Consumption of analgesics before a marathon and the incidence of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and renal problems: a cohort study
Objectives To prevent pain inhibiting their performance, many athletes ingest over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics before competing. We aimed at defining the use of analgesics and the relation between OTC analgesic use/dose and adverse events (AEs) during and after the race, a relation that has not been investigated to date.
Design Prospective (non-interventional) cohort study, using an online questionnaire.
Setting The Bonn marathon 2010.
Participants 3913 of 7048 participants in the Bonn marathon 2010 returned their questionnaires.
Primary and secondary outcomes Intensity of analgesic consumption before sports; incidence of AEs in the cohort of analgesic users as compared to non-users.
Results There was no significant difference between the premature race withdrawal rate in the analgesics cohort and the cohort who did not take analgesics (‘controls’). However, race withdrawal because of gastrointestinal AEs was significantly more frequent in the analgesics cohort than in the control. Conversely, withdrawal because of muscle cramps was rare, but it was significantly more frequent in controls. The analgesics cohort had an almost 5 times higher incidence of AEs (overall risk difference of 13%). This incidence increased significantly with increasing analgesic dose. Nine respondents reported temporary hospital admittance: three for temporary kidney failure (post-ibuprofen ingestion), four with bleeds (post-aspirin ingestion) and two cardiac infarctions (post-aspirin ingestion). None of the control reported hospital admittance.
Conclusions The use of analgesics before participating in endurance sports may cause many potentially serious, unwanted AEs that increase with increasing analgesic dose. Analgesic use before endurance sports appears to pose an unrecognised medical problem as yet. If verifiable in other endurance sports, it requires the attention of physicians and regulatory authorities.
A Behavioral Weight-Loss Intervention in Persons with Serious Mental Illness
Source: New England Journal of Medicine
Overweight and obesity are epidemic among persons with serious mental illness, yet weight-loss trials systematically exclude this vulnerable population. Lifestyle interventions require adaptation in this group because psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment are highly prevalent. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of an 18-month tailored behavioral weight-loss intervention in adults with serious mental illness.
We recruited overweight or obese adults from 10 community psychiatric rehabilitation outpatient programs and randomly assigned them to an intervention or a control group. Participants in the intervention group received tailored group and individual weight-management sessions and group exercise sessions. Weight change was assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months.
Of 291 participants who underwent randomization, 58.1% had schizophrenia or a schizoaffective disorder, 22.0% had bipolar disorder, and 12.0% had major depression. At baseline, the mean body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) was 36.3, and the mean weight was 102.7 kg (225.9 lb). Data on weight at 18 months were obtained from 279 participants. Weight loss in the intervention group increased progressively over the 18-month study period and differed significantly from the control group at each follow-up visit. At 18 months, the mean between-group difference in weight (change in intervention group minus change in control group) was −3.2 kg (−7.0 lb, P=0.002); 37.8% of the participants in the intervention group lost 5% or more of their initial weight, as compared with 22.7% of those in the control group (P=0.009). There were no significant between-group differences in adverse events.
A behavioral weight-loss intervention significantly reduced weight over a period of 18 months in overweight and obese adults with serious mental illness. Given the epidemic of obesity and weight-related disease among persons with serious mental illness, our findings support implementation of targeted behavioral weight-loss interventions in this high-risk population. (Funded by the National Institute of Mental Health; ACHIEVE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00902694.)
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
Adults tend to gain weight progressively through middle age. Although the average weight gain is 0.5 to 1 kg per year, this modest accumulation of weight can lead to obesity over time. We aimed to compare the effectiveness, safety, and impact on quality of life of strategies to prevent weight gain among adults. Self-management, dietary, physical activity, orlistat and combinations of these strategies were considered.
We searched MEDLINE ® , Embase ® , theCochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL® , and PsycINFO® through June 2012 for published articles that were potentially eligible for this review.
