Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics
Perspectives on Sport is a series of short articles on topics of interest relating to sport and physical recreation using data sourced from a range of ABS surveys.
This is the ninth issue of Perspectives on Sport. Future releases will feature articles on topics that are current in the media and of interest to the community using survey data as it becomes available. In most cases the data presented will be current, however, it is recommended that users check for more recent releases through the ABS website by going to the Sport and Physical Recreation Topics @ a Glance page.
Source: Trust for Public Land
The Trust for Public Land Releases 2013 ParkScore® Index, Rating Park Systems in 50 Largest U.S. Cities Minneapolis unseats San Francisco as nation’s top park system; New York ranks 2nd as Fresno repeats last place finish SAN FRANCISCO , Ca. -
Minneapolis took top honors in The Trust for Public Land’s 2nd annual ParkScore index, earning the first perfect "5 park bench" rating from the nonprofit organization. Defending champion San Francisco fell from first place to third, and New York improved from third place to second. For the second consecutive year, Fresno, California, was the lowest-rated city park system.
Minneapolis was not rated by ParkScore in 2012 and was included this year because the index expanded to the 50 largest cities in the United States, up from the 40 largest last year. Minneapolis is the 48th largest U.S. city, according to the Census Bureau.
ParkScore ratings are based equally on three factors: Park access, which measures the percentage of residents living within a 10-minute walk of a park (approximately 1/2-mile); Park size, which is based on a city’s median park size and the percentage of total city area dedicated to parks; and Services and investment, which combines the number of playgrounds per 10,000 city residents and per capita park spending.
Source: Institute for the Study of Labor
We use data on international chess tournaments to study the relationship between age and mental productivity in a brain-intensive profession. We show that less talented players tend to leave the game in the earliest phases of their career. When the effects of age on productivity vary with unobserved ability, commonly used fixed effects estimators applied to raw data do not guarantee consistent estimates of age-productivity profiles. In our data, this method strongly over-estimates the productivity of older players. We apply fixed effects to first-differenced data and show that productivity peaks in the early forties and smoothly declines thereafter. Because of this, players aged 60 are 11 percent less productive than players in their early forties.
Consumption of analgesics before a marathon and the incidence of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and renal problems: a cohort study
Objectives To prevent pain inhibiting their performance, many athletes ingest over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics before competing. We aimed at defining the use of analgesics and the relation between OTC analgesic use/dose and adverse events (AEs) during and after the race, a relation that has not been investigated to date.
Design Prospective (non-interventional) cohort study, using an online questionnaire.
Setting The Bonn marathon 2010.
Participants 3913 of 7048 participants in the Bonn marathon 2010 returned their questionnaires.
Primary and secondary outcomes Intensity of analgesic consumption before sports; incidence of AEs in the cohort of analgesic users as compared to non-users.
Results There was no significant difference between the premature race withdrawal rate in the analgesics cohort and the cohort who did not take analgesics (‘controls’). However, race withdrawal because of gastrointestinal AEs was significantly more frequent in the analgesics cohort than in the control. Conversely, withdrawal because of muscle cramps was rare, but it was significantly more frequent in controls. The analgesics cohort had an almost 5 times higher incidence of AEs (overall risk difference of 13%). This incidence increased significantly with increasing analgesic dose. Nine respondents reported temporary hospital admittance: three for temporary kidney failure (post-ibuprofen ingestion), four with bleeds (post-aspirin ingestion) and two cardiac infarctions (post-aspirin ingestion). None of the control reported hospital admittance.
Conclusions The use of analgesics before participating in endurance sports may cause many potentially serious, unwanted AEs that increase with increasing analgesic dose. Analgesic use before endurance sports appears to pose an unrecognised medical problem as yet. If verifiable in other endurance sports, it requires the attention of physicians and regulatory authorities.
