Job Tasks, Computer Use, and the Decreasing Part-Time Pay Penalty for Women in the UK (PDF)
Source: Institute for the Study of Labor
Using data from the UK Skills Surveys, we show that the part-time pay penalty for female workers within low- and medium-skilled occupations decreased significantly over the period 1997-2006. The convergence in computer use between part-time and full-time workers within these occupations explains a large share of the decrease in the part-time pay penalty. However, the lower part-time pay penalty is also related to lower wage returns to reading and writing which are performed more intensively by full-time workers. Conversely, the increasing returns to influencing has increased the part-time pay penalty despite the convergence in the influencing task input between part-time and full-time workers. The relative changes in the input and prices of computer use and job tasks together explain more than 50 percent of the decrease in the part-time pay penalty.
The U.K.’s Ambitious New Retirement Savings Initiative
Source: Center for Retirement Research at Boston College
The brief’s key findings are:
- The United Kingdom is rolling out a low-cost retirement system for workers who lack pension coverage.
- The new system has three core elements:
- Employers auto-enroll their workers at a 4-percent contribution rate, matched by the employer and government combined.
- A new non-profit provides the infrastructure to keep costs low.
- The plans’ target date funds start young workers with low-risk investments to avoid losses that could discourage saving.
- The U.S.’s new “myRA” program includes two similar design features – low-risk investments and government infrastructure – but it lacks auto-enrollment.
Beyond the adoption order: challenges, intervention, disruption
Source: Department for Education
Research looking at adoption disruptions and how the adoption system can be improved.
Policy Paper: International classified information
Source: Cabinet Office
This document sets out:
- how the UK protects international classified information provided to government
- how the government can exchange UK classified information with international partners
- the various roles and responsibilities of UK government departments, agencies and contractors
Bureaucratic Interests and the Outsourcing of Security: The Privatization of Diplomatic Protection in the United States and the United Kingdom
Bureaucratic Interests and the Outsourcing of Security: The Privatization of Diplomatic Protection in the United States and the United Kingdom (working paper version; PDF)
Source: Armed Forces & Society
In spite of its sensitivity, diplomatic protection has received very sporadic scholarly attention. This article provides a comparative analysis of US and UK diplomatic security policies, focusing on the increasing use of private military and security companies (PMSCs) for the protection of foreign service and development agencies’ personnel. The existing theoretical explanations of the privatization of security tasks cannot explain why countries displaying similar material incentives and similar political and market cultures have outsourced diplomatic protection to different degrees, nor can they account for variance in the use of PMSCs by different agencies within the same country. Our analysis highlights the importance of investigating organizations’ interests in providing a more accurate explanation of the varying propensity to outsource armed protection. In both the United States and the United Kingdom, the outsourcing of diplomatic security was a resultant of foreign policy bureaucracies and military organizations’ preferences.
Lessons from Abroad for the U.S. Entitlement Debate
Source: Center for Strategic & International Studies
The unsustainable federal budget outlook will inevitably push entitlement reform to the forefront of the national policy debate. As America’s leaders consider reform options, they will have much to learn from the experience of other developed countries, several of which have recently enacted far-reaching overhauls of their state pension systems that greatly reduce the long-term fiscal burden of their aging populations. Lessons from Abroad for the U.S. Entitlement Debate places America’s aging challenge in international perspective, examines the most promising reform initiatives in nine other developed countries, and draws practical lessons for U.S. policymakers.
Review Body on Doctors’ and Dentists’ Remuneration 42nd report: 2014
Source: Review Body on Doctors’ and Dentists’ Remuneration, Department of Health and Office of Manpower Economics
This report sets out the DDRB analysis of evidence given by relevant organisations and makes proposals on doctors and dentists’ pay from April 2014.
The G20: a quick guide
Source: Parliamentary Library of Australia
This is a quick guide to basic information about the G20, as well as links to useful summary resources. The G20 background section includes the G20’s history, its members, the hosting system and G20 meeting processes, as well as a brief discussion of selected policy areas. Material on Australia and the G20 includes Australia’s involvement in the G20, Australia’s G20 goals for 2014 and speeches and press releases on the G20. A short list of links provides access to more resources on the G20.
Open Public Services 2014
Source: Cabinet Office
The Open Public Services (OPS) White Paper, published in 2011, set out the government’s approach to reforming public services, based on the principles of choice, diversity, accountability, decentralisation and fair access.
This progress report shows how far government has come in reforming public services in line with these principles. It demonstrates how these reforms have improved the quality of our public services and made sure services can respond to individual choices and people’s real life, complex needs.
UK Gross Domestic Expenditure on Research and Development, 2012
Source: Office for National Statistics
- In 2012, the UK’s gross domestic expenditure on research and development (GERD), in current prices, decreased by 2% to £27.0 billion compared with 2011. Adjusted for inflation, in constant prices, research and development (R&D) expenditure decreased by 3%.
- In constant prices, R&D expenditure has increased by 56% from the 1985 estimate of £17.3 billion. Expenditure peaked in 2011 at £27.9 billion.
