Archive

Archive for the ‘Migration Policy Institute’ Category

Catching Up: The Labor Market Outcomes of New Immigrants in Sweden

April 15, 2014 Comments off

Catching Up: The Labor Market Outcomes of New Immigrants in Sweden
Source: Migration Policy Institute

The considerable diversity among Sweden’s immigrants reflects a humanitarian migration policy. Refugees have arrived in the country since the 1970s and 1980s, with their countries of origin shifting according to the ethnic and political conflicts of any given period. Sweden is also a longstanding magnet for labor migration from surrounding Scandinavia, and has attracted mobile EU citizens since its entry into the European Union in 1995—and especially following the EU enlargements of 2004 and 2007. Sweden’s immigration flows continue to change today, as policy reforms in 2008 allowed employers to bring non-EU labor migrants to the country for the first time in decades.

This report assesses how new immigrants to Sweden fare in the country’s labor market. The report is part of a series of six case studies on labor market outcomes among immigrants to European Union countries.

About these ads

Global Remittances Guide

April 1, 2014 Comments off

Global Remittances Guide
Source: Migration Policy Institute

Remittances are among the most tangible links between migration and development. According to World Bank projections, international migrants are expected to remit more than $550 billion in earnings in 2013, of which $414 billion will flow to developing countries. In 24 countries, remittances were equal to more than 10 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011; in nine countries they were equal to more than 20 percent of GDP.

The Future of Immigrant Integration in Europe: Mainstreaming Approaches for Inclusion

March 28, 2014 Comments off

The Future of Immigrant Integration in Europe: Mainstreaming Approaches for Inclusion
Source: Migration Policy Institute

Immigrant integration policies that are designed for migrants to Europe, particularly newcomers, are important, but they can be insufficient over the long run to realize the full economic potential and societal participation of immigrants and citizens with an immigrant background.

For this reason, several European governments have increasingly turned to the strategy of “mainstreaming” integration—an effort to reach people with a migration background through needs-based social programming and policies that also target the general population—in order to address areas where traditional immigrant integration polices have fallen short.

This MPI Europe report assesses the degree to which four European countries—relative veterans regarding the reception and integration of immigrants—have mainstreamed integration priorities across general policy areas such as education, employment, and social cohesion. The report shows how approaches to mainstreaming in Denmark, France, Germany, and the United Kingdom reflect each country’s distinct ethnic profile, diversity, and social traditions. It also offers suggestions for future policy development.

A Precarious Position: The Labor Market Integration of New Immigrants in Spain

March 27, 2014 Comments off

A Precarious Position: The Labor Market Integration of New Immigrants in Spain (PDF)
Source: Migration Policy Institute

This report assesses how new immigrants to Spain fare in the country’s labor market, evaluating the conditions under which they are able to find employment, and their progress out of unskilled work into middle-skilled jobs. The report is part of a series of six case studies on labor market outcomes among immigrants to European Union countries.

New immigrants to Spain have very different experiences entering the labor market depending on when they arrived in the country. The report analyzes Spanish Labor Force Survey data from 2000 through 2011, finding that immigrants who arrived before the 2008 recession had little trouble finding work immediately, but those who arrived after 2008 struggled to find work as Spanish unemployment rates skyrocketed.

Human Rights, Climate Change, Environmental Degradation and Migration: A New Paradigm

March 25, 2014 Comments off

Human Rights, Climate Change, Environmental Degradation and Migration: A New Paradigm
Source: Migration Policy Institute

Climate change and environmental degradation will likely displace millions of people in the coming years, either directly or indirectly. Although today’s international legal framework provides a degree of protection to certain environmental migrants, major gaps in the framework often prevent recognition of their vulnerability and endanger their rights.

One major problem is that there is little consensus on the definition of environmental migrants, in large part because it is difficult to ascertain the influence of environmental factors, such as degradation and climate change, on migration. In the absence of a precise definition, ambiguity about the legal rights of migrants and the responsibilities of governments and international organizations lead to difficulties in implementing solutions.