Two reviewers independently reviewed titles, abstracts, and articles, and included English-language articles that reported on maintenance of weight or prevention of weight gain among adults. Studies targeting a combination of weight loss with weight maintenance or weight loss exclusively were considered to be outside of the scope of this review. Trials of interventions and observational studies of approaches with at least 1 year of followup with a weight outcome were included. Data were abstracted on measures of weight, adherence, obesity-related outcomes, safety, and quality of life. The timepoints of interest for weight outcomes were: 1 year, 2 years, 5 years, and the last reported timepoint after 5 years. For the other outcomes, we abstracted data only from the last reported timepoint on or after 1 year. We selected a meaningful difference threshold in addition to a statistically significant threshold (p<0.05) for the outcomes. A meaningful between group difference was defined as 0.5 kg of weight, 0.2 units of BMI (based on a 0.5-kg change for an individual with a BMI of 27), or 1 cm of waist circumference per year of followup. We considered an intervention or approach effective if the difference between groups met the meaningful between group difference threshold and was statistically significant. We qualitatively synthesized the studies by population, intervention, and outcome.
We included 58 publications (describing 51 studies) involving 555,783 patients. Two interventions may be effective compared with no intervention at preventing weight gain with moderate strengths of evidence: workplace interventions having individual and environmental components and exercise performed at home by women with cancer. Potentially effective interventions with low strength of evidence include a clinic-based program to teach heart rate monitoring, a combination intervention for mothers of young children, small group sessions to educate college women, and physical activity among individuals at risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Potentially effective approaches described in observational studies having low strength of evidence include eating meals prepared at home among college graduates and less television viewing among individuals with colorectal cancer. When reported, adherence to interventions tended to be below 80 percent. There were no adverse events among the few trials that reported on adverse events. Trial study quality tended to be poor due to knowledge of the intervention by the study personnel who measured the weight of the participants or lack of reporting on this item. This lack of blinding of the outcome assessor along with inclusion of studies that were not designed to prevent weight gain resulted in a low strength of evidence for the majority of comparisons.
The literature provides some, although limited, evidence about interventions and approaches that may prevent weight gain. Although there is not strong evidence to promote a particular weight gain prevention strategy, there is no evidence that not adopting a strategy to prevent weight gain is preferable.
Source: Preventing Chronic Disease
The objective of this study was to examine and compare 3 key health behaviors associated with chronic disease (ie, risky drinking, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle). We used data from the National Health Interview Survey from 1997 through 2010 to calculate the prevalence of these behaviors among older Americans and rank each state, and we analyzed overall trends in prevalence for each behavior over the 14 years. Older adults residing in Arkansas and Montana had the worst chronic disease risk profile compared with other states. These findings indicate the need for improved or increased targeted interventions in these states.
Risky drinking, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle are key health behaviors associated with chronic disease and increased illness and death in older adults (1). Excessive drinking is associated with cancers of the liver, head and neck, colorectum, pancreas, and breast, as well as cardiovascular disease and diabetes (2). Smoking is associated with cancer and poor cardiovascular outcomes (1). Cardiovascular disease and cancer risk are increased by sedentary behavior (1). The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and trends of these 3 health behaviors among older Americans and rank them at the state level to determine the best allocation of public health resources.
Data were obtained from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), an annual, cross-sectional, multistage probability household survey of the noninstitutionalized civilian US population, from 1997 through 2010. Eligibility criteria were adults aged 65 or older (N = 79,973; representing 34,632,575 people). NHIS questions regarding the 3 variables are available online (3). Smoker was defined as “current smoker” (4). Risky drinking was defined as current drinkers having 10 or more drinks per week in men and 7 or more drinks per week in women, or having 5 or more drinks on 1 occasion, 1 or more times per year for men and women (4). Physical activity level was defined as compliance with the Healthy People 2010 goal of moderate physical activity for at least 30 minutes per day on 5 or more days per week or vigorous physical activity for at least 20 minutes per day on 3 or more days per week (5).
NHIS data were pooled and analyses were conducted using SAS version 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, North Carolina), adjusting for sample weights and design effects (3). We calculated prevalence, standard errors (SEs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and ranked states according to the prevalence of each risk factor indicator. We analyzed trends by using weighted linear regression of prevalence on year. Weight was generated with the inverse of the variance of prevalence. Some states were missing values because they did not meet the criteria for stable estimate analysis in all study years (6).
Because state-level data are not released to the public, all analyses were performed remotely at the National Center for Health Statistics Research Data Center. The study was approved by the University of Miami’s institutional review board.
