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Country Analysis Brief: Iran

July 24, 2014 Comments off

Country Analysis Brief: Iran
Source: Energy Information Administration

Iran holds some of the world’s largest deposits of proved oil and natural gas reserves, ranking as the world’s fourth-and second-largest reserve holder of oil and natural gas, respectively. Iran also ranks among the world’s top 10 oil producers and top 5 natural gas producers. Iran produced 3.2 million barrels per day (bbl/d) of petroleum and other liquids in 2013 and more than 5.6 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of dry natural gas in 2012.

The Strait of Hormuz, on the southeastern coast of Iran, is an important route for oil exports from Iran and other Persian Gulf countries. At its narrowest point, the Strait of Hormuz is 21 miles wide, yet an estimated 17 million bbl/d of crude oil and oil products flowed through it in 2013 (roughly one-third of all seaborne traded oil and almost 20% of total oil produced globally). Liquefied natural gas (LNG) volumes also flow through the Strait of Hormuz. Approximately 3.9 Tcf of LNG was transported via the Strait of Hormuz in 2013, almost all of which was from Qatar, accounting for about one-third of global LNG trade.

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Country Analysis Brief: India

July 4, 2014 Comments off

Country Analysis Brief:  India
Source: Energy Information Administration

India was the fourth-largest energy consumer in the world after China, the United States, and Russia in 2011, and its need for energy supply continues to climb as a result of the country’s dynamic economic growth and modernization over the past several years. India’s economy has grown at an average annual rate of approximately 7% since 2000, and it proved relatively resilient following the 2008 global financial crisis.

The latest slowdown in growth of emerging market countries and higher inflation levels, combined with domestic supply and infrastructure constraints, have reduced India’s annual inflation-adjusted gross domestic product (GDP) growth from a high of 10.3% in 2010 to 4.4% in 2013, according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF). India was the third-largest economy in the world in 2013, as measured on a purchasing power parity basis. Risks to economic growth in India include high debt levels, infrastructure deficiencies, delays in structural reforms, and political polarization between the country’s two largest political parties, the Indian National Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).

Country Analysis Brief: Venezuela

June 25, 2014 Comments off

Country Analysis Brief: Venezuela
Source: Energy Information Administration

Venezuela is one of the world’s largest producers and exporters of crude oil. It has consistently been one of the largest exporters of crude oil in the Americas. As a founding member of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), Venezuela is an important player in the global oil market. While production has been declining, Venezuela exports of crude oil to the United States have been among the top. In recent years, through significant upfront investment, an increasing share of Venezuela’s exports have been delivered to China and India.

Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: 2014 Outlook for Gulf of Mexico Hurricane-Related Production Outages

June 18, 2014 Comments off

Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: 2014 Outlook for Gulf of Mexico Hurricane-Related Production Outages (PDF)
Source: Energy Information Administration

Highlights
• EIA’s mean estimate of storm-related production disruptions in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico during the 2014 hurricane season are 11.6 million barrels (bbl) of crude oil and 29.7 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of natural gas.
• The EIA estimates are based on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Atlantic Hurricane Season Outlook, which was released May 22. NOAA predicted that the Atlantic Basin likely will experience near-normal or below-normal tropical weather during the 2014 hurricane season, which began June 1 and runs through November 30.
• NOAA expects that 8 to 13 named storms are likely to form within the Atlantic Basin1 over the next 6 months, including 3 to 6 hurricanes, of which 1 to 2 will be intense.2 Last season, the Atlantic Basin experienced 11 tropical storms and 2 hurricanes, neither of which was considered major. Four of the tropical storms and one of the hurricanes passed through the Gulf of Mexico. NOAA does not attempt to predict the location of any hurricane activity within the Atlantic Basin.
• The share of total U.S. oil and natural gas production originating in the federally-administered Gulf of Mexico has declined sharply. In 1997, 26% of the nation’s natural gas was produced in the Gulf of Mexico; by 2013, that share had declined to 5%. The share of crude oil produced in the Gulf of Mexico also has declined in recent years, from 27% in 2003 to 17% last year. The declining share of total production from offshore areas has reduced the vulnerability of overall U.S. oil and natural gas supply to hurricanes.
• EIA’s analysis estimates a 69% probability of production shut-in volumes being equal to or larger than the production shut in during the 2013 hurricane season, which totaled 3.1 million bbl of crude oil and 6.7 Bcf of natural gas.

Country Analysis Brief: United Kingdom

June 6, 2014 Comments off

Country Analysis Brief: United Kingdom
Source: Energy Information Administration

The United Kingdom (UK) is the sixth largest economy in the world, as well as the largest producer of oil and the second-largest producer of natural gas in the European Union (EU). Following years of exports of both fuels, the UK became a net importer of natural gas and crude oil in 2004 and 2005, respectively. Production from UK oil and natural gas fields peaked around the late 1990s and has declined steadily over the past several years as the discovery of new reserves and new production has not kept pace with the maturation of existing fields.

