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Archive for the ‘poverty’ Category

2014 Multicultural Population Quick Facts

July 22, 2014 Comments off

2014 Multicultural Population Quick Facts
Source: AARP Research

This set of fact sheets provides a one-page snapshot of 50+ African American and Hispanic populations in select metropolitan markets.

Each fact sheet includes information on the population size, education, employment, income, grandparents living with grandchildren, food insecurity and buying power. Hispanic/Latino fact sheets also include data on citizenship status and English language use.

Data points are based on the most recent available from cited sources and represent the 50+ population unless otherwise indicated.

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NSCAW Child Well-Being Spotlight: Teenage Girls in the Child Welfare System Report High Rates of Risky Sexual Activity and Pregnancy

July 21, 2014 Comments off

NSCAW Child Well-Being Spotlight: Teenage Girls in the Child Welfare System Report High Rates of Risky Sexual Activity and Pregnancy
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (Administration for Children & Families)

This National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW) spotlight describes the high rates of risky sexual activity and pregnancy among teenage girls in the second cohort of NSCAW (NSCAW II). According to data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW), 16.8% of girls ages 14-17, and 45.1% of girls ages 18-20, had experienced at least one pregnancy.

State Government Indigent Defense Expenditures, FY 2008–2012

July 21, 2014 Comments off

State Government Indigent Defense Expenditures, FY 2008–2012
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics

Provides data on state government indigent defense expenditures for fiscal years 2008 through 2012. Trends in spending and comparisons with total state government judicial-legal expenditures are also included. The report uses administrative data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s Government Finance Survey. This is a companion report to the Census Bureau’s report, Indigent Defense Services in the United States, FY 2008-2012.

Highlights:

  • In 2012, state governments spent $2.2 billion nationally on indigent defense, the lowest amount spent during the 5-year period from 2008 to 2012.
  • State government indigent defense expenditures showed an average annual decrease of 1.1% from 2008 to 2012.
  • From 2011 to 2012, state government indigent defense expenditures decreased by $45 million nationally (down 2.0%).
  • As a share of total judicial-legal expenditures by state governments, spending on indigent defense held steady between 9.5% and 10.0% from 2008 to 2012.

SNAP Error Rates at All-Time Lows; Steady Improvement in Payment Accuracy Reflects Program’s Extensive Quality Control System

July 21, 2014 Comments off

SNAP Error Rates at All-Time Lows; Steady Improvement in Payment Accuracy Reflects Program’s Extensive Quality Control System
Source: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities

The percentage of SNAP (formerly food stamp) benefit dollars issued to ineligible households or to eligible households in excessive amounts fell for the seventh consecutive year in 2013 to 2.61 percent, newly released U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) data show. That’s the lowest national overpayment rate since USDA began the current system of measuring error rates in 1981. The underpayment error rate fell to 0.6 percent, also the lowest on record. (See Figure 1.) The combined payment error rate — that is, the sum of the overpayment and underpayment error rates — fell to an all-time low of 3.2 percent.[1] Less than 1 percent of SNAP benefits go to households that are ineligible. In other words, more than 99 percent of SNAP benefits are issued to eligible households.

CRS — Unaccompanied Alien Children: Potential Factors Contributing to Recent Immigration

July 21, 2014 Comments off

Unaccompanied Alien Children: Potential Factors Contributing to Recent Immigration (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via U.S. State Department Foreign Press Center)

Since FY2008, the growth in the number of unaccompanied alien children (UAC) from Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras seeking to enter the United States has increased substantially. Total unaccompanied child apprehensions increased from about 8,000 in FY2008 to 52,000 in the first 8 ½ months of FY2014. Since 2012, children from El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras (Central America’s “northern triangle”) account for almost all of this increase. Apprehension trends for these three countries are similar and diverge sharply from those for Mexican children. Unaccompanied child migrants’ motives for migrating to the United States are often multifaceted and difficult to measure analytically.

Four recent out-migration-related factors distinguishing northern triangle Central American countries are high violent crime rates, poor economic conditions fueled by relatively low economic growth rates, high rates of poverty, and the presence of transnational gangs.

