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Female self-employment in the United States: an update to 2012

October 21, 2014 Comments off

Female self-employment in the United States: an update to 2012
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

This article uses data from the Current Population Survey to examine changes in the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of self-employed women over the 1993–2012 period. The analysis suggests that these female workers, who represented about one-third of all self-employed individuals in 2012, have weathered recessions relatively well and made considerable strides in educational attainment and earnings. In addition, they have become more diverse in terms of race, family characteristics, and health status.

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Husbands’ job loss and wives’ labor force participation during economic downturns: are all recessions the same?

October 8, 2014 Comments off

Husbands’ job loss and wives’ labor force participation during economic downturns: are all recessions the same?
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

Earlier research showed an added-worker effect for wives when their husbands stopped working during the Great Recession (December 2007–June 2009) but not when husbands stopped working in recent years of prosperity (2004–2005). By including one recession per decade for the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s, this article builds upon that research by using Current Population Survey data to compare wives’ labor force responses to their husbands stopping work across three recessions to determine whether wives’ employment responses during the Great Recession differed from those during earlier recessions. Additionally, we hypothesize motivations for wives entering the labor force and consider the occupations they enter. Across all three recessions included in this study, wives entered the labor force more often when their husband stopped working. More nuanced analyses show that during both the Great Recession and the 1990–1991 recession, wives were more likely to seek work and find a job if their husband became not employed, while in the 1981–1982 recession wives were more likely to seek work but less likely to find a job. We also find that wives who started a job during the Great Recession or the 1990–1991 recession were more likely to enter service occupations than professional or managerial occupations, but this was not the case during the 1981–1982 recession. Furthermore, during the three recessions, college-educated wives who started a job were more likely than wives with less education to enter professional and managerial occupations relative to service occupations or other occupations. However, these newly employed college-educated wives were somewhat more likely to enter service or other occupations than their college-educated counterparts who were employed continuously.

How has labor force participation among young moms and dads changed? A comparison of two cohorts

October 7, 2014 Comments off

How has labor force participation among young moms and dads changed? A comparison of two cohorts
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

Over the past four decades, the labor force has changed dramatically. Women’s labor market participation rates have risen, and women are increasingly working throughout their adult lives. One consequence of these changes is that men’s and women’s roles have been converging, with men taking a more active role at home, doing a greater share of housework and child care, and women spending more time in paid work.

It is still common, however, for women to take time out of the labor force when they have children. With the trend toward shared responsibilities in the home between the genders, are young men increasingly spending more time out of the labor force after the birth of a child?

This Beyond the Numbers article examines work patterns in the lives of young adults in the year after they have their first child. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth of 1997 and 1979 (NLSY97 and NLSY79 respectively), we compare men and women born between 1980 and 1984 with men and women born between 1957 and 1964 to see how labor force participation among new moms and dads has changed. This analysis looks at individuals who had a first child between the ages of 18 and 24 and compares them to individuals of the same age without children. The NLSY975 and NLSY796 collect information about the timing of births and individuals’ weekly work history, allowing for a comparison of labor force participation after the birth of a child.We analyze how different variables, such as age, educational status, employment status, race and ethnicity, and presence of fathers and mothers in the household, influence the labor market experience of young parents.

Our data indicate that although women typically continue to take more time out of the labor force after the birth of a child than do men, differences have been narrowing. However, this narrowing is largely the result of increased labor force participation of mothers in the year after giving birth, rather than decreased labor force participation among new fathers.

Monthly Labor Review: Teacher staffing and pay differences: public and private schools

October 3, 2014 Comments off

Teacher staffing and pay differences: public and private schools
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

A study using Current Population Survey data shows that, from 1996 to 2012, elementary, middle, and high school teachers earned less than other college graduates, but the gap was smaller for public school teachers and smaller still if they had union representation; moreover, the mitigating effects are stronger for female than male teachers, so the within-gender pay gaps are much larger for male teachers.

Employment Situation — September 2014

October 3, 2014 Comments off

Employment Situation — September 2014
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 248,000 in September, and the unemployment rate declined to 5.9 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Employment increased in professional and business services, retail trade, and health care.

Trends in producer prices between e-commerce and brick-and-mortar retail trade establishments

September 25, 2014 Comments off

Trends in producer prices between e-commerce and brick-and-mortar retail trade establishments
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

Electronic retailing, or e-commerce, is becoming an increasingly important activity within the U.S. economy. As a component of the retail trade index within the Bureau of Labor Statistics Producer Price Index (PPI) program, the electronic retailing index measures changes in margins received by retailers who conduct sales transactions online.

In the first quarter of 2004, the incidence of retailers conducting electronic retailing was considered minor, making up only 2 percent of total U.S. retail sales. But from 2003 to 2006, electronic retail sales increased an average of 28 percent annually. Then, by the first quarter of 2014, e-commerce grew to about 6 percent of total retail sales in the United States. Between 2009 and 2014, e-commerce sales increased at an average annual rate of 16 percent, compared with a 5-percent growth rate in total retail sales.

This Beyond the Numbers article describes the electronic shopping and mail-order houses industry group within the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) and compares the factors affecting changes in margins for brick-and-mortar establishments and e-commerce establishments. The article compares changes in margins between the two types of establishments for three specific stores: furniture, clothing, and electronics.

Spotlight on Statistics — BLS Statistics by Occupation

September 24, 2014 Comments off

Spotlight on Statistics — BLS Statistics by Occupation
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

United States workers held over 130 million jobs in May 2013—but what kind of jobs were they? Over 21 million were office and administrative support jobs, including 2.8 million general office clerks and 2.4 million customer service representatives. Another 14 million jobs were in sales occupations, primarily retail salespersons and cashiers, and nearly 12 million jobs were in food service occupations. Although most of the largest occupations were low paying, STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) jobs and other occupations requiring postsecondary education often had much higher wages. This Spotlight on Statistics uses data from the Occupational Employment Statistics program to provide an overview of occupational employment and wages in May 2013, with an emphasis on STEM jobs and occupational data by typical entry-level education required.

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