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Archive for the ‘psychology and sociology’ Category

States with Equal Minimum Wages for Tipped Workers Have Smaller Wage Gaps for Women Overall and Lower Poverty Rates for Tipped Workers

September 18, 2014 Comments off

States with Equal Minimum Wages for Tipped Workers Have Smaller Wage Gaps for Women Overall and Lower Poverty Rates for Tipped Workers
Source: National Women’s Law Center

The federal minimum cash wage for tipped workers has been frozen at $2.13 per hour for 23 years, and now represents less than a third of the federal minimum wage ($7.25 per hour)—its lowest share on record. The inadequate tipped minimum wage is particularly detrimental to women, who represent two-thirds of tipped workers nationally. Increasing wages for the predominately female workers at the bottom of the pay scale can reduce poverty and help close the wage gap. Raising the federal minimum cash wage for tipped workers—ideally, by eliminating it altogether—is a crucial step toward fair pay for women and economic security for their families.

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Brief – State-Level Policy Advocacy for Children Affected by Parental Substance Use

September 18, 2014 Comments off

Brief – State-Level Policy Advocacy for Children Affected by Parental Substance Use
Source: State Policy and Advocacy Reform Center (SPARC)

More than 8.3 million children, or 11 percent of all children in the United States, live in homes where at least one parent or caretaker has a substance use disorder involving alcohol and other drugs. Parental substance abuse places the family at an increased risk of child abuse, neglect, and trauma. Most of these children are not identified by child-serving agencies.

This SPARC brief, authored by Sid Gardner from Children and Family Futures, provides compelling data to demonstrate that alcohol and drug use is a key factor in a high percentage of child welfare involved families, outlines eight barriers to taking substance abuse seriously in the child welfare system, summarizes five levers for advocates aiming at going beyond pilot projects to systems change and highlights policy and practice innovations that advocates can promote.

The Cost of Inaction for Young Children Globally: Workshop Summary (2014)

September 18, 2014 Comments off

The Cost of Inaction for Young Children Globally: Workshop Summary (2014)
Source: Institute of Medicine (IOM); National Research Council

The Cost of Inaction for Young Children Globally is the summary of a workshop hosted by the Institute of Medicine Forum on Investing in Young Children Globally in April 2014 to focus on investments in young children and the cost of inaction. Participants explored existing, new, and innovative science and research from around the world to translate this evidence into sound and strategic investments in policies and practices that will make a difference in the lives of children and their caregivers. This report discusses intersections across health, education, nutrition, living conditions, and social protection and how investments of economic, natural, social, and other resources can sustain or promote early childhood development and well-being.

Screening Youth for Suicide Risk in Medical Settings: Time to Ask Questions

September 17, 2014 Comments off

Screening Youth for Suicide Risk in Medical Settings: Time to Ask Questions (PDF)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine

This paper focuses on the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention’s Research Prioritization Task Force’s Aspirational Goal 2 (screening for suicide risk) as it pertains specifically to children, adolescents, and young adults. Two assumptions are forwarded: (1) strategies for screening youth for suicide risk need to be tailored developmentally; and (2) we must use instruments that were created and tested specifically for suicide risk detection and developed specifically for youth. Recommendations for shifting the current paradigm include universal suicide screening for youth in medical settings with validated instruments.

The Math Gender Gap: The Role of Culture

September 17, 2014 Comments off

The Math Gender Gap: The Role of Culture (PDF)
Source: Institute for the Study of Labor

This paper explores the role of cultural attitudes towards women in determining math educational gender gaps using the epidemiological approach. To identify whether culture matters, we estimate whether the math gender gap for each immigrant group living in a particular host country (and exposed to the same host country’s laws and institutions) is explained by measures of gender equality in the parents’ country of ancestry. We find that the higher the degree of gender equality in the country of ancestry, the higher the performance of second-generation immigrant girls relative to boys. This result is robust to alternative specifications, measures of gender equality and the inclusion of other human development indicators in the country of ancestry. The transmission of culture is higher among those in schools with a higher proportion of immigrants or in co-educational schools. Our results suggest that policies aimed at changing beliefs can prove effective in reducing the gender gap in mathematics.

Prenatal Breastfeeding Counseling — Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, United States, 2010

September 17, 2014 Comments off

Prenatal Breastfeeding Counseling — Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, United States, 2010
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC)

Breastfeeding is a highly effective preventive measure a mother can take after birth to protect the health of her infant, as well as her own. Immunologic and antiinflammatory properties of breast milk protect against numerous illnesses and diseases in children (1). Benefits of breastfeeding for infants include a lower risk for ear infections (2), atopic dermatitis (3), lower respiratory tract infections (4), sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) (2,5), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants (2), type 2 diabetes (6), asthma (7), and childhood obesity (8–10). For mothers, benefits of breastfeeding include a lower risk for breast cancer (11–13) and ovarian cancer (2). Increasing rates of breastfeeding and therefore its health benefits might lower health-care costs. A recent study found that if higher rates of mothers complied with medical recommendations for breastfeeding, an estimated $2.2 billion in additional direct medical costs would be saved annually in the United States (14).

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) stated in its 2012 policy statement on breastfeeding that exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life is sufficient to support optimal growth and development and recommended that breastfeeding be continued for at least the first year of life and beyond (15). In 2010, the Joint Commission included exclusive breastfeeding during the newborn’s entire hospitalization as part of a set of five nationally implemented measures that address perinatal care, endorsed by the National Quality Forum (NQF #0480) (16). Within the last decade, breastfeeding rates have been increasing; however, despite overall improvements, rates for breastfeeding duration remain relatively low, with only 49.4% of U.S. infants breastfed to any extent at age 6 months and only 18.8% of children exclusively breastfed through the recommended age of 6 months (17). Healthy People 2020 national breastfeeding objectives are to increase the proportion of infants who are ever breastfed to 81.9%, who are breastfed to any extent at 6 months to 60.6% and at 1 year to 34.1%, and who are exclusively breastfed through 3 months to 46.2% and through 6 months to 25.5% (objectives MICH-21.1, 21.2, 21.3, 21.4 and 21.5) (18).

Report to Congress on the Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Published

September 17, 2014 Comments off

Report to Congress on the Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Published
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (Family & Youth Services Bureau)

The Family & Youth Services Bureau is pleased to announce the release of the Report to Congress on the Runaway and Homeless Youth Program for fiscal years 2012 and 2013.

The report documents FYSB’s commitment to the national goal of ending youth homelessness by 2020. For 40 years, the Bureau has worked closely with its non-profit partners across the country to make sure young people have somewhere to turn when their homes no longer offer safety or support.

In FY 2012 and 2013:

  • Each Street Outreach Program grantee got an average of 151 youth off the streets and into shelter for at least one night.
  • Each Basic Center Program grantee provided emergency care and counseling to an average of 114 youth.
  • Each Transitional Living Program grantee provided intensive, long-term support to an average of 18 transition-aged young people.
  • The National Runaway Safeline handled an average of more than 263 calls a day from youth, parents, and allies.
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