DOE OIG — The Department of Energy’s Public Dissemination of Research Results

May 30, 2014 Comments off

The Department of Energy’s Public Dissemination of Research Results
Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Inspector General

The Department of Energy invests over $11 billion annually in research and development. A significant portion of this funding is provided through financial assistance awards to academic institutions, small businesses, and others. The Atomic Energy Act of 1946 and subsequent laws and regulations encouraged the dissemination of Department-sponsored research results, when appropriate. The Department’s mandate to publicly disseminate unclassified research results is fulfilled by the Office of Science’s Office of Scientific and Technical Information in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The results of research funded by the Department are submitted to Energy Link, the Department’s system for collecting, reviewing and releasing technical reports and other forms of scientific and technical information.

Our review revealed that Department-funded science and energy research results were not always properly disseminated to the public. We found that financial assistance recipients had not always submitted final technical reports to the responsible office, unrestricted reports submitted to Energy Link were not always reviewed and subsequently released publicly, and reports were not released after the expiration of associated data protection periods.

These issues occurred due to weaknesses in the Department’s processes for monitoring receipt of final reports from recipients, reviewing and releasing reports that have been received, addressing processing errors that prevent receipt or release of reports, and identifying and releasing reports upon expiration of data protection periods. Management generally concurred with our recommendations and identified planned actions or action already completed to address these issues.

Country Analysis Brief: Norway

April 30, 2014 Comments off

Country Analysis Brief: Norway
Source: Energy Information Administration

Norway, the largest holder of oil and natural gas reserves in Europe, provides much of the oil and natural gas consumed on the continent. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates that Norway was the 3rd largest exporter of natural gas in the world after Russia and Qatar, and the 12th largest net exporter of oil in 2013.

In 2012, crude oil, natural gas, and pipeline transport services accounted for 52% of Norway’s exports revenues, 23% of gross domestic product (GDP), and 30% of government revenues, according to the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD). Norway’s oil production peaked in 2001 at 3.4 million barrels per day (bbl/d) and declined to 1.8 million bbl/d in 2013. Natural gas production, on the other hand, increased nearly every year since 1993. Norway experienced a slight decline in natural gas production in 2013 to 3.97 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) from 4.16 Tcf in 2012.

Country Analysis Brief: Mexico

April 28, 2014 Comments off

Country Analysis Brief: Mexico
Source: Energy Information Administration

Mexico is one of the 10 largest oil producers in the world, the third-largest in the Americas after the United States and Canada, and an important partner in the U.S. energy trade. However, Mexico’s oil production has steadily decreased since 2005 as a result of natural production declines from Cantarell and other large offshore fields. The rate of total production decline has abated in past several years. In December 2013, in an effort to address the declines of its domestic oil production, the Mexican government enacted constitutional reforms that ended the 75-year monopoly of Petroleós Mexicanos (PEMEX), the state-owned oil company.

Oil is a crucial component of Mexico’s economy. The oil sector generated 13% of the country’s export earnings in 2013, a proportion that has declined over the past decade, according to Mexico’s central bank. More significantly, earnings from the oil industry (including taxes and direct payments from PEMEX) accounted for about 32% of total government revenues in 2013. Declines in oil production have a direct impact on the country’s economic output and on the government’s fiscal health, particularly as refined product consumption and import needs grow.

Country Analysis Brief: Turkey

April 23, 2014 Comments off

Country Analysis Brief: Turkey
Source: Energy Information Administration

Over the past three years, Turkey has experienced some of the fastest growth in energy demand of countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Unlike a number of other OECD countries in Europe, Turkey’s economy has avoided the prolonged stagnation that has characterized much of the continent for the past few years. The country’s energy use is still relatively low, although it is increasing at a fast pace. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), energy use will continue to grow at an annual growth rate of around 4.5% from 2015 to 2030, approximately doubling over the next decade. The IEA expects electricity demand growth to increase at an even faster pace.

Meeting this level of growth will require significant investment in the energy sector, much of which will come from the private sector. Although Turkey is planning large investments in natural gas and electricity infrastructure, the government seeks to reduce the country’s dependence on imported natural gas by diversifying its energy mix.

