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CRS — Defense Surplus Equipment Disposal, Including the Law Enforcement 1033 Program (September 5, 2014)

September 29, 2014 Comments off

Defense Surplus Equipment Disposal, Including the Law Enforcement 1033 Program (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via U.S. State Department Foreign Press Center)

The effort to dispose of surplus military equipment dates back to the end of World War II when the federal government sought to reduce a massive inventory of surplus military equipment by making such equipment available to civilians. (The disposal of surplus real property, including land, buildings, commercial facilities, and equipment situated thereon, is assigned to the General Services Administration, Office of Property Disposal.)

The Department of Defense (DOD) through a Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) component called DLA Disposition Services has a policy for disposing of government equipment and supplies considered surplus or deemed unnecessary, or excess to the agency’s currently designated mission. DLA Disposition Services is responsible for property reuse (including resale), precious metal recovery, recycling, hazardous property disposal, and the demilitarization of military equipment.

DLA Disposition Services manages the reutilization, transfer, donation and sale of surplus military property. The Reutilization/Transfer/Donation Program through DLA Disposition Services establishes a process for property considered no longer needed by DOD to be redistributed among various groups. Property considered surplus can be reused, transferred, donated, or sold; potential recipients may include law enforcement agencies, school systems, medical institutions, civic and community organizations, libraries, homeless assistance providers, state and local government agencies, veteran’s organizations, and the public. Property that is no longer needed by the government may be acquired through public sales, if the property is appropriate and safe for sale to the general public.

Recently, the Law Enforcement Support Program (LESO), also referred to as the 1033 Program, has been the subject of media reports. Some Members of Congress have expressed concern over the transfer of surplus weapons from federal programs including the 1033 Program, and the types of military equipment that can be made available to state and local law enforcement agencies, particularly in the aftermath of clashes between protesters and police over the August 2014 shooting death incident in Ferguson, MO. On September 9, 2014, the U.S. Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee will hold a hearing titled “Oversight of Federal Programs Equipping State and Law Enforcement.”

This report focuses on the disposal of defense surplus property that is delegated to DOD from the General Services Administration. Law enforcement agencies are a recipient of defense surplus property, along with many other recipients. For further information on the 1033 Program, see CRS Report R43701, The “1033 Program,” Department of Defense Support to Law Enforcement, by Daniel H. Else.

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Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States: A Guide for the Health Care Sector

September 29, 2014 Comments off

Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States: A Guide for the Health Care Sector
Source: Institute of Medicine, National Research Council

Every day in the United States, children and adolescents are victims of commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking. These are not only illegal activities, but also forms of violence and abuse that result in immediate and long-term physical, mental, and emotional harm to victims and survivors. In 2013, the Institute of Medicine/National Research Council released the report Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States. The report found that the United States is in the very early stages of recognizing, understanding, and developing solutions for these crimes.

Health care professionals need to be able to recognize past, ongoing, or potential victimization by commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking among the youth in their care. Failure to do so increases the possibility that those at risk may become victims, and victims may miss opportunities for assistance and remain vulnerable to further exploitation and abuse.

This Guide for the Health Care Sector provides a summary of information from the original report that is most relevant to individuals who and settings that see children and adolescents for prevention and treatment of injury, illness, and disease. This includes physicians, nurses, advanced practice nurses, physician assistants, mental health professionals, and dentists who practice in settings such as emergency departments, urgent care, primary care clinics, adolescent medicine clinics, school clinics, shelters, community health centers, and dental clinics among others.

This guide includes definitions of key terms and an overview of risk factors and consequences; barriers to identifying victims and survivors as well as opportunities for overcoming these barriers; examples of current practices in the health care sector; and recommendations aimed at identifying, preventing, and responding to these crimes.

Empirically Characterizing Domain Abuse and the Revenue Impact of Blacklisting

September 29, 2014 Comments off

Empirically Characterizing Domain Abuse and the Revenue Impact of Blacklisting (PDF)
Source: George Mason University Department of Computer Science

Using ground truth sales data for over 40K unlicensed prescription pharmaceuticals sites, we present an economic analysis of two aspects of domain abuse in the online counterfeit drug market. First, we characterize the nature of domains abused by affiliate spammers to monetize what is evidently an overwhelming demand for these drugs. We found that the most successful affiliates are agile in adapting to adversarial circumstances, and channel the full spectrum of domain abuse to advertise to customers. Second, we use contemporaneous blacklisting data to provide an economic analysis of the revenue impact of domain blacklisting, a technique whereby lists of “known bad” registered domains are distributed and used to filter email spam. We found that blacklisting rapidly and effectively limited per-domain sales. Nevertheless, blacklisted domains continued to monetize, likely as a result of high demand, non-universal use of blacklisting, and delay in deployment. Finally, our results suggest that increasing the number of domains discovered and using blacklists to block access to spam domains could undermine profitability more than further improving the speed with which domains are added to blacklists.