Source: Analysis of Gambling Behavior
Given the high rates of gambling in the United States and the growing population of problem and pathological (disordered) gamble rs, there is a need for effective interven-tions which will eliminate or reduce disordered gambling, or, at minimum, reduce harm resulting from disordered gambling. High-risk populations for development of disordered gambling include college students and online poker players. This study sought to develop and test a brief behavioral intervention for decreasing monetary loss, time spent gambling, and risky betting for college-aged self-identified problem gamblers who play online poker. This study included four participants in a multiple baseline across participants. Post-intervention, all participants gambled fewer days overall, and three of four participants lost less money over all. The fourth participant was never at a net monetary loss.
Source: American Academy of Neurology
To update the 1997 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) practice parameter regarding sports concussion, focusing on 4 questions: 1) What factors increase/decrease concussion risk? 2) What diagnostic tools identify those with concussion and those at increased risk for severe/prolonged early impairments, neurologic catastrophe, or chronic neurobehavioral impairment? 3) What clinical factors identify those at increased risk for severe/prolonged early postconcussion impairments, neurologic catastrophe, recurrent concussions, or chronic neurobehavioral impairment? 4) What interventions enhance recovery, reduce recurrent concussion risk, or diminish long-term sequelae? The complete guideline on which this summary is based is available as an online data supplement to this article.
We systematically reviewed the literature from 1955 to June 2012 for pertinent evidence. We assessed evidence for quality and synthesized into conclusions using a modified Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation process. We used a modified Delphi process to develop recommendations.
Specific risk factors can increase or decrease concussion risk. Diagnostic tools to help identify individuals with concussion include graded symptom checklists, the Standardized Assessment of Concussion, neuropsychological assessments, and the Balance Error Scoring System. Ongoing clinical symptoms, concussion history, and younger age identify those at risk for postconcussion impairments. Risk factors for recurrent concussion include history of multiple concussions, particularly within 10 days after initial concussion. Risk factors for chronic neurobehavioral impairment include concussion exposure and APOE ε4 genotype. Data are insufficient to show that any intervention enhances recovery or diminishes long-term sequelae postconcussion. Practice recommendations are presented for preparticipation counseling, management of suspected concussion, and management of diagnosed concussion.
See also: Sports Concussion Toolkit
Source: National Bureau of Economic Research
Cycling is popular among children, but results in thousands of injuries annually. In recent years, many states and localities have enacted bicycle helmet laws. We examine direct and indirect effects of these laws on injuries. Using hospital-level panel data and triple difference models, we find helmet laws are associated with reductions in bicycle-related head injuries among children. However, laws also are associated with decreases in non-head cycling injuries, as well as increases in head injuries from other wheeled sports. Thus, the observed reduction in bicycle-related head injuries may be due to reductions in bicycle riding induced by the laws.
Source: University of Florida
Shark attacks in the U.S. reached a decade high in 2012, while worldwide fatalities remained average, according to the University of Florida’s International Shark Attack File report released February 11.
The U.S. saw an upturn in attacks with 53, the most since 2000. There were seven fatalities worldwide, which is lower than 2011 but higher than the yearly average of 4.4 from 2001 to 2010. It is the second consecutive year for multiple shark attacks in Western Australia (5) and Reunion Island (3) in the southwest Indian Ocean, which indicates the localities have developed problematic situations, said George Burgess, director of the file housed at the Florida Museum of Natural History on the UF campus.
“Those two areas are sort of hot spots in the world – Western Australia is a function of white shark incidents and Reunion is a function most likely of bull shark incidents,” Burgess said. “What I’ve seen in all situations when there’s been a sudden upswing in an area is that human-causative factors are involved, such as changes in our behavior, changes in our abundance, or an overt shark-attracting product of something that we’re doing.”
Eighty unprovoked attacks occurred worldwide, slightly more than 2011. Four attacks were recorded in South Africa, three of which resulted in death, which is higher than its recent average of one fatality per year. Australia had an average year with 14 attacks and two fatalities, despite the media attention regarding incidents in Western Australia that resulted in a government-sanctioned culling hunt for endangered white sharks.