The prevalence of smoking among US adults aged 65 years or older was 9.6% (Table 1). States with the highest smoking prevalence were Nevada (17.9%) and Kentucky (15.0%). States with the lowest rates of smoking were Utah (5.4%) and South Dakota (6.2%). Overall, 22% of older Americans reported risky drinking patterns; Arizona and New Hampshire had the highest prevalence, both at 29.0%, and the lowest prevalences were found in Kansas (14.4%) and Oklahoma (16.4%) (Table 2). Twenty-two percent of older Americans reported meeting physical activity recommendations; the highest prevalence was reported in Colorado (30.8%), Hawaii (34.8%), and Maine (40.1%), and the lowest prevalence was reported in Louisiana (13.4%), Mississippi (13.4%), and South Dakota (14.6%) (Table 3). Older Americans residing in Arkansas and Montana were in the top 10 worst rankings for all 3 behaviors.
A downward trend in smoking was observed during the 14 years for California (slope, −0.32; SE, 0.09; P = .004) and South Carolina (slope, −0.54; SE, 0.21; P = .046), and an increased trend for risky drinking was observed in Massachusetts (slope, 1.07; SE, 0.39; P = .026). In North Carolina (slope, 0.82; SE, 0.25; P = .007) and Texas (slope, 0.57; SE, 0.16; P = .004), an upward trend in exercise compliance was observed. Trend analysis was not conducted for 7 states and the District of Columbia due to insufficient sample sizes.
The average age of Americans is expected to increase substantially in the coming years (7). Modifying key health behaviors and creating cost-effective interventions may contribute to decreasing illness and death in this growing population demographic (8).
Lifestyle changes that occur with aging can affect chronic disease risk. Older adults who exercise regularly have a reduced mortality risk (9), but those who drink alcohol excessively are more prone to oxidative stress, which further increases the incidence of chronic disease (10). A twofold higher mortality rate was shown for older male smokers than nonsmokers (11). Risky drinking with aging has been positively associated with vigorous physical activity and negatively associated with current smoking, possibly reflecting better health among adults who engage in risky drinking as they age (12). Nevertheless, excessive alcohol consumption is associated with risk of falls (1) and adverse medication interactions in older Americans (10).
Limitations of this study included an inability to use estimates from all states due to small sample sizes or unstable estimates in some states (ie, a relative SE of ≥30%). We were unable to conduct complete trend analyses for all states given sample size limitations. The strength of this study was the access to a large set of sample data at the state level for prevalence comparisons in older Americans.
Public health resources should focus on specific interventions to affect behaviors in states with residents at high risk for developing chronic disease. These resources can include a purposeful combination of the following: 1) increasing tobacco excise taxes, proven to be the most effective means to decrease smoking (1), 2) using online and telephone substance abuse treatment facility locators and media campaigns to disseminate information on alcohol abuse (1), and 3) enhancing access to recreational and physical activity facilities in communities specific to older Americans, pursuant to the Healthy People 2010 guidelines (5). Emphasis on geographic aggregation of risk factors should be considered so that integrated and tailored prevention activities can be developed and customized to each state’s profile and funds be made appropriately available. States with the highest prevalence of 2 or 3 risky behaviors should review resource allocation to promote health more effectively.
Parents’ Perceptions of Skin Cancer Threat and Children’s Physical Activity
Source: Preventing Chronic Disease (CDC)
Sun exposure is a major risk factor for skin cancer, but without physical activity, children are at risk of childhood obesity. The objective of this study was to explore relationships between parental perceptions of skin cancer threat, sun protection behaviors, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI) in children.
This is a cross-sectional analysis nested within the Colorado Kids Sun Care Program sun safety intervention trial. In summer 2007, parent telephone interviews provided data on demographics, perceptions of skin cancer threat, sun protection behaviors, and physical activity. Physical examinations provided data on phenotype, freckling, and BMI. Data from 999 Colorado children born in 1998 were included in analysis. We used analysis of variance, Spearman’s rho (ρ) correlation, and multivariable linear regression analysis to evaluate relationships with total amount of outdoor physical activity.
After controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, skin color, and sun protection, regression analysis showed that each unit increase in perceived severity of nonmelanoma skin cancer was associated with a 30% increase in hours of outdoor physical activity (P = .005). Hours of outdoor physical activity were not related to perceived severity of melanoma or perceived susceptibility to skin cancer. BMI-for-age was not significantly correlated with perceptions of skin cancer threat, use of sun protection, or level of physical activity.
