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Race Reporting Among Hispanics: 2010

March 31, 2014 Comments off

Race Reporting Among Hispanics: 2010
Source: U.S. Census Bureau

This working paper shows how Hispanics reported their race on the 2010 Census questionnaire, with a unique emphasis on Hispanics who self-reported their origin. The paper provides an overall demographic description of the Latino population and examines different responses to the race question by selected demographic characteristics and geography.

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How Do E-Verify Mandates Affect Unauthorized Immigrant Workers?

March 11, 2014 Comments off

How Do E-Verify Mandates Affect Unauthorized Immigrant Workers? (PDF)
Source: Institute for the Study of Labor

A number of states have adopted laws that require employers to use the federal government’s E-Verify program to check workers’ eligibility to work legally in the United States. Using data from the Current Population Survey, this study examines whether such laws affect labor market outcomes among Mexican immigrants who are likely to be unauthorized. We find evidence that E-Verify mandates reduce average hourly earnings among likely unauthorized male Mexican immigrants while increasing labor force participation and employment among likely unauthorized female Mexican immigrants. In contrast, the mandates appear to lead to better labor market outcomes among workers likely to compete with unauthorized immigrants. Employment and earnings rise among male Mexican immigrants who are naturalized citizens in states that adopt E-Verify mandates, and earnings rise among U.S.-born Hispanic men.

NIH releases comprehensive new data outlining Hispanic/Latino health and habits

February 27, 2014 Comments off

NIH releases comprehensive new data outlining Hispanic/Latino health and habits
Source: National Institutes of Health

A comprehensive health and lifestyle analysis of people from a range of Hispanic/ Latino origins shows that this segment of the U.S. population is diverse, not only in ancestry, culture, and economic status, but also in the prevalence of several diseases, risk factors, and lifestyle habits.

These health data are derived from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), a landmark study that enrolled about 16,415 Hispanic/Latino adults living in San Diego, Chicago, Miami, and the Bronx, N.Y., who self-identified with Central American, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, or South American origins. These new findings have been compiled and published as the Hispanic Community Health Study Data Book: A Report to the Communities.

Updated Estimates of Hispanic-White Wage Gaps for Men and Women

January 9, 2014 Comments off

Updated Estimates of Hispanic-White Wage Gaps for Men and Women (PDF)
Source: American Economic Association

We incorporate controls for cost of living in updated estimates of Hispanic-white wage gaps for men and women using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97). Conditional on pre-market skills (i.e., years of education and AFQT score) and cost of living, Hispanic men earn significantly lower hourly wages than non-Hispanic white men. The gap is concentrated among men with relatively low levels of education—high school degree or less. Conditional on pre-market skills, Hispanic women earn significantly higher wages than non-Hispanic white women, but the difference disappears after controlling for cost of living. We also show that non-immigrant Hispanics in the NLSY97 are rather representative of non-immigrant Hispanics in the U.S. overall (measured with the larger American Community Survey). However, immigrant Hispanics in the NLSY97 have higher levels of education and wages than the immigrant Hispanics in the ACS, even after restricting to those ACS respondents who have been in the U.S. since 1997. Researchers should take this limitation into account when extrapolating results for Hispanic immigrants in the NLSY97 to the Hispanic population as a whole.

Fact Sheet — The Economic Status of Women of Color: a Snapshot

December 4, 2013 Comments off

Fact Sheet — The Economic Status of Women of Color: a Snapshot (PDF)
Source: U.S. Department of Labor

Fifty-eight percent of women in the United States age 16 and over participate in the labor force (working or looking for work). This includes 57 percent of White women, 60 percent of Black women, 57 percent of Hispanic women, and 57 percent of Asian women.

Our nation’s 67 million working women hold nearly half of today’s jobs. Of these 67 million working women, about 52.8 million are White, 8.6 million are Black, and 3.6 million are Asian. Women of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity (who may be of any race) make up 9.2 million of the 67 million women workers.

The fact sheets highlight the different situations of the larger populations of women of color in the U.S. labor force. It assembles selected Federal government data and statistical resources to present a picture of the economic status of Black, Asian, and Hispanic women in the labor force. Sufficient data were not available on the relatively smaller populations of American Indian, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian, and other Pacific Islander women in the labor force, so they are excluded.