Policy Works: How Quality Programs Can Improve Social Mobility

July 11, 2014 Comments off

Policy Works: How Quality Programs Can Improve Social Mobility
Source: Brookings Institution

Children born into low-income families face multiple barriers to upward mobility: not just a lack of money, but a range of overlapping social, educational, economic and familial disadvantages. Sometimes these problems can seem intractable. But in fact, targeted, high-quality interventions can break down some of the obstacles faced by low-income children, as our new CCF policy brief shows. A single intervention at one point in time will likely only have a modest effect. But intervening at multiple points can have large impacts on class and race gaps in child outcomes and improve social mobility quite dramatically.

Overview of Emergency Department Visits in the United States, 2011

July 4, 2014 Comments off

Overview of Emergency Department Visits in the United States, 2011
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

Emergency departments (EDs) provide a significant source of medical care in the United States, with over 131 million total ED visits occurring in 2011. Over the past decade, the increase in ED utilization has outpaced growth of the general population, despite a national decline in the total number of ED facilities. In 2009, approximately half of all hospital inpatient admissions originated in the ED. In particular, EDs were the primary portal of entry for hospital admission for uninsured and publicly insured patients (privately insured patients were more likely to be directly admitted to the hospital from a doctor’s office or clinic).

ED utilization reflects the greater health needs of the surrounding community and may provide the only readily available care for individuals who cannot obtain care elsewhere. Many ED visits are “resource sensitive” and potentially preventable, meaning that access to high-quality, community-based health care can prevent the need for a portion of ED visits.

This HCUP Statistical Brief presents data on ED visits in the United States in 2011. Patient and hospital characteristics for two types of ED visits are provided: ED visits with admission to the same hospital and ED visits resulting in discharge, which includes patients who were stabilized in the ED and then discharged home, transferred to another hospital, or any other disposition. The most frequent conditions treated by patient age group also are presented for both types of ED visits. All differences between estimates noted in the text are statistically significant at the .0005 level or better.

Number of People Living in ‘Poverty Areas’ Up, Census Bureau Reports

July 2, 2014 Comments off

Number of People Living in ‘Poverty Areas’ Up, Census Bureau Reports
Source: U.S. Census Bureau

One in four U.S. residents live in “poverty areas,” according to American Community Survey data collected by the U.S. Census Bureau from 2008 to 2012, up from less than one in five in 2000. These areas of concentrated poverty refer to any census tract with a poverty rate of 20 percent of more. The number of people living in poverty areas increased from 49.5 million (18.0 percent) in 2000 to 77.4 million (25.7 percent) in 2008-2012. The 2012 American Community Survey five-year estimates show a U.S. poverty rate of 14.9 percent.

While for most areas the percent of people living in poverty areas increased, some parts of the country moved in the opposite direction of the nation’s 7.6 percentage points increase. In Louisiana (-3.6 percentage points), West Virginia (-2.3), Alaska (-0.4), Hawaii (-1.0) and the District of Columbia (-6.7), the proportion of people living in poverty areas declined over the period. On the other hand, Arkansas (15.7 percentage points), North Carolina (17.9), Oregon (16.0) and Tennessee (16.0) had among the largest percentage point increases in the proportion of people living in poverty areas.

By state, according to the 2008-2012 figures, the percentage of people living in a poverty area ranged from 6.8 percent in New Hampshire to 48.5 percent in Mississippi.

The report, Changes in Areas with Concentrated Poverty: 2000 to 2010, uses data from the 2000 Census and the American Community Survey to analyze changes in the spatial distribution and socio-economic characteristics of people living in such areas. More than half of people living in poverty lived in a poverty area, and about 30 percent of people living in poverty areas had incomes below the poverty level.