USDoE Office of Scientific and Technical Information Newsletter — April/May 2014

April 20, 2014 Comments off

OSTI.gov Newsletter — April/May 2014
Source: USDoE Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Issue Contents

  • OSTI Focused on Meeting Public Access Challenge
  • ScienceCinema: Searchable Videos Showcasing DOE Research
  • What is Audio Indexing?
  • Statistically Speaking: The Contents of ScienceCinema
  • Publication Metrics: Measuring and Evaluating the Impact of DOE’s Research Results
  • 15th Anniversary of DOE R&D Accomplishments
  • OSTI Director Walter Warnick Honored at Retirement
  • SciTech Connect Full-Text MARC Records
  • Most Viewed Documents
  • Search Tip: In-Document Search
  • DOE Science Showcase: Carbon Sequestration
  • The Latest from OSTIblog

Secretary of Energy Advisory Board — Task Force Report on FracFocus 2.0 (March 28, 2014)

April 11, 2014 Comments off

Secretary of Energy Advisory Board — Task Force Report on FracFocus 2.0 (March 28, 2014) (PDF)
Source: U.S. Department of Energy (Energy Advisory Board)

This report presents the findings and recommendations for the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (SEAB) Task Force on FracFocus. This Task Force report builds upon and extends the 2011 SEAB Subcommittee report on the environmental impacts of unconventional gas production.

The Task Force believes that the FracFocus experience to date demonstrates the ease of disclosure of chemicals added to fracturing fluid for companies, the value of this disclosure for the public, and the importance of public confidence in the quality and accessibility of the FracFocus chemical registry data. It has accomplished a good deal and shows the capacity to make improvements at modest additional cost. FracFocus has greatly improved public disclosure quickly and with a significant degree of uniformity.

The Task Force recommends a number of actions that will further improve the effectiveness of the FracFocus disclosure of chemical additives and improve transparency for regulators, operating companies, and the public. Recommendations are made for improving the accuracy and completeness of registry submissions. In addition, the Task Force believes that an independent audit to assess the accuracy and compliance of the process will be useful for all stakeholders.

U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves (With Data for 2012)

April 10, 2014 Comments off

U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves
Source: Energy Information Administration

Proved reserves are volumes of oil and natural gas that geological and engineering data demonstrate with reasonable certainty to be recoverable in future years from known reservoirs under existing economic and operating conditions. In 2012, oil and gas exploration and production companies operating in the United States added 4.5 billion barrels of crude oil and lease condensate proved reserves, an increase of 15.4% from 2011—the largest annual increase since 1970.1 U.S. proved reserves of crude oil and lease condensate have now risen for four consecutive years. Also, proved reserves of oil exceeded 33.4 billion barrels for the first time since 1976.

Proved reserves of U.S. wet natural gas2 decreased 7.5% (a loss of 26 trillion cubic feet) to 323 trillion cubic feet in 2012(Table 1). Total discoveries of oil and natural gas proved reserves both exceeded U.S. production in 2012, with the largest discoveries occurring onshore within the Lower 48 states. The 2012 decline interrupted a 14-year trend of consecutive increases in natural gas proved reserves (Figure 1).

Inspector Report: DOE/IG-0904 Review of Controls Over the Department’s Classification of National Security Information

April 9, 2014 Comments off

Inspector Report: DOE/IG-0904 Review of Controls Over the Department’s Classification of National Security Information
Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Inspector General

The Department of Energy handles and manages a broad spectrum of classified information, including National Security Information (NSI). The Office of Health, Safety and Security’s Office of Classification, manages the Department-wide classification program and establishes policies to conform with Federal classification requirements. Implementation of classification requirements is shared among various organizations within the Department. In addition, the Department’s Office of Intelligence and Counterintelligence is required to follow NSI policies and procedures instituted by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Similarly, the Department’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) separately develops and implements policies and procedures, in coordination with the Office of Classification, for the protection and security of classified information at NNSA sites.

Our inspection revealed that the Department had established and implemented critical elements of its classified NSI program. However, our review revealed that certain aspects of the NSI program could be improved. For instance, our inspection determined that a classification marking tool embedded in the classified email system at an NNSA site automatically marked emails as Secret//Restricted Data, regardless of content. The classification related issues we observed occurred, in part, because of ineffective oversight of classification activities and inadequate training and guidance.

In general, we found management’s comments and planned corrective actions to be generally responsive to our report findings and recommendations.

Annual Energy Outlook 2014

April 8, 2014 Comments off

Annual Energy Outlook 2014
Source: Energy Information Administration

We begin the staged release of the full Annual Energy Outlook 2014 (AEO2014), expanding on the AEO2014 Reference case tables and highlights that were issued in December 2013. The April 7 release will include the first of eight Issues in Focus articles which will be released according to the schedule at right. The final components of the full AEO2014 will be released on April 30, 2014.

