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MPI Releases Detailed Data Profiles of Unauthorized Immigrants and Estimates of Deferred Action Populations for Top U.S. Counties

January 16, 2015 Comments off

MPI Releases Detailed Data Profiles of Unauthorized Immigrants and Estimates of Deferred Action Populations for Top U.S. Counties
Source: Migration Policy Institute

The Migration Policy Institute (MPI) today released data profiles of unauthorized immigrants in the 94 U.S. counties with the largest such populations, including detailed information on population size, countries of origin, recency of arrival, educational enrollment and attainment, health insurance coverage, poverty levels and potential eligibility for the two deferred action programs launched by the Obama administration.

The profiles for the 94 counties, which are home to approximately two-thirds of the 11.4 million unauthorized immigrants in the United States, are the latest addition to a unique data tool that offers detailed information on this population at national and state levels, including those potentially eligible for the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program or the recently announced Deferred Action for Parents of Americans and Lawful Permanent Residents (DAPA) program. Using an innovative MPI methodology that takes U.S. Census Bureau data and imputes legal status for noncitizens, the tool also provides estimates of the age, gender, parental and marital status, top languages spoken, labor force participation and home ownership rates for unauthorized immigrants.

The county profiles reveal that the top five counties with the largest populations potentially eligible for relief from deportation through DACA or DAPA — Los Angeles, CA; Harris, TX; Orange, CA; Cook, IL; and Dallas, TX — account for 1.1 million people, over one-fifth of the total potentially eligible population nationwide, which MPI estimates at 5.2 million.

Top 10 Migration Issues of 2014

January 15, 2015 Comments off

Top 10 Migration Issues of 2014
Source: Migration Policy Institute

From rising levels of humanitarian migration around the globe to President Obama’s action ordering deportation relief for millions of unauthorized immigrants in the United States and migration controls to halt the spread of Ebola from West Africa, 2014 was punctuated by a range of migration crises, important policy changes, and developments. In this edition of the Migration Information Source’s annual Top 10 migration issues of the year, Migration Policy Institute experts analyze these and other trends that occurred throughout 2014.

DACA Recipients’ Educational Prospects Shaped by Differing Tuition and Financial Aid Policies, and Varying Levels of Legal and Other Support across U.S., New Report Finds

January 8, 2015 Comments off

DACA Recipients’ Educational Prospects Shaped by Differing Tuition and Financial Aid Policies, and Varying Levels of Legal and Other Support across U.S., New Report Finds
Source: Migration Policy Institute

Given the wide differences in college costs and state policies regarding tuition and financial aid for unauthorized students, higher education opportunities for recipients of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program are driven largely by their state of residence, a new Migration Policy Institute (MPI) report based on fieldwork in seven states finds. Community college tuition and fees at institutions examined for the report range from $600 for 12 credit hours at California community colleges to $4,500 at a metro-area college in Georgia, which bars DACA recipients and all unauthorized immigrants from in-state tuition.

Offering the first in-depth look at educational institutions’ involvement with DACA during its first two years, the report also finds great variation in the responses of adult education systems to DACA. Support has been hindered in many states by severe capacity constraints as well as a limited understanding, in some cases, of the DACA program’s rules. And a few states bar unauthorized immigrants from enrollment in federally funded adult education programs, which for many are a requirement for DACA eligibility.

Aiming Higher: Policies to Get Immigrants into Middle-Skilled Work in Europe

January 7, 2015 Comments off

Aiming Higher: Policies to Get Immigrants into Middle-Skilled Work in Europe
Source: Migration Policy Institute

Against a backdrop of aging populations and persistently low economic growth, few European governments are doing enough to help recent immigrants move from low-skilled precarious jobs and into decent work. While some countries have made sizeable investments in labor market integration policies over the past decade, they have focused primarily on getting immigrants into work. As a result, these policies have struggled to facilitate career progression over time.

Newly arrived immigrants in Europe often struggle to gain a secure foothold in the labor market, as a result of limited language proficiency, discrimination, and difficulties having their qualifications recognized and signaling how skills and experience meet employers’ needs. Many experience protracted periods of inactivity, unemployment, or long tenures in low-skilled work.