From stats and scores to game footage, sports are a big player in mobile content. According to Nielsen’s 2012 Year in Sports report, nearly 60 percent of smartphone and tablet owners accessed sports content on their device at least once a day between January to September 2012. Twelve percent of smartphone owners and 10 percent of tablet owners did so more than three times a day.
While sports content comes in many shapes and forms, sports fans typically pay most attention to the latest scores and stats. Among owners of multiple connected devices, smartphones and laptops were the preferred device for checking sports scores (16%, respectively), followed by Internet-enabled TV sets (12%) and tablets (9%).
Hat tip: PW
Source: Journal of Athletic Training
This manuscript summarizes the best available scholarly evidence related to anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) as a reference for health care professionals, including athletic trainers, educators, and interested others.
Health care professionals associated with sports or exercise should understand and be prepared to educate others about AAS. These synthetic, testosterone-based derivatives are widely abused by athletes and nonathletes to gain athletic performance advantages, develop their physiques, and improve their body image. Although AAS can be ergogenic, their abuse may lead to numerous negative health effects.
Abusers of AAS often rely on questionable information sources. Sports medicine professionals can therefore serve an important role by providing accurate, reliable information. The recommendations provide health care professionals with a current and accurate synopsis of the AAS-related research.
Over the last 30 years, cheerleading has increased dramatically in popularity and has evolved from leading the crowd in cheers at sporting events into a competitive, year-round sport involving complex acrobatic stunts and tumbling. Consequently, cheerleading injuries have steadily increased over the years in both number and severity. Sprains and strains to the lower extremities are the most common injuries. Although the overall injury rate remains relatively low, cheerleading has accounted for approximately 66% of all catastrophic injuries in high school girl athletes over the past 25 years. Risk factors for injuries in cheerleading include higher BMI, previous injury, cheering on harder surfaces, performing stunts, and supervision by a coach with low level of training and experience. This policy statement describes the epidemiology of cheerleading injuries and provides recommendations for injury prevention.
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics
This publication contains results from the 2012 Survey of Children’s Participation in Cultural and Leisure Activities, conducted throughout Australia in April 2012 as a supplement to the Australian Bureau of Statistics’ (ABS) monthly Labour Force Survey (LFS). Information about the participation of children aged 5 to 14 years in cultural, sporting and other leisure activities is provided. Details on children’s use of the Internet and mobile phones are also presented.
Information collected in the survey includes:
- children’s participation in selected organised cultural activities and organised sports, and attendance at selected cultural venues and events outside of school hours during the 12 months prior to interview
- participation in selected recreational activities (such as skateboarding, rollerblading or riding a scooter, bike riding, watching television, videos or DVDs, and other screen-based activities) outside of school hours during the most recent two school weeks prior to interview
- the use of the Internet and mobile phones
- characteristics of children who participated and the frequency and duration of their involvement in some activities.
Source: American Gaming Association
The AGA has released the 2012 State of the States survey, which provides national and state-by-state economic impact data, such as gaming revenues, tax contributions, and employment and wage figures for the 22 U.S. commercial casino states operating in 2011. A special section of the report showcases a poll of elected officials and civic leaders in gaming jurisdictions.
Source: Home Office
The Home Office is responsible for ensuring the 2012 Olympic Games is safe and secure. Find out about our plans for Olympic security and other work to make the Games a success.
Source: Natural Resources Defense Council
NRDC’s annual analysis of water quality and public notification data at coastal U.S. beaches found that the number of beach closing and advisory days in 2011 reached the third-highest level in the 22-year history of our report, totaling 23,481 days (a 3% decrease from 2010). More than two-thirds of closings and advisories were issued because bacteria levels in beachwater exceeded public health standards, indicating the presence of human or animal waste in the water. The portion of all monitoring samples that exceeded national recommended health standards for designated beach areas remained stable at 8% in 2011, compared with 8% in 2010 and 7% for the four previous years. In addition, the number of beaches monitored in 2011 increased slightly (2%) from a five-year low in 2010. The largest known source of pollution was stormwater runoff (47%, compared with 36% last year). The 2011 results confirm that our nation’s beaches continue to experience significant water pollution that puts swimmers and local economies at risk.
