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Vaccine Hesitancy Collection: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Vaccine Hesitancy and Contemporary Vaccination Coverage

February 27, 2015 Comments off

Vaccine Hesitancy Collection: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Vaccine Hesitancy and Contemporary Vaccination Coverage
Source: PLoS Currents

The prevention of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks, such as measles, rubella, or polio, is dependent on herd immunity. Yet ensuring widespread vaccination coverage is complicated by a wide range of factors, including vaccine hesitancy, which causes uncertainty in segments of the public about the safety and efficacy of vaccinations.

There is a broad continuum of public perspectives on vaccination, and although there are a few polarized individuals on the extremes, more people are somewhat uncertain or ambivalent about the vaccination decisions that they must make for themselves and their children. The debate also exists in the context of larger political issues surrounding vaccination, including individual freedoms and religious beliefs.

This series of articles investigates the social discourse surrounding vaccination, global perceptions and outcomes of vaccination, and the general issue of confidence or trust in healthcare or government establishments that can underpin medical decisions.

CRS — The Measles: Background and Federal Role in Vaccine Policy (February 9, 2015)

February 20, 2015 Comments off

The Measles: Background and Federal Role in Vaccine Policy (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via Federation of American Scientists)

The earliest accounts of measles date back over 1,000 years. This report presents basic information about this infectious disease, its history in the United States, available treatments to prevent individuals from contracting measles, and the federal role in combatting measles—from funding, to research, to the authority of the federal government in requiring mandatory childhood vaccinations. The report provides additional resources for information on measles and recommendations for vaccination against the disease.

FALQs: Vaccination Law in the United States

February 10, 2015 Comments off

FALQs: Vaccination Law in the United States
Source: Law Library of Congress

United States vaccination requirements have been in the news, particularly following what the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has described as “a large, ongoing multi-state outbreak linked to an amusement park in California.” As such, many questions have arisen as to the laws regarding vaccination and immunization in the United States. The answers to these questions are not as simple as one might think.

FDA approves Gardasil 9 for prevention of certain cancers caused by five additional types of HPV

December 15, 2014 Comments off

FDA approves Gardasil 9 for prevention of certain cancers caused by five additional types of HPV
Source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Gardasil 9 (Human Papillomavirus 9-valent Vaccine, Recombinant) for the prevention of certain diseases caused by nine types of Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Covering nine HPV types, five more HPV types than Gardasil (previously approved by the FDA), Gardasil 9 has the potential to prevent approximately 90 percent of cervical, vulvar, vaginal and anal cancers.

Gardasil 9 is a vaccine approved for use in females ages 9 through 26 and males ages 9 through 15. It is approved for the prevention of cervical, vulvar, vaginal and anal cancers caused by HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58, and for the prevention of genital warts caused by HPV types 6 or 11. Gardasil 9 adds protection against five additional HPV types—31, 33, 45, 52 and 58— which cause approximately 20 percent of cervical cancers and are not covered by previously FDA-approved HPV vaccines.

New From the GAO

November 21, 2014 Comments off

New GAO Reports
Source: Government Accountability Office
1. Defense Logistics: Greater Awareness of Recommendations and Improvements in Data Quality Needed to Resolve Container-Management Challenges. GAO-15-114, November 21.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-15-114
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/667147.pdf

2. Vaccine Injury Compensation: Most Claims Took Multiple Years and Many Were Settled through Negotiation. GAO-15-142, November 21.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-15-142
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/667135.pdf

Vaccination Coverage Among Children in Kindergarten — United States, 2013–14 School Year

October 22, 2014 Comments off

Vaccination Coverage Among Children in Kindergarten — United States, 2013–14 School Year
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC)

State and local vaccination requirements for school entry are implemented to maintain high vaccination coverage and protect schoolchildren from vaccine-preventable diseases (1). Each year, to assess state and national vaccination coverage and exemption levels among kindergartners, CDC analyzes school vaccination data collected by federally funded state, local, and territorial immunization programs. This report describes vaccination coverage in 49 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and vaccination exemption rates in 46 states and DC for children enrolled in kindergarten during the 2013–14 school year. Median vaccination coverage was 94.7% for 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine; 95.0% for varying local requirements for diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine; and 93.3% for 2 doses of varicella vaccine among those states with a 2-dose requirement. The median total exemption rate was 1.8%. High exemption levels and suboptimal vaccination coverage leave children vulnerable to vaccine-preventable diseases. Although vaccination coverage among kindergartners for the majority of reporting states was at or near the 95% national Healthy People 2020 targets for 4 doses of DTaP, 2 doses of MMR, and 2 doses of varicella vaccine (2), low vaccination coverage and high exemption levels can cluster within communities.* Immunization programs might have access to school vaccination coverage and exemption rates at a local level for counties, school districts, or schools that can identify areas where children are more vulnerable to vaccine-preventable diseases. Health promotion efforts in these local areas can be used to help parents understand the risks for vaccine-preventable diseases and the protection that vaccinations provide to their children.

Announcement: Now Available Online: Final 2013–14 Influenza Vaccination Coverage Estimates for Selected Local Areas, States, and the United States

October 14, 2014 Comments off

Announcement: Now Available Online: Final 2013–14 Influenza Vaccination Coverage Estimates for Selected Local Areas, States, and the United States
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC)

Final 2013–14 influenza season vaccination coverage estimates are now available online at FluVaxView (http://www.cdc.gov/flu/fluvaxview). The online information includes estimates of the cumulative percentage of persons vaccinated by the end of each month, from July 2013 through May 2014, for select local areas, each state, each U.S. Department of Health and Human Services region, and the United States overall.
Analyses were conducted using National Immunization Survey influenza vaccination data for children aged 6 months–17 years and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for adults aged ≥18 years. Estimates are provided by age group and race/ethnicity. These estimates are presented in an interactive report (http://www.cdc.gov/flu/fluvaxview/interactive.htm) and complemented by an online summary report (http://www.cdc.gov/flu/fluvaxview/coverage-1314estimates.htm).

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