latino adults living in San Diego, Chicago, Miami, and the Bronx, N.Y., who self-identified with Central American, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, or South American origins. These new findings have been compiled and published as the Hispanic Community Health Study Data Book: A Report to the Communities.

Updated Estimates of Hispanic-White Wage Gaps for Men and Women

January 9, 2014 Comments off

Updated Estimates of Hispanic-White Wage Gaps for Men and Women (PDF)
Source: American Economic Association

We incorporate controls for cost of living in updated estimates of Hispanic-white wage gaps for men and women using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97). Conditional on pre-market skills (i.e., years of education and AFQT score) and cost of living, Hispanic men earn significantly lower hourly wages than non-Hispanic white men. The gap is concentrated among men with relatively low levels of education—high school degree or less. Conditional on pre-market skills, Hispanic women earn significantly higher wages than non-Hispanic white women, but the difference disappears after controlling for cost of living. We also show that non-immigrant Hispanics in the NLSY97 are rather representative of non-immigrant Hispanics in the U.S. overall (measured with the larger American Community Survey). However, immigrant Hispanics in the NLSY97 have higher levels of education and wages than the immigrant Hispanics in the ACS, even after restricting to those ACS respondents who have been in the U.S. since 1997. Researchers should take this limitation into account when extrapolating results for Hispanic immigrants in the NLSY97 to the Hispanic population as a whole.

Fact Sheet — The Economic Status of Women of Color: a Snapshot

December 4, 2013 Comments off

Fact Sheet — The Economic Status of Women of Color: a Snapshot (PDF)
Source: U.S. Department of Labor

Fifty-eight percent of women in the United States age 16 and over participate in the labor force (working or looking for work). This includes 57 percent of White women, 60 percent of Black women, 57 percent of Hispanic women, and 57 percent of Asian women.

Our nation’s 67 million working women hold nearly half of today’s jobs. Of these 67 million working women, about 52.8 million are White, 8.6 million are Black, and 3.6 million are Asian. Women of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity (who may be of any race) make up 9.2 million of the 67 million women workers.

The fact sheets highlight the different situations of the larger populations of women of color in the U.S. labor force. It assembles selected Federal government data and statistical resources to present a picture of the economic status of Black, Asian, and Hispanic women in the labor force. Sufficient data were not available on the relatively smaller populations of American Indian, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian, and other Pacific Islander women in the labor force, so they are excluded.

Marriage and divorce: patterns by gender, race, and educational attainment

October 29, 2013 Comments off

Marriage and divorce: patterns by gender, race, and educational attainment
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), this article examines marriages and divorces of young baby boomers born during the 1957–1964 period. The article presents data on marriages and divorces by age, gender, race, and Hispanic origin, as well as by educational attainment.

Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults: United States, 2011–2012

October 18, 2013 Comments off

Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults: United States, 2011–2012
Source: National Center for Health Statistics

Key findings
Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011–2012

  • More than one-third (34.9%) of adults were obese in 2011–2012.
  • In 2011–2012, the prevalence of obesity was higher among middle-aged adults (39.5%) than among younger (30.3%) or older (35.4%) adults.
  • The overall prevalence of obesity did not differ between men and women in 2011–2012. Among non-Hispanic black adults, however, 56.6% of women were obese compared with 37.1% of men.
  • In 2011–2012, the prevalence of obesity was higher among non-Hispanic black (47.8%), Hispanic (42.5%), and non-Hispanic white (32.6%) adults than among non-Hispanic Asian adults (10.8%).
  • The prevalence of obesity among adults did not change between 2009–2010 and 2011–2012.

2013 Hispanic Values Survey: How Shifting Religious Identities and Experiences are Influencing Hispanic Approaches to Politics

September 27, 2013 Comments off

2013 Hispanic Values Survey: How Shifting Religious Identities and Experiences are Influencing Hispanic Approaches to Politics
Source: Public Religion Research Institute
From press release:

Compared to the Democratic Party, Hispanics are twice as likely to volunteer negative associations about the Republican Party, are more than three times less likely to say the Republican Party cares about people like them, and are half as likely to say they feel closer to the Republican Party than they did in the past, a major new national survey of 1,563 Hispanics living in the United States finds.

Half of Hispanics identify as Democrats (50 percent), compared to 15 percent who identify as Republicans and roughly one-in-four (24 percent) who say they are politically independent, the new Hispanic Values Survey conducted by the nonpartisan Public Religion Research Institute finds. The survey’s release coincides with the celebration of National Hispanic Heritage Month.

Newcomers to the Aloha State: Challenges and Prospects for Mexicans in Hawai`i

September 24, 2013 Comments off

Newcomers to the Aloha State: Challenges and Prospects for Mexicans in Hawai`i (PDF)
Source: Migration Policy Institute

The Mexican-origin community in Hawaiʻi, which represents a small but growing population in this multi-ethnic state, in many ways has different outcomes than Mexican immigrants and US citizens of Mexican ancestry who live in the continental United States. Hawaiʻi’s Mexican-origin residents have higher employment, reduced poverty, higher levels of English proficiency and educational attainment, and lower incidences of unauthorized status than their Mexican-origin counterparts on the U.S. continent, according to findings of this report, which is based on a qualitative survey, in-depth interviews, and analysis of Census Bureau data.

Population Decline of Unauthorized Immigrants Stalls, May Have Reversed

September 24, 2013 Comments off

Population Decline of Unauthorized Immigrants Stalls, May Have Reversed
Source: Pew Hispanic Center

The sharp decline in the U.S. population of unauthorized immigrants that accompanied the 2007-2009 recession has bottomed out, and the number may be rising again. As of March 2012, 11.7 million unauthorized immigrants were living in the United States, according to a new preliminary Pew Research Center estimate based on U.S. government data.

The estimated number of unauthorized immigrants peaked at 12.2 million in 2007 and fell to 11.3 million in 2009, breaking a rising trend that had held for decades. Although there are indications the number of unauthorized immigrants may be rising, the 2012 population estimate is the midpoint of a wide range of possible values and in a statistical sense is no different from the 2009 estimate.

Different trends appear among the six states in which 60% of unauthorized immigrants live—California, Florida, Illinois, New Jersey, New York and Texas.1 Of these, only Texas had increases but no decrease in its unauthorized immigrant population over the 2007-2011 period. The other five states (and the balance of the country) all experienced peak numbers of unauthorized immigrants in 2007 followed by declines over the next year or two.

In terms of country of origin, the post-2007 population dip was even sharper among Mexicans (who made up 52% of 2012 unauthorized immigrants) than the overall population decrease, although the Mexican decline appears to have stopped after 2010. In 2012, 6.05 million Mexican unauthorized immigrants were in the U.S., a decline of about 900,000 from 2007.

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