NRDC continues to push for improvements in beachwater quality standards and test methods. Most recently, the Environmental Protection Agency proposed an action that could leave the public inadequately protected if it is not strengthened—one establishing recommended standards for beach officials to use to keep people from being exposed to unsafe levels of disease-causing bacteria and viruses. While beachwater quality standards are critical, ultimately the most important long-term action is to adopt 21st-century solutions that address the sources of beachwater pollution, particularly stormwater runoff. The most important of these solutions remains incentivizing and implementing green infrastructure in our cities, such as green roofs, porous pavement, and street plantings, which stop rain where it falls. Green infrastructure effectively reduces the amount of runoff that makes its way into beachwater or triggers harmful sewage overflows, transforming potential beach pollution into a tremendous local water supply resource.
As flip flops and shorts replace suits and ties, you know summer is here. And while many flock to beaches and cabins in the woods, 104 million people are planning a trip to the city. That is one third of Americans who will be hitting the streets of a city near you. Of those who plan to visit a city, nearly 60 percent (57 percent) or 62 million people nationwide plan to use local public transportation on their vacation this summer, according to the American Public Transportation Association’s (APTA) 2012 “Travel like a Local” Summer Travel Survey.
The survey, conducted in mid-May, shows that cost and convenience are two strong factors that will motivate city visitors to use public transportation. Among those travelers who will be using public transportation during their city trips, 71 percent said using public transportation relieves them from the worry of finding parking for their vehicle, while 68 percent believe that it is less expensive than taxis and rental cars. Sixty-seven percent will use public transportation to save money on parking and 52 percent responded they can save money on gas for their vehicle.
Travel experts at AAA note that this year Americans will be staying closer to home and the APTA survey reveals that heading to a city this summer will be a prime destination. The survey also notes the top ten city destinations.
The Current State Of Sports Facility Naming Rights
Source: Sports Facility Reports
With approximately four decades of use, it is safe to say that the concept of selling overall facility naming rights for stadiums and arenas has become well-established in the industry. Every facility that comes on line these days seemingly either has an overall corporate naming rights sponsor, is pursuing one or publicly discloses that it is choosing not to pursue an overall corporate sponsor for any number of reasons. The latter scenario is especially true in situations where public financing for the facility is involved.
Like many other sports organization revenue streams, the market for naming rights at the start of the 2010 calendar year was facing numerous challenges. The stagnant economy was a substantial drag on the market with traditional sponsor sectors such as airlines and financial institutions enduring significant economic problems.
As a result, a variety of newspaper articles and media pieces appeared discussing the problems the naming rights industry was facing at the time. The gloom and doom scenarios posited by these articles, while accurately reflecting the thoughts of many industry observers at the time, likely only added to the perceived problems facing the market. It can reasonably be argued that this period was among the toughest naming rights markets since the concept really took off in the early-1990s.
However, it is often stated that it is darkest before the dawn. This definitely appears to be the case with the sports facility naming rights market as over the past twenty months the industry has witnessed a significant turnaround with a variety of positive developments being seen across the board. For example, as of August 2011, eighteen major league facilities have announced new or extended naming rights agreements since the start of the 2010 calendar year. In addition, the resurgence appears to be broad in scope as all five major leagues have seen deals completed and the corporate partners for these deals have come from a variety of sponsor classifications. This resurgence has also extended to the lower levels of sport as approximately twenty agreements have been completed for minor league, college and high school athletic facilities across the country.
To be sure, the recent market does not feel like the rush felt during the heydays of the 1990s. But, it would be virtually impossible to duplicate that market for any number of reasons. One key reason being that the playing field was virtually wide open during that time and like a stereotypical gold rush scenario. In fact, it can be argued that the recent resurgence of the naming rights industry is likely more beneficial for the sports industry over the long haul as it seems to reinforce the concept of sports facility naming rights usage and provides stability for this key revenue source.