Marriage and divorce: patterns by gender, race, and educational attainment

October 29, 2013 Comments off

Marriage and divorce: patterns by gender, race, and educational attainment
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), this article examines marriages and divorces of young baby boomers born during the 1957–1964 period. The article presents data on marriages and divorces by age, gender, race, and Hispanic origin, as well as by educational attainment.

Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults: United States, 2011–2012

October 18, 2013 Comments off

Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults: United States, 2011–2012
Source: National Center for Health Statistics

Key findings
Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011–2012

  • More than one-third (34.9%) of adults were obese in 2011–2012.
  • In 2011–2012, the prevalence of obesity was higher among middle-aged adults (39.5%) than among younger (30.3%) or older (35.4%) adults.
  • The overall prevalence of obesity did not differ between men and women in 2011–2012. Among non-Hispanic black adults, however, 56.6% of women were obese compared with 37.1% of men.
  • In 2011–2012, the prevalence of obesity was higher among non-Hispanic black (47.8%), Hispanic (42.5%), and non-Hispanic white (32.6%) adults than among non-Hispanic Asian adults (10.8%).
  • The prevalence of obesity among adults did not change between 2009–2010 and 2011–2012.

2013 Hispanic Values Survey: How Shifting Religious Identities and Experiences are Influencing Hispanic Approaches to Politics

September 27, 2013 Comments off

2013 Hispanic Values Survey: How Shifting Religious Identities and Experiences are Influencing Hispanic Approaches to Politics
Source: Public Religion Research Institute
From press release:

Compared to the Democratic Party, Hispanics are twice as likely to volunteer negative associations about the Republican Party, are more than three times less likely to say the Republican Party cares about people like them, and are half as likely to say they feel closer to the Republican Party than they did in the past, a major new national survey of 1,563 Hispanics living in the United States finds.

Half of Hispanics identify as Democrats (50 percent), compared to 15 percent who identify as Republicans and roughly one-in-four (24 percent) who say they are politically independent, the new Hispanic Values Survey conducted by the nonpartisan Public Religion Research Institute finds. The survey’s release coincides with the celebration of National Hispanic Heritage Month.

Newcomers to the Aloha State: Challenges and Prospects for Mexicans in Hawai`i

September 24, 2013 Comments off

Newcomers to the Aloha State: Challenges and Prospects for Mexicans in Hawai`i (PDF)
Source: Migration Policy Institute

The Mexican-origin community in Hawaiʻi, which represents a small but growing population in this multi-ethnic state, in many ways has different outcomes than Mexican immigrants and US citizens of Mexican ancestry who live in the continental United States. Hawaiʻi’s Mexican-origin residents have higher employment, reduced poverty, higher levels of English proficiency and educational attainment, and lower incidences of unauthorized status than their Mexican-origin counterparts on the U.S. continent, according to findings of this report, which is based on a qualitative survey, in-depth interviews, and analysis of Census Bureau data.

Population Decline of Unauthorized Immigrants Stalls, May Have Reversed

September 24, 2013 Comments off

Population Decline of Unauthorized Immigrants Stalls, May Have Reversed
Source: Pew Hispanic Center

The sharp decline in the U.S. population of unauthorized immigrants that accompanied the 2007-2009 recession has bottomed out, and the number may be rising again. As of March 2012, 11.7 million unauthorized immigrants were living in the United States, according to a new preliminary Pew Research Center estimate based on U.S. government data.

The estimated number of unauthorized immigrants peaked at 12.2 million in 2007 and fell to 11.3 million in 2009, breaking a rising trend that had held for decades. Although there are indications the number of unauthorized immigrants may be rising, the 2012 population estimate is the midpoint of a wide range of possible values and in a statistical sense is no different from the 2009 estimate.

Different trends appear among the six states in which 60% of unauthorized immigrants live—California, Florida, Illinois, New Jersey, New York and Texas.1 Of these, only Texas had increases but no decrease in its unauthorized immigrant population over the 2007-2011 period. The other five states (and the balance of the country) all experienced peak numbers of unauthorized immigrants in 2007 followed by declines over the next year or two.