Employment gaps between native and foreign-born workers not only persist but have widened since the onset of the global economic crisis, with particularly significant effects on women, migrants who come on a visa other than a work visa, and immigrants from outside the European Union.

The report is the result of a research initiative that was carried out by MPI in collaboration with the ILO and with funding from the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion. It examines the labor market progression of recent immigrants in six EU countries and analyzes policies related to integration and workforce development, with a focus on public employment services and language and vocational training.

There is clearly no quick fix to the problem of immigrants stuck in low-skilled jobs or unemployment. A dearth of evaluations also has hindered progress, suggesting a need for sophisticated, long-term monitoring to better understand what makes programs successful.

A ‘Freer’ Flow of Skilled Labour within ASEAN: Aspirations, Opportunities, and Challenges in 2015 and Beyond

December 19, 2014 Comments off

A ‘Freer’ Flow of Skilled Labour within ASEAN: Aspirations, Opportunities, and Challenges in 2015 and Beyond
Source: Migration Policy Institute

Countries’ competitiveness, productivity, and growth depend largely on their ability to acquire and use new knowledge and constantly upgrade the skills of their workforces. Many countries do not, however, have the educational systems necessary to cultivate the kind of workforces they need, and in developing countries it is common for the most highly skilled workers to emigrate for job opportunities abroad.

Over the past decade, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), a political and economic organization of ten countries in Southeast Asia, began to tackle these issues directly. In 2007, ASEAN Member States agreed to fast-track the creation of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by 2015, which is meant to transform the region into a single market and production base characterized by, among other things, a free flow of skilled labor. In response to the mounting evidence that migrants in the region lack the skills recognition required to put their knowledge and training to use in destination countries, ASEAN Member States are taking steps toward better qualifications recognition to prevent the resulting waste of human capital.

Enhancing EU Education Policy: Building a Framework to Help Young People of Migrant Background Succeed

November 28, 2014 Comments off

Enhancing EU Education Policy: Building a Framework to Help Young People of Migrant Background Succeed
Source: Migration Policy Institute

While many countries in Europe have high-quality, well-established education systems, socioeconomically disadvantaged communities across the continent suffer from inequality of access and lower-quality education. Children from these groups, including children with a migrant background—those who are immigrants themselves or have immigrant parents—tend to underperform in the classroom compared with their native peers. Children from a migrant background (defined here as from countries outside the European Union) have particular educational needs that mainstream education policy does not always meet, including overcoming language barriers and discrimination. Recognizing the importance of education in allowing countries to realize their potential, the European Commission has developed a series of goals in the form of the Education and Training Strategy (ET 2020) to help Member States reduce school dropout and increase rates of tertiary education completion.

Developing School Capacity for Diversity

November 18, 2014 Comments off

Developing School Capacity for Diversity
Source: Migration Policy Institute

For children of migrant background, school quality is critical to ensuring academic success. Research shows that school quality has a greater impact on the education outcomes of migrant children compared to their peers of higher socioeconomic status or ethnic majority background. Therefore, any comprehensive strategy to improve the educational position of migrant children must work to improve the quality of schools themselves.

School quality, or professional capacity, encompasses the capacity of its teachers, administrators, and other staff. It can be measured by examining the content knowledge, pedagogical skills, and interpersonal skills of instructors; the level of responsibility administrators give teachers; and whether all staff work together in a cohesive, professional learning community. Schools with these communities, in which teachers work continuously to improve their teaching practices and learn from their colleagues, are more effective in encouraging student achievement in disadvantaged areas than are schools where teachers do little to reflect on their practices.

This policy brief uses the concept of professional capacity to frame SIRIUS’s recommendations regarding school quality. It identifies four key areas for improvement: language diversity, the learning environment, social psychology and acculturation, and community connections. To develop expertise in these areas, the brief outlines three strategies for policymakers: build professional learning communities that focus on diversity, build networks of expertise on diversity, and develop teacher training programs dedicated to diversity.

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