<img src="http://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/img/cb14-123_povertystatic_graphic_th.jpg&quot;

International Food Security Assessment, 2014-24

July 2, 2014 Comments off

International Food Security Assessment, 2014-24
Source: USDA Economic Research Service

The number of food-insecure people is projected to fall 9 percent to 490 million in 2014 from 539 million in 2013 in the 76 low- and middle-income countries included in the ERS report. Over the longer term, the food security situation is projected to deteriorate with the share of the population that is food insecure projected to reach 14.6 percent in 2024 up from 13.9 percent in 2014.

Policies to Address Poverty in America

June 27, 2014 Comments off

Policies to Address Poverty in America
Source: Brookings Institution

Millions of people live in poverty in this country. They suffer not only material deprivation, but also the hardships and diminished life prospects that come with being poor. Childhood poverty often means growing up without the advantages of a stable home, high-quality schools, or consistent nutrition. Adults in poverty are often hampered by inadequate skills and education, leading to limited wages and job opportunities. And the high costs of housing, healthcare, and other necessities often mean that people must choose between basic needs, sometimes forgoing essentials like meals or medicine. In recognition of these challenges, The Hamilton Project has commissioned fourteen innovative, evidence-based antipoverty proposals. These proposals are authored by a diverse set of leading scholars, each tackling a specific aspect of the poverty crisis.

Prevalence of U.S. Food Insecurity Is Related to Changes in Unemployment, Inflation, and the Price of Food

June 25, 2014 Comments off

Prevalence of U.S. Food Insecurity Is Related to Changes in Unemployment, Inflation, and the Price of Food
Source: USDA Economic Research Service

Food security has remained essentially unchanged since the 2007-09 recession. Falling unemployment from early post-recession (2009-10) to 2012, absent any other changes, would suggest a modest decline in the prevalence of food insecurity. However, this report finds that potential improvement was almost exactly offset by the effects of higher inflation and the higher relative price of food in 2012.

The Community Eligibility Provision: Alternatives to School Meal Applications

June 23, 2014 Comments off

The Community Eligibility Provision: Alternatives to School Meal Applications
Source: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities

“Community eligibility” is a powerful new tool to ensure that low-income children in high-poverty neighborhoods have access to healthy meals at school. Established in the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, community eligibility streamlines school meal operations and allows schools in high-poverty areas to offer nutritious breakfasts and lunches to all students at no charge.[1] One of the key simplifications of community eligibility is that participating schools no longer collect school meal applications. Eliminating applications reduces the administrative burden on school districts and reduces paperwork for parents struggling to put food on the table.

Without applications, schools need an alternative method to determine meal reimbursements. Under community eligibility, reimbursements are determined by a formula based on the percentage of “Identified Students” who are approved to receive free meals by means other than a household application, primarily children in households participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) who are “directly certified” through data matching. This simplification eliminates the numerous hours that school administrators spend processing and verifying school meal applications. When school districts implement community eligibility, however, they no longer have the individual income data from those meal applications for the students attending community eligibility schools — data that programs outside of the school meal programs often use.

Promoting Health Equity Through Education Programs and Policies: Full-Day Kindergarten Programs

June 20, 2014 Comments off

Promoting Health Equity Through Education Programs and Policies: Full-Day Kindergarten Programs
Source: Community Preventive Services Task Force

The Community Preventive Services Task Force recommends full-day kindergarten programs to improve the health prospects of low-income and racial and ethnic minority children, based on strong evidence that full-day programs substantially improve reading and mathematics achievement–determinants of long-term academic and health-related outcomes (e.g., reduced teen pregnancy and risk behaviors)–when compared with half-day kindergarten or full-day kindergarten on alternating days.

The achievement gains apparent at the beginning of first grade do not, themselves, guarantee academic achievement in later years. Ongoing school environments that support learning and development are essential.

Because academic achievement is linked with long-term health, and because full-day kindergarten programs are commonly implemented in racial and ethnic minority or low-income communities, these programs are likely to improve health equity. Equity in health is the widespread, achievable, equality in health and in the major social determinants of health in all the principal social divisions of a population.

