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Older Women Workers and Economic Security

March 3, 2015 Comments off

Older Women Workers and Economic Security (PDF)
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau

How and why does the gender wage gap vary by age? How do earnings for older women differ by race and ethnicity? What is the impact of the gender wage gap and caregiving responsibilities on women’s lifetime earnings and their retirement savings? What can be done to tackle the gender wage gap and improve women’s lifetime earnings?

Independence for young millennials: moving out and boomeranging back

March 2, 2015 Comments off

Independence for young millennials: moving out and boomeranging back
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, this article examines the process of household formation for young adults born between 1980 and 1984. The analysis finds that, by age 27, about 90 percent of these individuals had left their parental households at least once and more than 50 percent of them had moved back at some point after moving out. The article also reveals that the likelihood of moving out and boomeranging back is correlated with certain individual and family characteristics, including gender, race, educational attainment, and household income.

CDC Grand Rounds: Preventing Youth Violence

February 27, 2015 Comments off

CDC Grand Rounds: Preventing Youth Violence
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC)

Youth violence occurs when persons aged 10–24 years, as victims, offenders, or witnesses, are involved in the intentional use of physical force or power to threaten or harm others. Youth violence typically involves young persons hurting other young persons and can take different forms. Examples include fights, bullying, threats with weapons, and gang-related violence. Different forms of youth violence can also vary in the harm that results and can include physical harm, such as injuries or death, as well as psychological harm. Youth violence is a significant public health problem with serious and lasting effects on the physical, mental, and social health of youth. In 2013, 4,481 youths aged 10–24 years (6.9 per 100,000) were homicide victims (1). Homicide is the third leading cause of death among persons aged 10–24 years (after unintentional injuries and suicide) and is responsible for more deaths in this age group than the next seven leading causes of death combined (Figure) (1). Males and racial/ethnic minorities experience the greatest burden of youth violence. Rates of homicide deaths are approximately six times higher among males aged 10–24 years (11.7 per 100,000) than among females (2.0). Rates among non-Hispanic black youths (27.6 per 100,000) and Hispanic youths (6.3) are 13 and three times higher, respectively, than among non-Hispanic white youths (2.1) (1). The number of young persons who are physically harmed by violence is more than 100 times higher than the number killed. In 2013, an estimated 547,260 youths aged 10–24 years (847 per 100,000) were treated in U.S. emergency departments for nonfatal physical assault–related injuries (1)

Surviving the Streets of New York: Experiences of LGBTQ Youth, YMSM, and YWSW Engaged in Survival Sex

February 26, 2015 Comments off

Surviving the Streets of New York: Experiences of LGBTQ Youth, YMSM, and YWSW Engaged in Survival Sex
Source: Urban Institute

Based on interviews with 283 youth in New York City, this is the first study to focus on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning (LGBTQ) youth; young men who have sex with men (YMSM); and young women who have sex with women (YWSW) who get involved in the commercial sex market in order to meet basic survival needs, such as food or shelter. The report documents these youth’s experiences and characteristics to gain a better understanding of why they engage in survival sex, describes how the support networks and systems in their lives have both helped them and let them down, and makes recommendations for better meeting the needs of this vulnerable population.

IBM Study: The Real Story Behind Millennials in the Workplace

February 25, 2015 Comments off

IBM Study: The Real Story Behind Millennials in the Workplace
Source: IBM

IBM today announced that pretty much everything you thought you knew about Millennials could well be wrong. A new IBM study reveals much of the hype about Millennial employees simply isn’t true. They aren’t the “lazy, entitled, selfish and shallow” workers that many believe them to be.

The results of the global, multigenerational study “Myths, Exaggerations and Uncomfortable Truths” found that the fundamental distinction between Millennials and older employees is their digital proficiency, which comes from growing up immersed in a digital world. But, for things like career goals, employee engagement, preferred leadership styles and recognition, the study shows that Millennials share many of the same attitudes as Gen X and Baby Boomer employees.

By 2020, Millennials will be approximately 50 percent of the U.S. workforce (1). So within the next five years, Millennials will wield increasing influence over organizations’ decisions, move in to leadership roles and basically take over the workforce.

Today’s business leaders need to begin planning for this shift by creating a workplace environment that will maximize the Millennial generation’s unique strengths. To do so, they first need to separate fact from fiction on what Millennial employees are really all about.

New Evidence on the Risk of Requiring Long-Term Care

February 23, 2015 Comments off

New Evidence on the Risk of Requiring Long-Term Care
Source: Center for Retirement Research at Boston College

Long-term care is one of the major expenses faced by many older Americans. Yet, we have only limited information about the risk of needing long-term care and the expected duration of care. The expectations of needing to receive home health care, live in an assisted living facility or live in a nursing home are essential inputs into models of optimal post-retirement saving and long-term care insurance purchase. Previous research has used the Robinson (1996) transition matrix, based on National Long Term Care Survey (NLTCS) data for 1982-89. The Robinson model predicts that men and women aged 65 have a 27 and 44 percent chance, respectively, of ever needing nursing home care. Recent evidence suggests that those earlier estimates may be extremely misleading in important dimensions. Using Health and Retirement Study (HRS) data from 1992-2010, Hurd, Michaud, and Rohwedder (2013) estimate that men and women aged 50 have a 50 and 65 percent chance, respectively, of ever needing care. But, they also estimate shorter average durations of care, resulting, as we show, from a greater chance of returning to the community, conditional on admission. If nursing home care is a high-probability but relatively low-cost occurrence, models that treat it as a lower-probability, high-cost occurrence may overstate the value of insurance.

We update and modify the Robinson model using more recent data from both the NLTCS and the HRS. We show that the low lifetime utilization rates and high conditional mean durations of stay in the Robinson model are artifacts of specific features of the statistical model that was fitted to the data. We also show that impairment and most use of care by age has declined and that the 2004 NLTCS and the 1996-2010 HRS yield similar cross-sectional patterns of care use. We revise and update the care transition model, and we show that use of the new transition matrix substantially reduces simulated values of willingness-to-pay in an optimal long-term care insurance model.

Diversity Explosion: The cultural generation gap mapped

February 23, 2015 Comments off

Diversity Explosion: The cultural generation gap mapped
Source: Brookings Institution

In the new book Diversity Explosion: How New Racial Demographics are Remaking America, William Frey highlights the “bottom up” demographic change that is occurring in the United States as today’s youth are considerably more racially diverse than previous predominantly white generations. As a result of this demographic structure, the nation faces a “cultural generation gap.” Yet these dynamics vary considerably from place to place. The following interactive feature illustrates this point by mapping the racial composition of different age groups at the county and metropolitan area scales.

The map defaults to showing the share of the total county population (all ages) that is white. Yet even among largely white counties a different pattern emerges when selecting younger age groups from the menu. Greater diversity can be seen among counties located in the nation’s Southeast, Southwest and coasts. By selecting a different race/ethnicity from the menu, maps highlighting different aspects of this diversity associated with blacks, Hispanics, Asians and persons with two or more races can be explored. Hovering over each county reveals a chart depicting the extent of the “cultural generation gap” in that county.

In addition, each of these indicators can be examined at the metropolitan level scale, by clicking on the “metropolitan area” button.

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