In terms of country of origin, the post-2007 population dip was even sharper among Mexicans (who made up 52% of 2012 unauthorized immigrants) than the overall population decrease, although the Mexican decline appears to have stopped after 2010. In 2012, 6.05 million Mexican unauthorized immigrants were in the U.S., a decline of about 900,000 from 2007.

Mapping the Latino Population, By State, County and City

August 29, 2013 Comments off

Mapping the Latino Population, By State, County and City
Source: Pew Hispanic Center

The nation’s Hispanic population, while still anchored in its traditional settlement areas, continues to disperse across the U.S., according to a Pew Research Center analysis of U.S. Census Bureau data.

Today, the 100 largest counties by Hispanic population contain 71% of all Hispanics. Los Angeles County, CA alone contains 4.9 million Hispanics, or 9% of the nation’s Hispanic population. But the share of all Hispanics who live in these same counties has fallen from 75% in 2000 and 78% in 1990 (Fry, 2008), reflecting Hispanic population growth outside of these 100 counties.

Half (52%) of those counties are in three states—California, Texas and Florida. Along with Arizona, New Mexico, New York, New Jersey and Illinois, these eight states contain three-quarters (74%) of the nation’s Latino population. But with the dispersal of the U.S. Latino population across the country, this share too is down from 79% in 2000 and 84% in 1990.

The geographic settlement patterns are to some degree aligned with the diverse countries of origin of the Hispanic population. For example, Mexican origin Hispanics are the dominant group in the Los Angeles-Long Beach metropolitan area, making up 78% of the area’s Hispanics. They are also the dominant group in many metropolitan areas in the border states of Arizona, California, New Mexico and Texas. But along the East Coast the composition of Hispanic origin groups differs. In the New York-New Jersey metropolitan area, Puerto Ricans and Dominicans are the dominant Hispanic origin groups. In Miami-Hialeah, FL, Cubans are the dominant Hispanic group and in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan areas, Salvadorans are the largest Hispanic origin group among that area’s Hispanics. Nationally, Mexicans are the largest Hispanic origin group, making up 64.6% of all Hispanics.

A Binational Overview of Reproductive Health Outcomes Among US Hispanic and Mexican Women in the Border Region

August 25, 2013 Comments off

A Binational Overview of Reproductive Health Outcomes Among US Hispanic and Mexican Women in the Border Region
Source: Preventing Chronic Disease (CDC)

Introduction
The US–Mexico border region has 15 million residents and 300,000 births annually. Reproductive health concerns have been identified on both sides of the border, but comparable information about reproductive health is not available. The objective of this study was to compare reproductive health indicators among populations in this region.

Methods
We used 2009 US Hispanic and Mexican birth certificate data to compare births inside the border region, elsewhere within the border states, and in the United States and Mexico overall. We examined trends in total fertility and birth rates using birth data from 2000 through 2009 and intercensal population estimates.

Results
Among women in the border region, US women had more lifetime births than Mexican women in 2009 (2.69 births vs 2.15 births) and throughout the decade. Birth rates in the group aged 15 to 19 years were high in both the US (73.8/1,000) and Mexican (86.7/1,000) border regions. Late or no prenatal care was nearly twice as prevalent in the border regions as in the nonborder regions of border states. Low birth weight and preterm and early-term birth were more prevalent in the US border than in the Mexican border region; US border rates were higher and Mexican rates were lower than their corresponding nonborder and national rates. We found some variations within border states.

Conclusion
These findings constitute the first population-based information on the reproductive health of the entire Hispanic US–Mexico border population. Evidence of disparities warrants exploration at state and local levels. Teen pregnancy and inadequate prenatal care are shared problems in US–Mexico border communities and suggest an area for binational cooperation.

Patterns of contraceptive use among Mexican-origin women

August 21, 2013 Comments off

Patterns of contraceptive use among Mexican-origin women
Source: Demographic Research

Background:
Mexican women in the United States (US) have higher rates of fertility compared to other ethnic groups and women in Mexico. Whether variation in women’s access to family planning services or patterns of contraceptive use contributes to this higher fertility has received little attention.

Objective:
We explore Mexican women’s contraceptive use, taking into account women’s place in the reproductive life course.