The promotion of sun safety is not likely to inhibit physical activity. Skin cancer prevention programs should continue to promote midday sun avoidance and sun protection during outdoor activities.
Vital Signs: Walking Among Adults — United States, 2005 and 2010
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC)
Background: Physical activity has numerous health benefits, including improving weight management. The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommend ≥150 minutes/week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity (e.g., brisk walking) for substantial health benefits. Walking is the most commonly reported physical activity by U.S. adults.
Methods: CDC used data from the 2005 and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys to assess changes in prevalence of walking (defined as walking for transportation or leisure in at least one bout of 10 minutes or more in the preceding 7 days) by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, education, body mass index category, walking assistance status, region, and physician-diagnosed chronic disease. CDC also assessed the association between walking and meeting the aerobic physical activity guideline.
Results: Overall, walking prevalence increased significantly from 55.7% in 2005 to 62.0% in 2010. Significantly higher walking prevalence was observed in most demographic and health characteristic categories examined. In 2010, the adjusted odds ratio of meeting the aerobic physical activity guideline among walkers, compared with non-walkers, was 2.95 (95% confidence interval = 2.73–3.19).
Conclusions and Implications for Public Health Practice: To sustain increases in the prevalence of walking, communities can implement evidence-based strategies such as creating or enhancing access to places for physical activity, or using design and land use policies and practices that emphasize mixed-use communities and pedestrian-friendly streets. The impact of these strategies on both walking and physical activity should be monitored systematically at the national, state, and local levels. Public health efforts to promote walking as a way to meet physical activity guidelines can help improve the health of U.S. residents.
Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy
Source: The Lancet
Strong evidence shows that physical inactivity increases the risk of many adverse health conditions, including major non-communicable diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and colon cancers, and shortens life expectancy. Because much of the world’s population is inactive, this link presents a major public health issue. We aimed to quantify the effect of physical inactivity on these major non-communicable diseases by estimating how much disease could be averted if inactive people were to become active and to estimate gain in life expectancy at the population level.
For our analysis of burden of disease, we calculated population attributable fractions (PAFs) associated with physical inactivity using conservative assumptions for each of the major non-communicable diseases, by country, to estimate how much disease could be averted if physical inactivity were eliminated. We used life-table analysis to estimate gains in life expectancy of the population.
Worldwide, we estimate that physical inactivity causes 6% (ranging from 3·2% in southeast Asia to 7·8% in the eastern Mediterranean region) of the burden of disease from coronary heart disease, 7% (3·9—9·6) of type 2 diabetes, 10% (5·6—14·1) of breast cancer, and 10% (5·7—13·8) of colon cancer. Inactivity causes 9% (range 5·1—12·5) of premature mortality, or more than 5·3 million of the 57 million deaths that occurred worldwide in 2008. If inactivity were not eliminated, but decreased instead by 10% or 25%, more than 533 000 and more than 1·3 million deaths, respectively, could be averted every year. We estimated that elimination of physical inactivity would increase the life expectancy of the world’s population by 0·68 (range 0·41—0·95) years.
Physical inactivity has a major health effect worldwide. Decrease in or removal of this unhealthy behaviour could improve health substantially.
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Source: British Medical Journal (open)
To determine the impact of sitting and television viewing on life expectancy in the USA.
Prevalence-based cause-deleted life table analysis.
Summary RRs of all-cause mortality associated with sitting and television viewing were obtained from a meta-analysis of available prospective cohort studies. Prevalences of sitting and television viewing were obtained from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Primary outcome measure
Life expectancy at birth.
The estimated gains in life expectancy in the US population were 2.00 years for reducing excessive sitting to <3 h/day and a gain of 1.38 years from reducing excessive television viewing to <2 h/day. The lower and upper limits from a sensitivity analysis that involved simultaneously varying the estimates of RR (using the upper and lower bounds of the 95% CI) and the prevalence of television viewing (±20%) were 1.39 and 2.69 years for sitting and 0.48 and 2.51 years for television viewing, respectively.
Reducing sedentary behaviours such as sitting and television viewing may have the potential to increase life expectancy in the USA.
Factors Influencing the Implementation of School Wellness Policies in the United States, 2009
Source: Preventing Chronic Disease (CDC)
The quality of school wellness policy implementation varies among schools in the United States. The objective of this study was to characterize the school wellness policy environment nationally and identify factors influencing the quality and effectiveness of policy implementation.