- The business sector performed 63% of UK R&D expenditure in 2012. Expenditure by this sector decreased by 2%, in current prices, to £17.1 billion in 2012, compared with 2011.
- Total R&D expenditure in the UK in 2012 represented 1.72% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), a decrease from 1.77% in 2011.
- International comparisons show that UK R&D expenditure in 2012 was below the EU-28 provisional estimate of 2.06% of GDP.
Mental health and work: United Kingdom
Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Awareness of the importance of mental health at work in the UK is among the highest in the world. However, a number of challenges remain to help people with mental health problems stay in work and facilitate their early return to work. The UK has put in place and is putting in place a number of very important reforms. It will be important to implement those reforms rigorously; to modify and strengthen the reforms that have not yet delivered and to close the remaining gaps identified in the report.
Global Pensions Asset Study – 2014
Source: Towers Watson
This is a study of the 13 largest pension markets in the world and accounts for more than 85% of global pension assets. The countries included are Australia, Canada, Brazil, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Ireland, Japan, Netherlands, South Africa, Switzerland, the UK and the US. The study also analyses seven countries in greater depth by excluding the six smallest markets (Brazil, France, Germany, Ireland, Hong Kong and South Africa).
The analysis includes:
- Asset size, including growth statistics, comparison of asset size with GDP and liabilities
- Asset allocation
- Defined benefit and defined contribution share of pension assets
- Public and private sector share of pension assets.
Suicides in the United Kingdom, 2012 Registrations
Source: Office for National Statistics
- In 2012, 5,981 suicides in people aged 15 and over were registered in the UK, 64 fewer than in 2011.
- The UK suicide rate was 11.6 deaths per 100,000 population in 2012, but there are significant differences in suicide rates between men and women. Male suicide rates were more than three times higher at 18.2 male deaths compared with 5.2 female deaths per 100,000 population.
- The highest suicide rate was among men aged 40 to 44, at 25.9 deaths per 100,000 population.
- The most common methods of suicide in the UK in 2012 were hanging, strangulation and suffocation (58% of male suicides and 36% of female suicides) and poisoning (43% of female suicides and 20% of male suicides).
- In 2012 in England, the suicide rate was highest in the North West at 12.4 deaths per 100,000 population and lowest in London at 8.7 per 100,000 population.
- The median registration delay for deaths where suicide was the underlying cause of death was 155 days in England and Wales and 144 days in Northern Ireland. In Scotland, the time taken to register a death did not exceed the allocated eight days.
Measuring National Well-being – Governance, 2014
Source: Office for National Statistics
This article is published as part of the Office for National Statistics (ONS) Measuring National Well-being Programme. The programme aims to produce accepted and trusted measures of the well-being of the nation – how the UK as a whole is doing. This article explores in more detail aspects of governance considered important for understanding National Well-being. It considers information on forms of civic engagement, notably satisfaction with government and democracy, interest in politics and participation in politics.
Wildlife Law: Control of Invasive Non-native Species
Source: Law Commission of England
On 11 February 2014, we published our final report, Wildlife Law: Control of Invasive Non-native Species. This is the first item to be delivered from the full project. This element of the project was brought forward at the request of Defra and the Welsh Government to enable them to consider whether to introduce early legislation.
Invasive non-native species are ones that arrive as a result of human action and cause environmental and economic damage. They pose a significant threat to ecosystems as well as damaging property and infrastructure. Existing law does not contain sufficient powers to allow for their timely and effective control or eradication. Our recommendations in relation to species control orders will allow for a proportionate and necessary response to an increasing problem.
Communique: strengthening the cyber security of our essential services
Source: Cabinet Office, Department for Business, Innovation & Skills and National security and intelligence
A joint communique from ministers, senior officials and regulators sets out steps to address cyber security challenges for essential services.
Handling ethical problems in counterterrorism: An inventory of methods to support ethical decisionmaking
This document presents the findings of a study into methods that may help counterterrorism professionals make decisions about ethical problems. The study was commissioned by the Research and Documentation Centre (Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum, WODC) of the Dutch Ministry of Security and Justice (Ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie), on behalf of the National Coordinator for Counterterrorism and Security (Nationaal Coördinator Terrorismebestrijding en Veiligheid, NCTV). The study provides an inventory of methods to support ethical decision-making in counterterrorism, drawing on the experience of other public sectors — healthcare, social work, policing and intelligence — and multiple countries, primarily the Netherlands and United Kingdom.
The report introduces the field of applied ethics; identifies key characteristics of ethical decision-making in counterterrorism; and describes methods that may help counterterrorism professionals make decisions in these situations. Finally, it explores how methods used in other sectors may be applied to ethical decision-making in counterterrorism. It also describes the level of effectiveness that can be expected from the various methods. The report is based on a structured literature search and interviews with professionals and academics with expertise in applied ethics.
This report will be of interest to counterterrorism professionals who are responsible for strengthening ethical decision-making in their organisation. It may also provide insights for counterterrorism professionals who seek new methods to help them make ethical decisions. The findings may additionally be relevant for professionals in other sectors, if complemented with a review of decision-making characteristics in their sector of specialism.