Alleviate hunger by passing immigration reform: fact sheet

June 13, 2014 Comments off

Alleviate hunger by passing immigration reform: fact sheet (PDF)
Source: Bread for the World Institute

• About one-third of undocumented immigrants live in poverty
• More than 21 percent, or one in 5, of undocumented immigrant adults live in poverty, which is twice the rate of U.S.-born adults
• More than half of the population within some undocumented immigrant communities live with food insecurity, and it’s particularly high among rural communities of unauthorized immigrants
• 70 percent of Latino immigrants struggle to put food on the table
• One-third of U.S.-born children of undocumented parents live in poverty—that’s almost twice the rate for the children of U.S.-born adults

Updated Resources Illustrate SNAP’s Important Role

June 11, 2014 Comments off

Updated Resources Illustrate SNAP’s Important Role
Source: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities

We’ve updated a trio of SNAP resources — our Chart Book, Policy Basic, and state fact sheets — that explain the program’s essential details, including who receives SNAP (formerly food stamps), how much it costs, how it responds to need, and how it encourages work.

These resources highlight SNAP’s role in providing essential food support to low-income households and local economies, which was particularly important during the economic downturn.

In fact, as our Chart Book illustrates, a CBPP analysis using the Supplemental Poverty Measure, which counts SNAP as income, found that SNAP kept about 4.9 million people out of poverty in 2012, including about 2.2 million children. National Poverty Center researchers found that counting SNAP benefits as income cuts the number of extremely poor households with children in 2011 by nearly half (see chart) and cuts the number of extremely poor children by two-thirds (from 3.6 million to 1.2 million).

Helping Parents, Helping Children: Two-Generation Mechanisms

May 30, 2014 Comments off

Helping Parents, Helping Children: Two-Generation Mechanisms
Source: The Future of Children (Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs/Brookings Institution)
From Executive Summary (PDF)

It’s a stark fact: Despite decades of efforts to give them a leg up through preschool and other early-childhood initiatives, children from poor families still show up for kindergarten far behind children from wealthier families, and they fall further behind during the school years.

Poor children’s school problems start with the quality of the home environment. Parents and the home environment they create exert a powerful influence on children, beginning before they are born and continuing throughout childhood. Study after study has shown large differences in the home environment by income, all of them favoring children from more affluent families. For example, among many other disadvantages, poorer children spend less time reading or being read to, spend less time talking with adults, and hear far fewer words each week.

Because the home environment is so important for children’s development, many people think that “two-generation” programs, which serve parents and children simultaneously with high-quality interventions, can be more effective (and perhaps more efficient) than programs that serve them individually. The hope is that we can work through parents to make preschool interventions more effective, while helping parents at the same time. Several promising demonstration programs are under way.

This issue of Future of Children assesses past and current two-generation programs. But it goes much further than that. The editors identified six widely acknowledged mechanisms or pathways through which parents, and the home environment they create, are thought to influence children’s development: stress, education, health, income, employment, and assets. Understanding how these mechanisms of development work—and when, where, and how they harm or help—should aid us in designing interventions that boost children’s intellectual and socioemotional development, strengthen families, and help close academic gaps between students from poor and more affluent families.

Paycheck Plus: A New Antipoverty Strategy for Single Adults

May 27, 2014 Comments off

Paycheck Plus: A New Antipoverty Strategy for Single Adults
Source: MDRC

Over the past several decades, workers with college degrees have seen their wages rise substantially, in tandem with the nation’s economic growth. However, wages for less-skilled workers, specifically those without a college education, have followed a dramatically different course. Many less-educated workers have faced increasing hardship as their wages stagnated over the past 30 years and some — particularly men — have seen their earnings fall sharply. This decline in the payoff to work has reduced employment and contributed to persistently high poverty rates and growing economic inequality. The federal Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) supplements the earnings of low-wage workers and has become one of the nation’s most effective antipoverty programs. However, because most of its benefits go to low-income workers with children, it only reaches a minority of low-wage workers. Although low-income workers without dependent children are eligible for the EITC, benefits for this group are nominal in comparison with those received by families with children.

