2013 Military Parent Custody and Visitation Legislation
Source: National Conference of State Legislatures
Over the last decade, legislation addressing issues facing military parents has become a national trend. With the number of custody and visitation issues among military families growing, the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws drafted the Uniform Deployed Parents Custody and Visitation Act (UDPCVA) to allow states to adopt a procedure for courts to use when faced with this unique situation. During the 2013 legislative session, eight states enacted nine bills addressing deployed parent custody and visitation. Of those eight states, Colorado, Nevada, North Carolina, and North Dakota became the first in the nation to adopt the UDPCVA.
Already during the 2014 legislative session, three states—Mississippi, South Dakota and Tennessee—and the District of Columbia have introduced bills to adopt the Uniform Deployed Parents Custody and Visitation Act (UDPCVA). In addition to those states seeking to adopt the UDPCVA, seven other states have 16 pending bills for consideration during the 2014 legislative session.
Below are summaries of the 2013 enacted legislation addressing custody and visitation issues of military families. For more information about the Uniform Deployed Parents Custody and Visitation Act and states that have introduced or enacted deployed parent custody and visitation legislation visit the Child Support Project’s Military Custody and Visitation page.
Family & Retirement: The Elephant in the Room (PDF)
Source: Merrill Lynch
For most, family makes life—and life in retirement—richer and more enjoyable. But family connections can also complicate retirement. Retirement planning has traditionally centered largely on the needs of an individual or a couple. This landmark Study reveals the impact that today’s family complexities and financial interdependencies have on retirement, and shows how pre-retirees and retirees can better plan, engage and communicate with family members to balance both family priorities and their own long-term retirement security.
The lives of retirees and pre-retirees today are complicated by three converging trends:
- Parenthood Doesn’t Retire. In today’s uncertain economy, adult children and other younger relatives— struggling with career stalls and financial difficulties—are increasingly turning to older family members for a helping hand.
- Extended Lives, Extended Needs. At the same time, rising longevity is introducing new complications. The parents of today’s pre-retirees and retirees are living longer than any prior generation and very often require greater emotional, physical and financial support.
- Stretched and Stressed. Many pre-retirees and retirees have insufficient savings, putting them on shaky ground as they attempt to balance the competing priorities and tradeoffs of preparing for and financially managing their own retirement while also helping family members.
The Divorce Revolution and Generalized Trust: Evidence from the United States 1973-2010 (PDF)
Source: Institute for the Study of Labor
This paper examines the effect of exposure to a culture of easier divorce as a minor on generalized trust using the General Social Survey from 1973-2010. The easier divorce culture is defined as the introduction of no-fault including unilateral divorce reforms across the US. According to the results, the divorce revolution seems to have had some effect on trust levels across the US. While there are no discernible effects for the whole sample of men, there are statistically significant effects for women with an additional year of exposure being associated with a 4 percentage point lower generalized trust in the states with easy divorce culture compared to states with fault based divorce culture. An analysis by sub-group of women indicates that married and divorced/separated women have significantly lower levels of trust associated with exposure to easy divorce culture as a child. The findings are in agreement with the predictions of previous literature regarding no-fault divorce reforms reducing the security offered by marriage, in particular for women.
To determine prevalence and correlates of need and unmet need for care coordination in a national sample of children with mental health conditions.
Using data from the 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health, we identified children aged 2 to 17 years with ≥1 mental health condition (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorder, conduct disorder, or depression) who had received ≥2 types of preventive or subspecialty health services in the past year. We defined 2 outcome measures of interest: (1) prevalence of need for care coordination; and (2) prevalence of unmet need for care coordination in those with a need. Logistic regression models were used to estimate associations of clinical, sociodemographic, parent psychosocial, and health care characteristics with the outcome measures.
In our sample (N = 7501, representing an estimated 5 750 000 children), the prevalence of having any need for care coordination was 43.2%. Among parents reporting a need for care coordination, the prevalence of unmet need was 41.2%. Higher risk of unmet need for care coordination was associated with child anxiety disorder, parenting stress, lower income, and public or no insurance. Parents reporting social support and receipt of family-centered care had a lower risk of unmet need for care coordination.
Approximately 40% of parents of children with mental health conditions who reported a need for care coordination also reported that their need was unmet. Delivery of family-centered care and enhancing family supports may help to reduce unmet need for care coordination in this vulnerable population.
Financial Burden of Medical Care: A Family Perspective
Source: National Center for Health Statistics
Data from the National Health Interview Survey, 2012
- In 2012, more than one in four families experienced financial burdens of medical care.