Methods:
Using nationally representative samples from the US (National Survey of Family Growth) and Mexico (Encuesta National de la Dinámica Demográfica), we compared the parity-specific frequency of contraceptive use and fertility intentions for non-migrant women, foreign-born Mexicans in the US, US-born Mexicans, and whites.

Results:
Mexican women in the US were less likely to use IUDs and more likely to use hormonal contraception than women in Mexico. Female sterilization was the most common method among higher parity women in both the US and Mexico, however, foreign-born Mexicans were less likely to be sterilized, and the least likely to use any permanent contraceptive method. Although foreign-born Mexicans were slightly less likely to report that they did not want more children, differences in method use remained after controlling for women’s fertility intentions.

Conclusions:
At all parities, foreign-born Mexicans used less effective methods. These findings suggest that varying access to family planning services may contribute to variation in women’s contraceptive use.

Comments:
Future studies are needed to clarify the extent to which disparities in fertility result from differences in contraceptive access.

A Growing Share of Latinos Get Their News in English

July 23, 2013 Comments off

A Growing Share of Latinos Get Their News in English
Source: Pew Hispanic Center

The language of news media consumption is changing for Hispanics: a growing share of Latino adults are consuming news in English from television, print, radio and internet outlets, and a declining share are doing so in Spanish, according to survey findings from the Pew Research Center.

In 2012, 82% of Hispanic adults said they got at least some of their news in English, up from 78% who said the same in 2006. By contrast, the share who get at least some of their news in Spanish has declined, to 68% in 2012 from 78% in 2006.

Half (50%) of Latino adults say they get their news in both languages, down from 57% in 2010.

The rise in use of English news sources has been driven by an increase in the share of Hispanics who say they get their news exclusively in English. According to the survey, one-third (32%) of Hispanic adults in 2012 did this, up from 22% in 2006. By contrast, the share of Hispanic adults who get their news exclusively in Spanish has decreased to 18% in 2012 from 22% in 2006.

CPSC data show most child drownings occur in backyard pools; no entrapment deaths since 2008

July 19, 2013 Comments off

CPSC data show most child drownings occur in backyard pools; no entrapment deaths since 2008
Source: Consumer Product Safety Commission

A new report out today from the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) reveals that children younger than age 5 represent more than 75 percent of all pool and spa submersion deaths and 78 percent of pool and spa submersion injuries in the United States involving children younger than 15 years of age. Government data also show that African-American and Hispanic children between the ages of 5 and 14 are at a higher risk of drowning.

“Drowning is the leading cause of unintentional death for children between the ages of 1 and 4 and minority children drown in pools at an alarming rate,” said CPSC Chairman Inez Tenenbaum. “The lives of countless children can be saved this summer. Take simple safety steps today—teach all children to swim, put a fence around all pools, and always watch children in and around the water.”

CPSC’s Pool Safely campaign is focusing its attention on populations most at risk of drowning:

  • Children between the ages of 1 and 3 represented 67 percent of reported fatalities and 64 percent of injuries.
  • African American children between the ages of 5 and 19 are six times more likely to drown in pools than white and Hispanic children that age, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Data from USA Swimming indicate that 70 percent of African American children and 62 percent of Hispanic children cannot swim, making them more likely to drown.

Is the United States Bad for Children’s Health? Risk and Resilience among Young Children of Immigrants

July 18, 2013 Comments off

Is the United States Bad for Children’s Health? Risk and Resilience among Young Children of Immigrants (PDF)
Source: Migration Policy Institute

Nearly one-fourth of the children in the United States under age 18 have at least one immigrant parent. While children in some national-origin groups appear to be adjusting well to the United States and may even enjoy better health outcomes than children of the US born, other origin groups face poorer socioeconomic circumstances, have more limited access to public benefits and services, and therefore face greater challenges in the course of their health and development. This report examines the research, focusing in particular on the largest and most vulnerable group of children in the United States today: the children of Mexican immigrants, who in 2011 accounted for 39 percent of the 18.7 million children of immigrants.

Does Immigration, Particularly Increases in Latinos, Affect African American Wages, Unemployment and Incarceration Rates?

