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Surviving the Streets of New York: Experiences of LGBTQ Youth, YMSM, and YWSW Engaged in Survival Sex

February 26, 2015 Comments off

Surviving the Streets of New York: Experiences of LGBTQ Youth, YMSM, and YWSW Engaged in Survival Sex
Source: Urban Institute

Based on interviews with 283 youth in New York City, this is the first study to focus on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning (LGBTQ) youth; young men who have sex with men (YMSM); and young women who have sex with women (YWSW) who get involved in the commercial sex market in order to meet basic survival needs, such as food or shelter. The report documents these youth’s experiences and characteristics to gain a better understanding of why they engage in survival sex, describes how the support networks and systems in their lives have both helped them and let them down, and makes recommendations for better meeting the needs of this vulnerable population.

Surging City Center Job Growth

February 26, 2015 Comments off

Surging City Center Job Growth
Source: City Observatory

For over half a century, American cities were decentralizing, with suburban areas surpassing city centers in both population and job growth. It appears that these economic and demographic tides are now changing. Over the past few years, urban populations in America’s cities have grown faster than outlying areas, and our research shows that jobs are coming with them.

Our analysis of census data shows that downtown employment centers of the nation’s largest metropolitan areas are recording faster job growth than areas located further from the city center. When we compared the aggregate economic performance of urban cores to the surrounding metro periphery over the four years from 2007 to 2011, we found that city centers—which we define as the area within 3 miles of the center of each region’s central business district—grew jobs at a 0.5 percent annual rate. Over the same period, employment in the surrounding peripheral portion of metropolitan areas declined 0.1 percent per year. When it comes to job growth, city centers are out-performing the surrounding areas in 21 of the 41 metropolitan areas we examined. This “center-led” growth represents the reversal of a historic trend of job de-centralization that has persisted for the past half century.

The state of city-run Internet

February 25, 2015 Comments off

The state of city-run Internet
Source: Center for Public Integrity

The fight against city-owned Internet networks may just be beginning.

The telecommunications giants including Comcast, AT&T and Time Warner Cable have spent millions of dollars to lobby state legislatures, influence state elections and buy research to try to stop the spread of public Internet services that often offer faster speeds at cheaper rates. AT&T alone spent more than $250,000 on lobbying in Tennessee last year, the Center for Public Integrity reported in August.

In Washington, the money has flowed even more. The top Internet providers and their trade associations spent about $88 million on 568 lobbyists to influence federal lawmakers and regulators, according to the Center for Responsive Politics. That was enough to place the group in the top 12 of all lobbyists. That spending goes to lobby on all kinds of telecommunications issues, not just municipal broadband.

The Center’s report illustrated how municipal broadband service, especially in rural communities, can help boost businesses and create jobs. It contrasted the experience of Tullahoma with Fayetteville, North Carolina, which was thwarted from allowing its residents to tap into the city’s gigabit broadband network by state law.

Diversity Explosion: The cultural generation gap mapped

February 23, 2015 Comments off

Diversity Explosion: The cultural generation gap mapped
Source: Brookings Institution

In the new book Diversity Explosion: How New Racial Demographics are Remaking America, William Frey highlights the “bottom up” demographic change that is occurring in the United States as today’s youth are considerably more racially diverse than previous predominantly white generations. As a result of this demographic structure, the nation faces a “cultural generation gap.” Yet these dynamics vary considerably from place to place. The following interactive feature illustrates this point by mapping the racial composition of different age groups at the county and metropolitan area scales.

The map defaults to showing the share of the total county population (all ages) that is white. Yet even among largely white counties a different pattern emerges when selecting younger age groups from the menu. Greater diversity can be seen among counties located in the nation’s Southeast, Southwest and coasts. By selecting a different race/ethnicity from the menu, maps highlighting different aspects of this diversity associated with blacks, Hispanics, Asians and persons with two or more races can be explored. Hovering over each county reveals a chart depicting the extent of the “cultural generation gap” in that county.

In addition, each of these indicators can be examined at the metropolitan level scale, by clicking on the “metropolitan area” button.

Measuring Sprawl: A New Index, Recent Trends, and Future Research

February 18, 2015 Comments off

Measuring Sprawl: A New Index, Recent Trends, and Future Research
Source: Urban Affairs Review

Sprawl is a popular subject in the urban literature, yet conceptualization and measurement have proven elusive. Projects which focus either on empirical advances in the quantification of urban form or related phenomenon like travel behavior are rarely conversant, leading to a fundamental disconnect between operationalizing the concept and modeling its effects. Here, I build on previous work in developing a new index of sprawl and examine changes in urban morphology at the metropolitan level in the United States from 2000 to 2010. I then illustrate face validity by outlining suggestive relationships between the index and associated environmental and housing outcomes, while comparing it with other commonly used measures. I find that sprawl continues into the twenty-first century, and that this proposed measure demonstrates initial face validity with respect to key environmental and housing outcomes. I conclude with a discussion of the results and suggestions for future research.

The World’s 10 Fastest Growing Metropolitan Areas

February 11, 2015 Comments off

The World’s 10 Fastest Growing Metropolitan Areas
Source: Brookings Institution

With only 20 percent of the population, the world’s 300 largest metropolitan economies account for nearly half of global economic output. Through our new Global Metro Monitor report and interactive, users can understand the individual trajectories of the world’s large metropolitan economies and gain new insights into sources of growth that national or regional assessments tend to obscure.

The fastest growing metro areas this year, as measured by our economic performance index that combines employment and GDP per capita growth, are concentrated in China, Turkey and the Middle East.

Innovation in European Cities

February 11, 2015 Comments off

Innovation in European Cities
Source: Bloomberg

Innovation in European Cities sets out the context for Bloomberg Philanthropies’ European Mayors Challenge. It gives an overview of the key themes facing European cities today and provides an independent analysis of the 155 submissions to the award and a detailed review of the five winning proposals. It has been carried out by LSE Cities, a research centre based at the London School of Economics and Political Science, which specialises in understanding the dynamics between the urban form and urban society.

Throughout 2014, researchers from LSE Cities provided input to Bloomberg Philanthropies on the political and demographic make-up of selected European cities, and carried out an objective assessment of the level of innovation shown by the shortlisted proposals. In writing this report, we also interviewed representatives from the winning cities. The report draws on this work as well as research on the social, economic and political dynamics of cities at a global and European level, a wider lens through which to better view and understand the themes uncovered by the European Mayors Challenge.

The report is organised into four parts. The first offers an overview of global dynamics in an urban age, the second identifies the key themes addressed by the submissions for the award and the third focuses on the five winning proposals. The report concludes by offering a series of reflections on what the European Mayors Challenge tells us about some of the key issues facing city governments across Europe today, and what lessons might be drawn from the Challenge, worldwide.

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