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Sentencing Guidelines — Australia • England and Wales • India South Africa • Uganda

September 9, 2014 Comments off

Sentencing Guidelines — Australia • England and Wales • India South Africa • Uganda (PDF)
Source: Law Library of Congress

Sentencing guidelines in the common law countries of Australia, England and Wales, India, South Africa, and Uganda vary significantly. England and Wales have a Sentencing Council that develops offense-specific guidelines that the courts must follow, while Uganda’s Supreme Court has developed guidelines that are advisory only. In India and Australia, no formal guidelines exist and judges retain wide discretion in sentencing, but both countries have mechanisms in place to provide general guidance—in Australia through state legislation and in India through a series of court decisions that identify relevant sentencing factors.

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UK — Living Room Connected Devices: Opportunities, security challenges and privacy implications for users and industry

September 8, 2014 Comments off

Living Room Connected Devices: Opportunities, security challenges and privacy implications for users and industry
Source: RAND Corporation

RAND Europe was commissioned by Ofcom, the UK communications regulator, to investigate and prepare an independent expert report on the growth of the connected living room and the implications of this growth for UK citizens and consumers. As the living room becomes an Internet connected space, this shift offers opportunities to consumers and industry while also raising potential privacy and security concerns. Although currently a nascent market, the uptake of living room connected devices is expected to grow significantly in the coming years. However, it appears that there is a low awareness of how the capabilities of living room connected devices might be used, either legitimately by industry or illegitimately by criminal actors. This report addresses the security and privacy implications of the Internet connected living room for both industry and consumers, discussing potential benefits and emerging threats associated with living room connected devices and their technical capabilities.

UK — Human Capital Estimates, 2013

September 5, 2014 Comments off

Human Capital Estimates, 2013
Source: Office for National Statistics

This release looks at the changes in human capital values between 2004 and 2013, including during the economic downturn. It also includes analysis showing breakdowns by age, gender and education level. Human capital is the value of individuals’ skills, knowledge, abilities, social attributes, personality and health attributes. These factors enable individuals to work, and therefore produce something of economic value. It is measured as the sum of the total potential future earnings of everyone in the labour market.

Social Mobility and the Importance of Networks: Evidence for Britain

September 1, 2014 Comments off

Social Mobility and the Importance of Networks: Evidence for Britain (PDF)
Source: Institute for the Study of Labor

Greater levels of social mobility are widely seen as desirable on grounds of both equity and efficiency. Debate on social mobility in Britain and elsewhere has recently focused on specific factors that might hinder social mobility, including the role of internships and similar employment opportunities that parents can sometimes secure for their children. We address the help that parents give their children in the job market using data from the new age 42 wave of the 1970 British Cohort Study. We consider help given to people from all family backgrounds and not just to graduates and those in higher level occupations who have tended to be the focus in the debate in Britain. Specifically, our data measure whether respondents had ever had help to get a job from (i) parents and (ii) other relatives and friends and the form of that help. We first assess the extent and type of help. We then determine whether people from higher socio-economic status families are more or less likely to have such help and whether the help is associated with higher wages and higher occupations. Our paper provides insight into whether the strong link between parental socio-economic background and the individual’s own economic success can be explained in part by the parents assisting their children to get jobs. We find parental help to have a strong social gradient. But we are unable to identify a clear link between any particular type of help – advice, help through contacts etc. – and individuals’ wages or occupations.

Self-employed workers in the UK – 2014

August 29, 2014 Comments off

Self-employed workers in the UK – 2014
Source: Office for National Statistics

Key Points

  • Self-employment higher than at any point over past 40 years
  • Rise in total employment since 2008 predominantly among the self-employed
  • Rise predominately down to fewer people leaving self-employment than in the past
  • The number of over 65s who are self-employed has more than doubled in the past 5 years to reach nearly half a million
  • Self-employed workers tend to be older than employees and are more likely to work higher (over 45) or lower (8 or less) hours
  • The number of women in self-employment is increasing at a faster rate than the number of men (although men still dominate self employment)
  • The most common roles are working in construction and taxi driving and in recent years there have been increases in management consultants
  • Average income from self-employment fallen by 22% since 2008/09
  • Across the European Union the UK has had the third largest percentage rise in self-employment since 2009

Unexplained Deaths in Infancy: England and Wales, 2012

August 28, 2014 Comments off

Unexplained Deaths in Infancy: England and Wales, 2012
Source: Office for National Statistics

Key Points

  • 221 unexplained infant deaths occurred in England and Wales in 2012, a rate of 0.30 deaths per 1,000 live births.
  • Almost three-quarters (71%) of these unexplained deaths were recorded as sudden infant deaths, and 29% were recorded as unascertained.
  • Unexplained infant deaths accounted for 8% of all infant deaths occurring in 2012.
  • Eight out of ten unexplained infant deaths occurred in the post-neonatal period (between 28 days and 1 year).
  • Almost two-thirds (64%) of unexplained infant deaths were boys in 2012 (141 deaths).
  • The rate of unexplained infant death was three times higher among low birthweight babies (less than 2,500g) than babies with a normal birthweight (2,500g and over).

The changing hospital landscape: An exploration of international experiences

August 20, 2014 Comments off

The changing hospital landscape: An exploration of international experiences
Source: RAND Corporation

The nature of hospital activity is changing in many countries, with some experiencing a broad trend towards the creation of hospitals groups or chains and multi-hospital networks. This report seeks to contribute to the understanding of experiences in other countries about the extent to which different hospital ‘models’ may provide lessons for hospital provision in England by means of a review of four countries: France, Germany, Ireland and the United States, with England included for comparison. We find that here has been a trend towards privatisation and the formation of hospital groups in France, Germany and the United States although it is important to understand the underlying market structure in these countries explaining the drivers for hospital consolidation. Thus, and in contrast to the NHS, in France, Germany and the United States, private hospitals contribute to the delivery of publicly funded healthcare services. There is limited evidence suggesting that different forms of hospital cooperation, such as hospital groups, networks or systems, may have different impacts on hospital performance. Available evidence suggests that hospital consolidation may lead to quality improvements as increased size allows for more costly investments and the spreading of investment risk. There is also evidence that a higher volume of certain services such as surgical procedures is associated with better quality of care. However, the association between size and efficiency is not clear-cut and there is a need to balance ‘quality risk’ associated with low volumes and ‘access risk’ associated with the closure of services at the local level.

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