Country Analysis Brief: South Korea

April 2, 2014 Comments off

Country Analysis Brief: South Korea
Source: Energy Information Administration

The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates that South Korea was the world’s ninth-largest energy consumer in 2011. Korea is one of the top energy importers in the world and relies on fuel imports for about 97% of its primary energy demand because the country lacks domestic energy reserves. In 2013, the country was the second-largest importer of liquefied natural gas (LNG), the fourth-largest importer of coal, and the fifth-largest net importer of total petroleum and other liquids. South Korea has no international oil or natural gas pipelines and relies exclusively on tanker shipments of LNG and crude oil. Despite its lack of domestic energy resources, South Korea is home to some of the largest and most advanced oil refineries in the world. In an effort to improve the nation’s energy security, oil and gas companies are aggressively seeking overseas exploration and production opportunities.

The Journal of Physical Security 7(1), 2014

March 12, 2014 Comments off

The Journal of Physical Security 7(1), 2014
Source: Argonne National Laboratory

Welcome to volume 7, issue 1 of the Journal of Physical Security. This issue has 7 papers on the following topics: testing locks, seals and nuclear safeguards, a security thought experiment, vulnerability assessment issues, the levels of critical infrastructure risk, and community partnerships for counteracting radicalization. Volume 7, issue 2 should also be out shortly.

Paper 1 – SK McNeill, “Analysis of Explosive Magazine Padlock Breaching Techniques”, pages 1‐21
Paper 2 – HA Undem, “Nuclear Containment and Surveillance Terminology”, pages 22‐24
Paper 3 – P Kurrasch, “Money in a Glass Box”, pages 25‐30
Paper 4 – RG Johnston and JS Warner, “Vulnerability Assessment Myths (Or What Makes Red Teamers See Red)”, pages 31‐38
Paper 5 – RG Johnston and JS Warner, “What Vulnerability Assessors Know That You Should, Too”, pages 39‐42
Paper 6 – B Nussbaum, “The ‘Levels of Analysis’ Problem with Critical Infrastructure Risk”, pages 43‐50
Paper 7 – HS Mack, “Countering Violent Extremism in the United States: Law Enforcement’s Approach to Preventing Terrorism through Community Partnerships”, pages 51‐56

As usual, the views expressed by the editor and authors are their own and should not necessarily be ascribed to their home institutions, Argonne National Laboratory, or the United States Department of Energy.

Country Analysis Brief: Indonesia

March 9, 2014 Comments off

Country Analysis Brief: Indonesia
Source: Energy Information Administration

Indonesia is the most populous country in Southeast Asia and the fourth most populous country in the world, behind China, India, and the United States. Formerly a net oil exporter in the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), Indonesia struggles to attract sufficient investment to meet growing domestic energy consumption because of inadequate infrastructure and a complex regulatory environment. Despite their energy struggles, it was the world’s largest exporter of coal by weight in 2012 and the fourth-largest exporter of liquid natural gas (LNG) in 2013. As Indonesia seeks to meet its energy export obligations and earn revenues through international market sales, the country is also trying to meet demand at home.

Indonesia’s total primary energy consumption grew by 44% between 2002 and 2012. The petroleum share, although decreasing, continues to account for the highest portion of Indonesia’s energy mix at 36% in 2012. In the past decade, coal consumption nearly tripled and surpassed natural gas as the second most consumed fuel.

Country Analysis Brief: South Africa

March 3, 2014 Comments off

Country Analysis Brief: South Africa
Source: Energy Information Administration

South Africa’s energy sector is critical to its economy, as the country relies heavily on its large-scale, energy-intensive coal mining industry. South Africa has limited proved reserves of oil and natural gas and uses its large coal deposits to meet most of its energy needs, particularly in the electricity sector. Most of the oil consumed in the country, used mainly in the transportation sector, is imported from Middle East and West African producers in the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and is locally refined. South Africa also has a sophisticated synthetic fuels industry, producing gasoline and diesel fuels from the Secunda coal-to-liquids (CTL) and Mossel Bay gas-to-liquids (GTL) plants. The synthetic fuels industry accounts for nearly all of the country’s domestically produced petroleum as crude oil production is very small.

Country Analysis Brief: Angola

February 27, 2014 Comments off

Country Analysis Brief: Angola
Source: Energy Information Administration

The first commercial oil discovery in Angola was made in 1955 in the onshore Kwanza (Cuanza) basin. Since that discovery, Angola’s oil industry has grown substantially, despite a civil war that occurred from 1975 to 2002. Currently, oil production comes almost entirely from offshore fields off the coast of Cabinda and deepwater fields in the Lower Congo basin. There is small-scale production from onshore fields, but onshore exploration and production have been limited in the past due to conflict.

Country Analysis Brief: Syria

February 24, 2014 Comments off

Country Analysis Brief: Syria
Source: Energy Information Administration

Syria’s energy sector is in turmoil because of the ongoing hostilities between government and opposition forces. Syria’s oil and natural gas production has declined dramatically since March 2011 because of the conflict and because of the subsequent imposition of sanctions by the United States and European Union in particular. Syria’s energy sector is unlikely to recover in the near term.

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