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AU — Perspectives on Sport, June 2013

June 11, 2013 Comments off

Perspectives on Sport, June 2013

Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics

Perspectives on Sport is a series of short articles on topics of interest relating to sport and physical recreation using data sourced from a range of ABS surveys.

This is the ninth issue of Perspectives on Sport. Future releases will feature articles on topics that are current in the media and of interest to the community using survey data as it becomes available. In most cases the data presented will be current, however, it is recommended that users check for more recent releases through the ABS website by going to the Sport and Physical Recreation Topics @ a Glance page.

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The Trust for Public Land Releases 2013 ParkScore Index

June 5, 2013 Comments off

The Trust for Public Land Releases 2013 ParkScore Index

Source: Trust for Public Land

The Trust for Public Land Releases 2013 ParkScore® Index, Rating Park Systems in 50 Largest U.S. Cities Minneapolis unseats San Francisco as nation’s top park system; New York ranks 2nd as Fresno repeats last place finish SAN FRANCISCO , Ca. -

Minneapolis took top honors in The Trust for Public Land’s 2nd annual ParkScore index, earning the first perfect "5 park bench" rating from the nonprofit organization. Defending champion San Francisco fell from first place to third, and New York improved from third place to second. For the second consecutive year, Fresno, California, was the lowest-rated city park system.

Minneapolis was not rated by ParkScore in 2012 and was included this year because the index expanded to the 50 largest cities in the United States, up from the 40 largest last year. Minneapolis is the 48th largest U.S. city, according to the Census Bureau.


ParkScore ratings are based equally on three factors: Park access, which measures the percentage of residents living within a 10-minute walk of a park (approximately 1/2-mile); Park size, which is based on a city’s median park size and the percentage of total city area dedicated to parks; and Services and investment, which combines the number of playgrounds per 10,000 city residents and per capita park spending.

Does Mental Productivity Decline with Age? Evidence from Chess Players

May 7, 2013 Comments off

Does Mental Productivity Decline with Age? Evidence from Chess Players

Source: Institute for the Study of Labor

We use data on international chess tournaments to study the relationship between age and mental productivity in a brain-intensive profession. We show that less talented players tend to leave the game in the earliest phases of their career. When the effects of age on productivity vary with unobserved ability, commonly used fixed effects estimators applied to raw data do not guarantee consistent estimates of age-productivity profiles. In our data, this method strongly over-estimates the productivity of older players. We apply fixed effects to first-differenced data and show that productivity peaks in the early forties and smoothly declines thereafter. Because of this, players aged 60 are 11 percent less productive than players in their early forties.

Assessing the Online Social Environment for Surveillance of Obesity Prevalence

April 25, 2013 Comments off

Assessing the Online Social Environment for Surveillance of Obesity Prevalence

Source: PLoS ONE

Background

Understanding the social environmental around obesity has been limited by available data. One promising approach used to bridge similar gaps elsewhere is to use passively generated digital data.

Purpose

This article explores the relationship between online social environment via web-based social networks and population obesity prevalence.

Methods

We performed a cross-sectional study using linear regression and cross validation to measure the relationship and predictive performance of user interests on the online social network Facebook to obesity prevalence in metros across the United States of America (USA) and neighborhoods within New York City (NYC). The outcomes, proportion of obese and/or overweight population in USA metros and NYC neighborhoods, were obtained via the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance and NYC EpiQuery systems. Predictors were geographically specific proportion of users with activity-related and sedentary-related interests on Facebook.

Results

Higher proportion of the population with activity-related interests on Facebook was associated with a significant 12.0% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 11.9 to 12.1) lower predicted prevalence of obese and/or overweight people across USA metros and 7.2% (95% CI: 6.8 to 7.7) across NYC neighborhoods. Conversely, greater proportion of the population with interest in television was associated with higher prevalence of obese and/or overweight people of 3.9% (95% CI: 3.7 to 4.0) (USA) and 27.5% (95% CI: 27.1 to 27.9, significant) (NYC). For activity-interests and national obesity outcomes, the average root mean square prediction error from 10-fold cross validation was comparable to the average root mean square error of a model developed using the entire data set.

Conclusions

Activity-related interests across the USA and sedentary-related interests across NYC were significantly associated with obesity prevalence. Further research is needed to understand how the online social environment relates to health outcomes and how it can be used to identify or target interventions.