This issue in brief emphasizes the need to defend the rights of migrants whose movement is induced by environmental degradation or climate change, particularly in the highly vulnerable Asia-Pacific region, by pursuing an integrated approach to climate change that incorporates rights-based strategies. The brief evaluates the current human rights framework; identifies gaps both in the legal framework and in implementation; and then reviews different legal options available to the international community. Finally, the brief makes recommendations on how to strengthen the “soft law” approach as an interim step before there is broad global consensus on a possible binding framework to protect the rights of environmental migrants.

Education Reform in a Changing Georgia: Promoting High School and College Success for Immigrant Youth

March 24, 2014 Comments off

Education Reform in a Changing Georgia: Promoting High School and College Success for Immigrant Youth
Source: Migration Policy Institute

Georgia has experienced one of the fastest rates of growth in immigration in the United States over the past two decades, and immigration has profoundly altered the makeup of the state’s educational institutions. ​Together, immigrants and the U.S.-born children of immigrants made up almost one-fifth of Georgia’s youth in 2012. These young adults stand to play a decisive role in the current and future workforce competitiveness of the state.

But these first- and second-generation youth in Georgia—particularly those who are English Language Learners (ELLs)—lag considerably behind their nonimmigrant peers in terms of high school graduation, college access, and postsecondary degree completion. For example, 44 percent of ELLs in Georgia’s high schools graduate in four years, compared to 70 percent for all students. ELLs often face extra hurdles as they seek to develop academic English-language skills, complete high school course requirements, navigate the transition to college and careers, and finance postsecondary education—often while juggling work and family responsibilities.

This report describes these hurdles, and shows that Georgia’s recent education reform efforts—while ambitious in scope—often do not address the unique needs of Georgia’s immigrant youth, and particularly those who are ELLs. Moreover, state policies have created barriers to entry into the very institutions that are designed to provide basic education and English language instruction for low-skilled adults, as well as the flagship universities that educate the state’s most promising students.

“Donkey Flights”: Illegal Immigration from the Punjab to the United Kingdom

February 7, 2014 Comments off

“Donkey Flights”: Illegal Immigration from the Punjab to the United Kingdom (PDF)
Source: Migration Policy Institute

The facilitation of illegal immigration is big business in India. One method being used to exploit immigration loopholes, explored in this report, is referred to as “donkey flights”—the practice of Indian migrants obtaining a tourist visa for a Schengen-zone country in order to enter the United Kingdom through the back door via other European countries.

Human Smuggling and Trafficking into Europe: A Comparative Perspective

February 5, 2014 Comments off

Human Smuggling and Trafficking into Europe: A Comparative Perspective (PDF)
Source: Migration Policy Institute

Human smuggling and trafficking are rapidly growing transnational criminal activities in Europe, where the demand to enter for work or to escape dire political or economic situations in migrant-sending countries exceeds the legal migration opportunities. The problem has become a high priority for EU Member States, and is especially challenging given Europe’s relatively porous borders. This report examines the factors and facilitators at play and assesses policy solutions.

IRCA in Retrospect: Guideposts for Today’s Immigration Reform

January 29, 2014 Comments off

IRCA in Retrospect: Guideposts for Today’s Immigration Reform (PDF)
Source: Migration Policy Institute

The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) was an important milestone in U.S. immigration history, representing the first and most comprehensive legislation to take on the issue of illegal immigration to the United States. Like all major legislation, IRCA was based on imperfect knowledge of the conditions it sought to address, limited understanding of how the law would play out, and it faced implementation challenges—all of which diluted its effectiveness. The brief makes the case that the law’s major flaws were rooted in statutory design more so than regulatory challenges and implementation by the administrative agencies. It also suggests that today’s policymakers would do well to heed the lessons of 1986, both positive and negative, in crafting new immigration proposals.
Download Brief

A Strategic Framework for Creating Legality and Order in Immigration

January 27, 2014 Comments off

A Strategic Framework for Creating Legality and Order in Immigration (PDF)
Source: Migration Policy Institute

Various forms of illegality that can result from immigration undermine the positive economic and social benefits of international migration, and in some cases produce costs that may outweigh the benefits. This report examines the forms of risks associated with immigration, among them worker exploitation, undermining of formal labor markets and the rule of law, profit to criminal enterprises, and potential adverse fiscal and welfare consequences. It outlines policy tools that policymakers have at their disposal to address the risks associated with immigration. Among them are policies that aim to prevent abuses by disrupting illicit activities and actors before they reach the border, as well as policies that target labor markets and put in place an effective and strategic enforcement regime to tackle these immigration harms.