June 24, 2013 Comments off

Does Immigration, Particularly Increases in Latinos, Affect African American Wages, Unemployment and Incarceration Rates?
Source: Social Science Research Network

This paper evaluates the impact of immigration on African American wages, unemployment, employment and incarceration rates using a relatively large cross-sectional data-set of 900 cities. An endemic problem potentially plaguing the cross-sectional metro approach to immigration has been endogeneity. Does increased immigration to a city lead to improved economic outcomes, or does a city’s improving labor market attract immigrant inflows? The paper focuses on resolving the endogeneity concerns through a variety of controls, statistical methods and tests. Overall, results strongly support one-way causation from increased immigration including Latinos to higher African American wages and lower poverty. Rising immigration including from Latin America is not responsible for higher Black incarceration rates.

Diverse Origins: The Nation’s 14 Largest Hispanic-Origin Groups

June 19, 2013 Comments off

Diverse Origins: The Nation’s 14 Largest Hispanic-Origin Groups

Source: Pew Hispanic Center

The nation’s Latino population is diverse. Represented among the 51.9 million Latinos in the United States are individuals who trace their heritage to more than 20 Spanish-speaking nations worldwide. But one group—Mexicans—dominates the nation’s Latino population.

In 2011, nearly two-thirds (64.6%) of U.S. Hispanics, or 33.5 million, traced their family origins to Mexico, according to Pew Research Center tabulations of the 2011 American Community Survey (ACS). By comparison, Puerto Ricans, the nation’s second largest Hispanic-origin group, number about 5 million and make up 9.5% of the total Hispanic population in the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

Following Mexicans and Puerto Ricans are Salvadorans, Cubans, Dominicans, Guatemalans, Colombians, Spaniards, Hondurans, Ecuadorians, Peruvians, Nicaraguans, Venezuelans and Argentineans. Together these 14 groups make up 95% of the U.S. Hispanic population. Among them, six Hispanic origin groups have populations greater than 1 million.

Asians Fastest-Growing Race or Ethnic Group in 2012, Census Bureau Reports

June 13, 2013 Comments off

Asians Fastest-Growing Race or Ethnic Group in 2012, Census Bureau Reports
Source: U.S. Census Bureau

The U.S. Census Bureau announced Asians were the nation’s fastest-growing race or ethnic group in 2012. Their population rose by 530,000, or 2.9 percent, in the preceding year, to 18.9 million, according to Census Bureau annual population estimates. More than 60 percent of this growth in the Asian population came from international migration.

By comparison, the Hispanic population grew by 2.2 percent, or more than 1.1 million, to just over 53 million in 2012. The Hispanic population growth was fueled primarily by natural increase (births minus deaths), which accounted for 76 percent of Hispanic population change. Hispanics remain our nation’s second largest race or ethnic group (behind non-Hispanic whites), representing about 17 percent of the total population.

These statistics are part of a set of annual population estimates released today by race, Hispanic origin, age and sex. They examine population change for these groups nationally, as well as within all states and counties, between July 1, 2011, and July 1, 2012. Also released were population estimates for Puerto Rico and its municipios by age and sex.

“Asians and Hispanics have long been among our nation’s fastest-growing race or ethnic groups,” noted Thomas Mesenbourg, the Census Bureau’s acting director.

Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders (climbing 2.2 percent to about 1.4 million), American Indians and Alaska Natives (rising 1.5 percent to a little over 6.3 million), and blacks or African-Americans (increasing 1.3 percent to 44.5 million) followed Asians and Hispanics in percentage growth rates.

Estimating Racial Price Differentials in the Housing Market

May 8, 2013 Comments off

Estimating Racial Price Differentials in the Housing Market (PDF)

Source: National Bureau of Economic Research

This paper uses unique panel data covering over two million repeat-sales housing transactions from four metropolitan areas to test for the presence of racial price differentials in the housing market. Drawing on the strengths of these data, our research design controls carefully for unobserved differences in the quality of neighborhoods and the homes purchased by buyers of each race. We find that black and Hispanic homebuyers pay premiums of about three percent on average across the four cities, differences that are not explained by variation in buyer income, wealth or access to credit. Further, the estimated premiums do not vary significantly with the racial composition of the neighborhood; nor, strikingly, do they vary with the race of the seller. This latter finding suggests that racial prejudice on the part of sellers is not the primary explanation for the robust premiums we uncover. The results have implications for the evolution of racial differences in wealth and home ownership and the persistence of residential segregation.

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