Russian Military Expenditure: Data, Analysis and Issues (PDF)
Source: FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency
Julian Cooper is a leading international independent expert on the Russian defence budget and military expenditure. Since the beginning of the 2000s, the Russia project at FOI, RUFS, has profited from his assistance with navigating through the deceptive waters of Russian military spending in our efforts of finding, assessing and interpreting Russian budget figures. The impor tance of the area is linked to that military expenditure is the most general si ngle indicator of the resources provided to the national military and it is an ind icator frequently used in international comparison. In 2012, Russia was the third count ry in the world in volume of military spending. Therefore it is of great concern that research in this area develops and that the methodology used enhances accuracy of figures despite the remaining problems of secrecy and lack of transparency in the Russian budgetary system.
In this report Julian Cooper presents a summary of principal findings and methodology behind his longstanding research on the Russian defence budget and total military expenditure based on the Russian federal budget. Julian Cooper’s work is an inspiration to all who research this area and over the years he has collected a rich knowledge and unique experience of how to produce results with reasonable accuracy. His results are used by individual researchers as well as by organizations. We asked Julian to write the report in order to make the methodology more accessible to us and to others. We find th at the report is a valuable contribution to the research of Russian military spending and we are most honoured that he kindly accepted our invitation to write and publish it with FOI.
China’s Peaceful Development
Source: Chinese Government
Over the past 5,000 years, people of all ethnic groups in China, with diligence and wisdom, have created a splendid civilization and built a unified multi-ethnic country. The Chinese civilization has a unique feature of being enduring, inclusive and open. The Chinese nation has endeavored to learn from other nations and improved itself through centuries of interactions with the rest of the world, making major contribution to the progress of human civilization.
In the mid-19th century, Western powers forced open China’s door with gunboats. Internal turmoil and foreign aggression gradually turned China into a semi-colonial and semi-feudal society. The country became poor and weak, and the people suffered from wars and chaos. Facing imminent danger of national subjugation, one generation of patriots after another fought hard to find a way to reform and save the nation. The Revolution of 1911 put an end to the system of monarchy which had ruled China for several thousand years, and inspired the Chinese people to struggle for independence and prosperity. However, such efforts and struggle failed to change the nature of China as a semi-colonial and semi-feudal society, or lift the Chinese people out of misery. Living up to the people’s expectation, the CPC led them in carrying out arduous struggle, and finally founded the People’s Republic of China in 1949. This marked the realization of China’s independence and liberation of its people and ushered in a new epoch in China’s history.
In the past six decades and more since the founding of New China, and particularly since the introduction of the reform and opening-up policies in 1978, the Chinese government has worked hard to explore a path of socialist modernization that conforms to China’s conditions and the trend of the times. Overcoming difficulties and setbacks, the Chinese people have advanced with the times, drawn on both experience and lessons from the development of China itself and other countries, deepened understanding of the laws governing the development of human society, and promoted the self-improvement and growth of the socialist system. Through arduous struggle, the Chinese people have succeeded in finding a path of development conforming to China’s reality, the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics.
Viewed in the broader, global and historical context, the path of peaceful development may be defined as follows: China should develop itself through upholding world peace and contribute to world peace through its own development. It should achieve development with its own efforts and by carrying out reform and innovation; at the same time, it should open itself to the outside and learn from other countries. It should seek mutual benefit and common development with other countries in keeping with the trend of economic globalization, and it should work together with other countries to build a harmonious world of durable peace and common prosperity. This is a path of scientific, independent, open, peaceful, cooperative and common development.
Statistical Year Book India, 2011
Source: Government of India — Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation
With the fast growing economies, the information needs are growing rapidly to facilitate formulation of good development policies and for proper planning, management and monitoring of investment. The information demand also includes providing wider range of information on important and critical issues.
Accordingly, the scope of this publication (44th edition in the series) has been enhanced significantly to add important new data besides including analytical information in the form of write-ups to convey a view obout what is represented by different data. It also contains a fairly significant time series data in respect of most of the data, along with correspondence metadata including source of data and explanatory notes.
In the first decade of the 21st century, the international community forged ahead in a new phase of opening up and cooperation, and at the same time faced crises and changes. Sharing opportunities for development and dealing with challenges with joint efforts have become the consensus of all countries in the world. Pulling together in the time of trouble, seeking mutual benefit and engaging in win-win cooperation are the only ways for humankind to achieve common development and prosperity.
China has now stood at a new historical point, and its future and destiny has never been more closely connected with those of the international community. In the face of shared opportunities and common challenges, China maintains its commitment to the new security concepts of mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality and coordination. By connecting the fundamental interests of the Chinese people with the common interests of other peoples around the globe, connecting China’s development with that of the world, and connecting China’s security with world peace, China strives to build, through its peaceful development, a harmonious world of lasting peace and common prosperity.
Looking into the second decade of the 21st century, China will continue to take advantage of this important period of strategic opportunities for national development, apply the Scientific Outlook on Development in depth, persevere on the path of peaceful development, pursue an independent foreign policy of peace and a national defense policy that is defensive in nature, map out both economic development and national defense in a unified manner and, in the process of building a society that is moderately affluent on a general basis, realize the unified goal of building a prosperous country and a strong military.
Disability in India – A Statistical Profile
Source: Government of India — Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation
In most parts of the World people with disabilities are subject to multiple deprivations with limited access to basic services, including education, employment, rehabilitation facilities etc. Widespread social stigma plays a major role in hindering their normal social and economic life. However in the last three decades since the International Year of Disability in 1981, there has been a “paradigm shift” in attitudes and approaches to persons with disabilities. Worldwide the movement takes a new height from viewing persons with disabilities as “objects” of charity, medical treatment and social protection to treating them as “subjects” with rights, capable of claiming those rights and making decisions for their lives based on their free and informed consent as active members of society.
The Asia Pacific Region followed up the UN initiative with two consecutive disability specific regional decade initiatives since 1993 with approximately two-thirds of world’s 600 million disabled people living in this region. It led to the formulation of Biwako Millenium Framework for action towards an inclusive, barrier free and rights-based society for persons with disabilities and its supplement, the Biwako Plus Five for further efforts in this regard. In accordance with this convention, Governments are expected to enhance their national capacities in data collection and analysis of disability statistics besides other policy initiatives.
The Washington Group on Disability Statistics was formed by United Nations Statistics Division in 2001 to allow the representatives from national statistical agencies of various countries to come together and address selected problems in statistical methods in compiling Disability Statistics.
However, there has been a major difference between the developed and the developing countries in understanding the disability types and formulation of their measures. In economically developed countries these have been conceived in keeping with the greater scope of using measuring devices during disability surveys/ censuses or in the administrative records of the medical facility centres. On the other hand such advanced procedures are not feasible in developing countries for getting accurate measure of various disability related parameters. For this very reason, India, like most of the developing countries, could not adopt the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework for identification and measurement of disability types. In these countries disability statistics is essentially based on the informants’ response to the simple, easily comprehensible disability questionnaire and thus can capture only the most severe cases. This is reflected in the wide divergence in the estimates of prevalence of disability of the developed and the developing countries. In India the official statistics collected through both Population Censuses and the nationwide sample surveys put an estimate of around 2% prevalence of disability as against nearly 20% in countries like Australia and New Zealand in the Asia Pacific region.
This publication has contextualized the analysis of existing official data on disability with reference to the policy framework and the embedded principles of social justice followed in the country at present.