We invited school administrators from 300 high schools to complete a questionnaire; 112 administrators responded. We performed a 2-step cluster analysis to help identify factors influencing the implementation of school wellness policies.
Eighty-two percent of schools reported making staff aware of policy requirements; 77% established a wellness committee or task force, 73% developed administrative procedures, and 56% trained staff for policy implementation. Most commonly reported challenges to implementation were lack of time or coordination of policy team (37% of respondents) and lack of monetary resources (33%). The core domains least likely to be implemented were communication and promotion (63% of respondents) and evaluation (54%). Cluster 1, represented mostly by schools that have taken action toward implementing policies, had higher implementation and effectiveness ratings than Cluster 2, which was defined by taking fewer actions toward policy implementation. In Cluster 1, accountability was also associated with high ratings of implementation quality and effectiveness.
The development of organizational capacity may be critical to ensuring an environment that promotes high-quality policy implementation. Assessing, preventing, and addressing challenges; establishing clear definitions and goals; and requiring accountability for enacting policy across all core domains are critical to ensuring high-quality implementation.
Individuals differ in the response to regular exercise. Whether there are people who experience adverse changes in cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors has never been addressed.
An adverse response is defined as an exercise-induced change that worsens a risk factor beyond measurement error and expected day-to-day variation. Sixty subjects were measured three times over a period of three weeks, and variation in resting systolic blood pressure (SBP) and in fasting plasma HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and insulin (FI) was quantified.1 The technical error (TE) defined as the within-subject standard deviation derived from these measurements was computed. An adverse response for a given risk factor was defined as a change that was at least two TEs away from no change but in an adverse direction. Thus an adverse response was recorded if an increase reached 10 mm Hg or more for SBP, 0.42 mmol/L or more for TG, or 24 pmol/L or more for FI or if a decrease reached 0.12 mmol/L or more for HDL-C. Completers from six exercise studies were used in the present analysis: Whites (N = 473) and Blacks (N = 250) from the HERITAGE Family Study; Whites and Blacks from DREW (N = 326), from INFLAME (N = 70), and from STRRIDE (N = 303); and Whites from a University of Maryland cohort (N = 160) and from a University of Jyvaskyla study (N = 105), for a total of 1,687 men and women. Using the above definitions, 126 subjects (8.4%) had an adverse change in FI. Numbers of adverse responders reached 12.2% for SBP, 10.4% for TG, and 13.3% for HDL-C. About 7% of participants experienced adverse responses in two or more risk factors.
Adverse responses to regular exercise in cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors occur. Identifying the predictors of such unwarranted responses and how to prevent them will provide the foundation for personalized exercise prescription.
Tai Chi: An Introduction
Source: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM)
Tai chi, which originated in China as a martial art, is a mind-body practice in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Tai chi is sometimes referred to as “moving meditation”—practitioners move their bodies slowly, gently, and with awareness, while breathing deeply. This Backgrounder provides a general overview of tai chi and suggests sources for additional information.
New GAO ReportsSource: Government Accountability Office
2. Defined Benefit Pension Plans: Recent Developments Highlight Challenges of Hedge Fund and Private Equity Investing. GAO-12-324, February 16.
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/590/588624.pdf
3. Electronic Waste: Actions Needed to Provide Assurance That Used Federal Electronics Are Disposed of in an Environmentally Responsible Manner. GAO-12-74, February 17.
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/590/588718.pdf
Public Health Benefit of Active Video Games Is Not Clear-Cut
Source: American Academy of Pediatrics
Simply giving a child an “active” video game will not necessarily increase his or her physical activity, according to the study, “Impact of an Active Video Game on Healthy Children’s Physical Activity,” in the March 2012 Pediatrics (published online Feb. 27). Researchers gave 87 children a game console, and either two “active” video games or two “inactive” games. Examples of active games include those in which players dance or use their bodies to simulate bowling. The children kept a log of their play times, and their activity levels were measured over a 12-week period using an accelerometer (a device that measures acceleration and exertion). The children who were given active games were not more physically active than those given inactive games.