Consumption of analgesics before a marathon and the incidence of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and renal problems: a cohort study

April 22, 2013 Comments off

Consumption of analgesics before a marathon and the incidence of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and renal problems: a cohort study
Source: British Medical Journal

Objectives To prevent pain inhibiting their performance, many athletes ingest over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics before competing. We aimed at defining the use of analgesics and the relation between OTC analgesic use/dose and adverse events (AEs) during and after the race, a relation that has not been investigated to date.

Design Prospective (non-interventional) cohort study, using an online questionnaire.

Setting The Bonn marathon 2010.

Participants 3913 of 7048 participants in the Bonn marathon 2010 returned their questionnaires.

Primary and secondary outcomes Intensity of analgesic consumption before sports; incidence of AEs in the cohort of analgesic users as compared to non-users.

Results There was no significant difference between the premature race withdrawal rate in the analgesics cohort and the cohort who did not take analgesics (‘controls’). However, race withdrawal because of gastrointestinal AEs was significantly more frequent in the analgesics cohort than in the control. Conversely, withdrawal because of muscle cramps was rare, but it was significantly more frequent in controls. The analgesics cohort had an almost 5 times higher incidence of AEs (overall risk difference of 13%). This incidence increased significantly with increasing analgesic dose. Nine respondents reported temporary hospital admittance: three for temporary kidney failure (post-ibuprofen ingestion), four with bleeds (post-aspirin ingestion) and two cardiac infarctions (post-aspirin ingestion). None of the control reported hospital admittance.

Conclusions The use of analgesics before participating in endurance sports may cause many potentially serious, unwanted AEs that increase with increasing analgesic dose. Analgesic use before endurance sports appears to pose an unrecognised medical problem as yet. If verifiable in other endurance sports, it requires the attention of physicians and regulatory authorities.

See: Painkillers Taken Before Marathons Linked to Potentially Serious Side Effects

A Brief Behavioral Intervention of Harm Reduction for Online Poker Players

March 28, 2013 Comments off

A Brief Behavioral Intervention of Harm Reduction for Online Poker Players (PDF)

Source: Analysis of Gambling Behavior

Given the high rates of gambling in the United States and the growing population of problem and pathological (disordered) gamble rs, there is a need for effective interven-tions which will eliminate or reduce disordered gambling, or, at minimum, reduce harm resulting from disordered gambling. High-risk populations for development of disordered gambling include college students and online poker players. This study sought to develop and test a brief behavioral intervention for decreasing monetary loss, time spent gambling, and risky betting for college-aged self-identified problem gamblers who play online poker. This study included four participants in a multiple baseline across participants. Post-intervention, all participants gambled fewer days overall, and three of four participants lost less money over all. The fourth participant was never at a net monetary loss.

Summary of evidence-based guideline update: Evaluation and management of concussion in sports

March 28, 2013 Comments off

Summary of evidence-based guideline update: Evaluation and management of concussion in sports (PDF)

Source: American Academy of Neurology

Objective:

To update the 1997 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) practice parameter regarding sports concussion, focusing on 4 questions: 1) What factors increase/decrease concussion risk? 2) What diagnostic tools identify those with concussion and those at increased risk for severe/prolonged early impairments, neurologic catastrophe, or chronic neurobehavioral impairment? 3) What clinical factors identify those at increased risk for severe/prolonged early postconcussion impairments, neurologic catastrophe, recurrent concussions, or chronic neurobehavioral impairment? 4) What interventions enhance recovery, reduce recurrent concussion risk, or diminish long-term sequelae? The complete guideline on which this summary is based is available as an online data supplement to this article.

Methods:

We systematically reviewed the literature from 1955 to June 2012 for pertinent evidence. We assessed evidence for quality and synthesized into conclusions using a modified Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation process. We used a modified Delphi process to develop recommendations.

Results:

Specific risk factors can increase or decrease concussion risk. Diagnostic tools to help identify individuals with concussion include graded symptom checklists, the Standardized Assessment of Concussion, neuropsychological assessments, and the Balance Error Scoring System. Ongoing clinical symptoms, concussion history, and younger age identify those at risk for postconcussion impairments. Risk factors for recurrent concussion include history of multiple concussions, particularly within 10 days after initial concussion. Risk factors for chronic neurobehavioral impairment include concussion exposure and APOE ε4 genotype. Data are insufficient to show that any intervention enhances recovery or diminishes long-term sequelae postconcussion. Practice recommendations are presented for preparticipation counseling, management of suspected concussion, and management of diagnosed concussion.

See also: Sports Concussion Toolkit

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