Spheres of Exploitation: Thwarting Actors Who Profit from Illegal Labor, Domestic Servitude, and Sex Work

January 23, 2014 Comments off

Spheres of Exploitation: Thwarting Actors Who Profit from Illegal Labor, Domestic Servitude, and Sex Work (PDF)
Source: Migration Policy Institute

Large-scale movement across borders is too often exploited by “bad actors” who manipulate the system for profit. This report analyzes three spheres where perpetrators are motivated by the lure of high profits and low risks: the domestic care sector, the labor market, and the sex industry. It explores the obstacles that governments face in taking on these bad actors and examines the tools that exist to disrupt the business model of exploitation, including anti-trafficking legislation, penalties for employers who hire unauthorized workers, inspections, regulations, and public awareness campaigns.

Securing Borders: The Intended, Unintended, and Perverse Consequences

January 17, 2014 Comments off

Securing Borders: The Intended, Unintended, and Perverse Consequences (PDF)
Source: Migration Policy Institute

Notwithstanding massive government investments in immigration controls in the United States and Europe, illegal immigration and the unlawful employment of migrants continue, fueled in large measure by highly adaptive “bad actors” who facilitate and profit from illegality: smugglers, traffickers, and unscrupulous employers among them. This report, the first in a series from the Transatlantic Council on Migration that focuses on innovative, practical policy solutions that curb the influence of bad actors by shrinking the “gray area” in which they operate, outlines the security-related challenges that borders are intended to address and, in turn, the perverse consequences (both predictable and not) that tighter border enforcement generates.

The Top 10 Migration Issues of 2013

December 18, 2013 Comments off

The Top 10 Migration Issues of 2013
Source: Migration Policy

The year 2013 was a year full of developments — policy-oriented and otherwise — on the immigration front: from Europe wrestling with migration management challenges thrown into relief after a deadly shipwreck off the coast of Lampedusa to the ever-widening Syrian humanitarian crisis and the United States seemingly on the cusp of enacting landmark reform only for the year to draw to a close without action. In the Migration Information Source’s annual Top 10 migration developments of the year, we’ve invited Migration Policy Institute researchers to delve into key issues of 2013.

Skilled Immigrants in the Global Economy: Prospects for International Cooperation on Recognition of Foreign Qualifications

December 13, 2013 Comments off

Skilled Immigrants in the Global Economy: Prospects for International Cooperation on Recognition of Foreign Qualifications (PDF)
Source: Migration Policy Institute

Skilled migration is an important resource for governments seeking to build their country’s human-capital base and make the most of global trade and investment opportunities. In many cases, however, migrant professionals face barriers transferring their skills and experiences across borders — with professional regulation one such barrier. Mutual recognition agreements that set out clear rules for licensing practitioners who move between signatory countries represents one solution. But reaching agreement on mutual recognition is no easy feat. Overall, as this report explores, the challenge for policymakers is to determine how governments can get more out of MRAs than they have done to date.

Green-Card Holders and Legal Immigration to the United States

November 28, 2013 Comments off

Green-Card Holders and Legal Immigration to the United States
Source: Migration Policy Institute

There are four main pathways to gain LPR status in the United States: family sponsorship, a job offer from a US employer, humanitarian reasons, and selection via a green-card lottery. The current immigrant admission system prioritizes family-based immigrants, followed by employer-sponsored immigrants and those who arrive as humanitarian migrants. A total of 55,000 green cards are reserved for the green-card lottery, known as the diversity visa program.