The authors note that children have played active video games with moderate to vigorous physical activity in laboratory settings, but that did not translate to “real life.” They theorize that the children either did not elect to play the active games at the same level of intensity as in the lab, or they chose to be less active at other times of the day. However, providing explicit instructions to use the active games appeared to lead to increased physical activity, which could make the games useful as part of interventions that prescribe using the games for a set amount of time.
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Special Issue of Childhood Obesity Journal Celebrates 2nd Anniversary of Let’s Move! Initiative With Foreword by First Lady Michelle Obama
Publisher Mary Ann Liebert released a special issue of the journal Childhood Obesity celebrating the second anniversary of First Lady Michelle Obama’s Let’s Move! initiative, with a special Foreword by Mrs. Obama. The issue has a wide range of insightful contributions from leaders in the fight against childhood obesity including Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack, NFL quarterback Drew Brees, Stephen Daniels, MD, PhD, Sandra Hassink, MD, Elsie Taveras, MD, MPH, Margo Wootan, DSc, and Editor-in-Chief David Katz, MD, MPH. The issue is available free online.
Air Quality and Exercise-Related Health Benefits from Reduced Car Travel in the Midwestern United States
Automobile exhaust contains precursors to ozone and fine particulate matter, posing health risks. Dependency on car commuting also reduces physical fitness opportunities.
To quantify benefits from reducing automobile usage for short urban and suburban trips.
We simulated census-tract level changes in hourly pollutant concentrations from the elimination of automobile round trips ≤ 8 kilometers in 11 metropolitan areas in the Upper Midwestern U.S. using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model. Next, we estimated annual changes in health outcomes and monetary costs expected from pollution changes using EPA’s Benefits Mapping Analysis Program (BenMAP). In addition, we used WHO’s Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT) to calculate benefits of increased physical activity if 50% of short trips were made by bicycle.
We estimate that annual average urban PM2.5 would decline by 0.1 µg/m3 and that summer O3 would increase slightly in cities but decline regionally, resulting in net health benefits of $3.5 billion/year (95% CI: $0.4–$9.8 billion), with 25% of PM2.5 and most O3 benefits to populations outside metropolitan areas. Across the study region of approximately 31.3 million people and 37,000 total square miles, mortality would decline by approximately 1,100 deaths/year (95% CI: 856 – 1,346) due to improved air quality and increased exercise. Making 50% of short trips by bicycle would yield savings of approximately $3.8 billion/year from avoided mortality and reduced health care costs (95% CI: $2.7 – $5.0 billion). We estimate that the combined benefits of improved air quality and physical fitness would exceed $7 billion/year.
Our findings suggest that significant health and economic benefits are possible if bicycling replaces short car trips. Less auto dependence in urban areas would also improve health in downwind rural settings.
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State-Specific Prevalence of No Leisure-Time Physical Activity Among Adults With and Without Doctor-Diagnosed Arthritis — United States, 2009
State-Specific Prevalence of No Leisure-Time Physical Activity Among Adults With and Without Doctor-Diagnosed Arthritis — United States, 2009
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC)
The prevalence of no leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among U.S. residents decreased from 31% in 1989 to 25% in 2002 and was still at 25% in 2008, based on Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data. Further reduction in the prevalence of no LTPA among all adults might be hindered by population subgroups that have exceptionally high rates of no LTPA, such as adults with arthritis. Approximately 50 million adults have arthritis, the majority of whom have arthritis-specific barriers to being physically active, such as pain and fear of making their arthritis worse (1,2). Despite the known benefits of physical activity for arthritis (e.g., reduced pain), persons with arthritis are more likely to report no LTPA (3–5). To assess state-specific prevalence of no LTPA among adults with and without doctor-diagnosed arthritis, CDC analyzed BRFSS data from 2009. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which found that among adults with arthritis 1) prevalence of no LTPA is significantly higher compared with adults without arthritis in every state and the District of Columbia (DC), 2) the disparity in prevalence of no LTPA between adults with and without arthritis is large (median: 53% disparity gap), 3) 23 (45%) states had an age-standardized prevalence of no LTPA ≥30.0%, and 4) adults with arthritis reporting no LTPA comprised a substantial proportion (median: 35.2%) of all adults reporting no LTPA in each state. To reduce the prevalence of no LTPA among all adults, physical activity promotion initiatives should include interventions such as targeted health communication campaigns and community-based group exercise programs proven safe and effective for adults with arthritis.