Safeguarding Children of Arrested Parents

September 27, 2014 Comments off

Safeguarding Children of Arrested Parents (PDF)
Source: Bureau of Justice Assistance

The arrest of a parent can have a significant impact on a child whether or not the child is present at the time of the arrest. Depending on age and quality of the relationship with the parent, children may feel shock, immense fear, anxiety, or anger towards the arresting officers or law enforcement in general. Over the past two decades, increasing emphasis has been placed on examination of the effects of these events on children of various ages and the ways in which law enforcement can make sure that an involved child doesn’t “fall through the cracks.” Research clearly indicates that such events can and often do have a negative impact on a child’s immediate and long-term emotional, mental, social, and physical health. Symptoms such as sleep disruptions, separation anxiety, irritability, and even more serious disorders or post-traumatic reactions have been documented. In addition, later problems with authority figures in general and law enforcement in particular can arise if officers or other service providers do not take the time to address the needs of the child. Time taken with a child under these trauma producing circumstances is time well spent.

Dialing Back Abuse on Phone Verified Accounts

September 26, 2014 Comments off

Dialing Back Abuse on Phone Verified Accounts (PDF)
Source: George Mason University

In the past decade the increase of for-profit cybercrime has given rise to an entire underground ecosystem supporting large-scale abuse, a facet of which encompasses the bulk registration of fraudulent accounts. In this paper, we present a 10 month longitudinal study of the underlying technical and financial capabilities of criminals who register phone verified accounts (PVA). To carry out our study, we purchase 4,695 Google PVA as well as pull a random sample of 300,000 Google PVA that Google disabled for abuse. We find that miscreants rampantly abuse free VOIP services to circumvent the intended cost of acquiring phone numbers, in effect undermining phone verification. Combined with short lived phone numbers from India and Indonesia that we suspect are tied to human verification farms, this confluence of factors correlates with a market-wide price drop of 30{40% for Google PVA until Google penalized verifications from frequently abused carriers. We distill our findings into a set of recommendations for any services performing phone verification as well as highlight open challenges related to PVA abuse moving forward.

Violent Victimization In New And Established Hispanic Areas, 2007–2010

September 26, 2014 Comments off

Violent Victimization In New And Established Hispanic Areas, 2007–2010
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics

Examines violent victimization rates by victims’ race and ethnicity within four Hispanic areas from 2007 to 2010. Hispanic areas are classified based on their historical Hispanic population and the growth in their Hispanic population between 1980 and 2001. This includes—

  • established slow growth areas
  • established fast growth areas
  • new emerging Hispanic areas
  • small Hispanic areas.

The report describes Hispanic, white, and black violent victimization rates in each area by age and sex.

Highlights:

  • From 1980 to 2010, the Hispanic population increased 246%, compared to 44% for non-Hispanic blacks and 9% for non-Hispanic whites.
  • From 2007 to 2010, new Hispanic areas had a lower overall rate of violent victimization compared to small Hispanic areas that had relatively little growth in Hispanic populations.
  • Unlike blacks and whites, Hispanics experienced higher rates of violent victimization in new Hispanic metropolitan areas (26 per 1,000) than in other areas (16 to 20 per 1,000).
  • Hispanics ages 18 to 34 exhibited the largest variation in victimization rates by type of area. Those in new Hispanic areas experienced violence at higher rates than those in established and small Hispanic areas.
  • Among all age groups, new Hispanic areas did not show statistically significant higher rates of violent victimization for non-Hispanic white and black residents.

Health Issues for Judges to Consider for Children in Foster Care

September 26, 2014 Comments off

Health Issues for Judges to Consider for Children in Foster Care (PDF)
Source: American Academy of Pediatrics

Children in foster care have a host of unmet health needs, including not only physical health, but also mental, developmental and behavioral, and dental health needs. Addressing these health needs, as well as educational needs, improves children’s overall wellbeing, increases placement stability, and increases the likelihood of a child achieving permanency in a loving and supportive family situation.

Juvenile court judges are uniquely able to influence the health and well-being of children in foster care by asking about a child’s health status and special needs, ordering appropriate assessments and services, and ensuring that identified needs are addressed through the child’s court-ordered case plan. Judges can require that attorneys, caseworkers, and caregivers bring detailed information about a child’s health to court.

This booklet provides an overview of important health issues for children and youth in foster care. The appendix provides 3 downloadable age-appropriate forms that judges share with case workers or caregivers to obtain, record, and track relevant health information for individual children, thus improving outcomes for children and youth in foster care.

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