This Spotlight examines federal statistics on foreign nationals who gained LPR status during 2012. This article uses data from the Yearbook of Immigration Statistics, one of the most commonly used publications on US immigration statistics, which is published by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Office of Immigration Statistics (OIS).

Early Education for Dual Language Learners

November 25, 2013 Comments off

Early Education for Dual Language Learners (PDF)
Source: Migration Policy Institute

This report profiles the population of young Dual Language Learners (DLLs), who represent nearly one-third of all US children under age 6, outlining their school readiness and patterns of achievement. The report evaluates the research on early care and education approaches that have been shown to support higher levels of language and literacy development and achievement for this child population, most but not all of whom are children of immigrants. Assessing the features of high-quality programs that have been shown to improve school readiness among the DLL population, the author finds there are a number of readily implementable practices that can be put into effect.

Maximizing Human Capital in a Rapidly Evolving Economic Landscape

November 19, 2013 Comments off

Maximizing Human Capital in a Rapidly Evolving Economic Landscape (PDF)
Source: Migration Policy Institute

This Transatlantic Council on Migration statement, capping a series of reports focusing on workforce development systems, examines how governments in immigrant-receiving countries can design strategies that maximize their human-capital resources. The Council statement outlines the key tasks that policymakers face, including creating inclusive approaches to integration that address the specific needs of newcomers and help vulnerable populations without prioritizing — or being perceived to prioritize — immigrants at the expense of the domestic population. It also identifies guiding principles for reform, including creating incentives for employers and social partners to invest in worker training.
Read the Council Statement

See also: The Immigrant Workforce in Germany: Formal and Informal Barriers to Addressing Skills Deficits (PDF)

Naturalization Trends in the United States

November 12, 2013 Comments off

Naturalization Trends in the United States
Source: Migration Policy Institute

Naturalization, which is the process by which immigrants take citizenship in their country of residence, extends to foreign-born nationals the same rights and responsibilities as those held by the native born. The final step in the naturalization process is being sworn in as a US citizen during an oath-taking ceremony, which is meant to create and seal in a greater sense of belonging to the United States.

In 2012, there were about 757,000 naturalizations in the United States, out of a total immigrant population of 40.8 million. Over the past decade, the number of naturalizations per year in the United States has varied between about 460,000 and just over 1 million, depending on several factors including application costs, processing times, and backlogs, as well as immigrants’ initiative, financial constraints, and personal notions of citizenship.

Building New Skills: Immigration and Workforce Development in Canada

November 6, 2013 Comments off

Building New Skills: Immigration and Workforce Development in Canada (PDF)
Source: Migration Policy Institute

Canada has long been considered a world leader in the global hunt for talent, attracting large numbers of skilled immigrants through its points system. Although many immigrants are selected for their skills, not all have fared well in the Canadian labor market. The past few decades have seen high foreign-born unemployment and skills waste, raising concerns that Canada’s immigration system is failing to live up to its promise. This suggests a pressing need for improved workforce development and employment services, but there is little evidence to guide the debate about where policymakers should target investments.

In Immigrants and Canada’s Workforce Development System, Social Research and Demonstration Corporation (SRDC) researchers Karen Myers and Natalie Conte examine Canada’s province-led workforce development policy, asking how effectively both targeted and mainstream services accommodate immigrants’ needs.

While recent years have seen significant innovation in the design and delivery of labor market training programs for immigrants, the authors note an emerging consensus that Canada’s system has been too supply driven and has failed to adequately involve key stakeholders, such as employers.

Immigrant Workers and the Workforce Development System in the United Kingdom

October 30, 2013 Comments off

Immigrant Workers and the Workforce Development System in the United Kingdom (PDF)
Source: Migration Policy Institute

Immigrant Workers and the Workforce Development System in the United Kingdom assesses the increasingly employer-led and flexible system that operates alongside centralized immigration and employment policies. The report, by University of Warwick Professor Anne Green, finds that the complexity of the skills system poses challenges for all individuals and employers, but it affects immigrants in particular since they may have less knowledge of how to navigate the system.

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 775 other followers