This brief describes Paycheck Plus, a pathbreaking demonstration project testing a new EITC-like earnings supplement for low-income single adults that aims to improve their economic circumstances while promoting employment. The project recently completed its first milestone, recruiting and enrolling over 6,000 individuals, with half assigned at random to a program group eligible for the supplement and the other half assigned to a control group not eligible for the supplement. MDRC will follow both the program and control groups for several years, to assess the supplement’s effects on economic well-being, work, and other outcomes. Funded by New York City’s Center for Economic Opportunity (CEO) and the Robin Hood Foundation and managed by MDRC, the project is a direct response to the downward trend in employment, wages, and earnings among New York’s and the nation’s least-skilled workers. Paycheck Plus could serve as a national model and add to the current bipartisan discussion about supporting low-wage work, increasing the minimum wage, and expanding the EITC.

New Special Advisory Bulletin Provides Additional Guidance on Independent Charity Patient Assistance Programs for Federal Health Care Program Beneficiaries

May 22, 2014 Comments off

New Special Advisory Bulletin Provides Additional Guidance on Independent Charity Patient Assistance Programs for Federal Health Care Program Beneficiaries
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General

A Supplemental Special Advisory Bulletin on patient assistance programs (PAPs) run by independent charities was released today by the Office of Inspector General (OIG) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. OIG announced that this document expands 2005 OIG guidance in response to concerns about potential abuses arising from some PAPs’ interactions with their donors.

OIG continues to recognize that independent charities can help financially needy beneficiaries with their health care expenses, and pharmaceutical manufacturers can donate to these charities. However, charities that are not sufficiently independent from drug manufacturer donors may operate PAPs that harm patients and Federal health care programs and may, depending on the facts, violate fraud and abuse laws.

Neighborhood Change, 1970 to 2010: Transition and Growth in Urban High Poverty Neighborhoods

May 21, 2014 Comments off

Neighborhood Change, 1970 to 2010: Transition and Growth in Urban High Poverty Neighborhoods (PDF)
Source: Impresa Consulting

This paper analyzes changes in high poverty urban neighborhoods in the nation’s large metropolitan areas between 1970 and 2010. Using census tract data to track neighborhood performance, and defining high poverty as neighborhoods with a poverty rate of greater than 30 percent, this paper finds:

About 1,100 census tracts in urban neighborhoods in the nation’s large metropolitan areas had poverty rates in excess of 30 percent in 1970. These tracts had a population of 5 million, of which nearly 2 million were poor.

High poverty was persistent in these neighborhoods. Four decades later, 750 of these tracts—home to about three-quarters of the 1970 high poverty neighborhood population—still had rates of poverty in excess of 30 percent.

Though poverty persisted, these high poverty neighborhoods were not stable— in the aggregate they lost population, with chronic high poverty neighborhoods losing 40 percent of their population by 2010.

Only a few 1970 high poverty neighborhoods experienced a significant economic rebound, defined here as a previously high poverty neighborhood that sees its poverty rate decline to less than 15 percent in 2010. About 100 of the 1,100 high poverty census tracts, accounting for about 5 percent of the 1970 high poverty neighborhood population, saw poverty rates decline to below the national average. And in contrast to chronically high poverty neighborhoods these rebounding neighborhoods recorded an aggregate 30 percent increase in population.

Gender, Poverty and Environmental Indicators on African Countries 2014

May 13, 2014 Comments off

Gender, Poverty and Environmental Indicators on African Countries 2014 (PDF)
Source: African Development Bank Group

This is the fifteenth volume of Gender, Poverty, and Environmental Indicators on African Countries published by the Statistics Department of the African Development Bank Group. The publication also provides some information on the broad development trends relating to gender, poverty and environmental issues in the 54 African countries.

Gender, Poverty and Environmental Indicators on African Countries 2014 is divided in three main parts: Part One presents a special feature article on “Green growth and poverty alleviation: Risks and opportunities for Africa”. Part Two presents comparative cross-country data on Millennium Development Goals, Gender, Poverty and the Environment; and Part Three provides detailed country-specific data for each of the 54 countries.

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