- Families with incomes at or below 250% of the federal poverty level (FPL) were more likely to experience financial burdens of medical care than families with incomes above 250% of the FPL.
- Families with children aged 0–17 years were more likely than families without children to experience financial burdens of medical care.
- The presence of a family member who was uninsured increased the likelihood that a family would experience a financial burden of medical care.
Public Safety Officers’ Benefits (PSOB) Program (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via MSPB Watch)
The Public Safety Officers’ Benefits (PSOB) program provides three different types of benefits to public safety officers and their survivors: a death, a disability, and an education benefit. The PSOB program is administered by the Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Assistance’s (BJA’s), PSOB Office.
Child-Related Benefits in the Federal Income Tax
Source: Urban Institute
The federal income tax system provides substantial benefits to families with children. In 2013, the Tax Policy Center estimates that five major child-related tax benefits – the earned income tax credit (EITC), the child tax credit, the child and dependent care tax credit, the dependent exemption, and head of household filing status – will reduce taxes and provide credits totaling $171 billion (roughly $3,400 per family) for families with children. Nearly all families benefit, but low- and middle-income families tend to benefit most. This paper highlights who benefits from each major provision and how much benefit is received.
Pregnancy- and Child-Related Legal and Policy Issues Concerning Justice-Involved Women (PDF)
Source: National Institute of Corrections
This document provides an overview of pregnancy- and child-related legal questions concerning justice-involved women that can be raised in correctional settings. It updates and expands the Legal Appendix, written by Southwestern Law School Professor Myrna Raeder, that is included in Gender-Responsive Strategies: Research, Practice, and Guiding Principles for Women Offenders, by Barbara Bloom and colleagues, published by the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) in 2003. The information presented here is expected to be pertinent to a wide audience, only some of whom have legal training. Commissioners of correctional departments and their legal staff, wardens, sheriffs, and other prison and jail administrators; community correctional officials; service providers; and stakeholders, including advocates for inmates, should all be able to reference this document as a starting point for analyzing family issues that affect a large percentage of female inmates. A variety of resources, legal and otherwise, are cited to help further research about these issues. Administrators and policymakers may find it useful to review their policies in light of these pregnancy- and child-related legal questions and answers, with the caveat that their responses must be dictated in part by the specific laws and policies that exist in the particular jurisdiction where their facility is located, and by the specific circumstances of each issue that arises.
United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child — Concluding observations on the report submitted by the Holy See
Concluding observations on the report submitted by the Holy See (PDF)
Source: United Nations
The Committee is concerned that in dealing with cases of child pornography committed by members of the clergy, the Holy See has failed to ensure children’s right to express their views and have them given due weight, and that the Holy See has given preceden ce to the preservation of the reputation of the church over children’s rights to have their best interests taken as a primary consideration. The Committee is concerned that in doing so, the Holy See has undermined the prevention of offences under the Optional Protocol and the capacity of child victims to report them and therefore contributed to the impunity of the perpetrators and created further trauma for child victims of offences.
FDA allows marketing for first of-its-kind post-natal test to help diagnose developmental delays and intellectual disabilities in children
FDA allows marketing for first of-its-kind post-natal test to help diagnose developmental delays and intellectual disabilities in children
Source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Today the U.S. Food and Drug Administration authorized for marketing the Affymetrix CytoScan Dx Assay, which can detect chromosomal variations that may be responsible for a child’s developmental delay or intellectual disability. Based on a blood sample, the test can analyze the entire genome at one time and detect large and small chromosomal changes.
According to the National Institutes of Health and the American Academy of Pediatrics, two to three percent of children in the United States have some form of intellectual disability. Many intellectual and developmental disabilities, such as Down syndrome and DiGeorge syndrome, are associated with chromosomal variations.
“This new tool may help in the identification of possible causes of a child’s developmental delay or intellectual disability, allowing health care providers and parents to intervene with appropriate care and support for the child,” said Alberto Gutierrez, Ph.D., director of the Office of In Vitro Diagnostics and Radiological Health in the FDA’s Center for Devices and Radiological Health. “The FDA’s review of the test provides clinical laboratories with information about the expected performance of the device and the quality of the results.”
The FDA reviewed the Affymetrix CytoScan Dx Assay through its de novo classification process, a regulatory pathway for some novel low-moderate-risk medical devices.
Mentoring Children of Incarcerated Parents (PDF)
Source: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
Parents may be incarcerated in correctional facilities at either the local or state level and the length of incarceration varies by type of facility. Jails are locally-operated correctional facilities and sentences to jail (typically for misdemeanors) are usually one year or shorter, whereas prisons (state or federal) are typically further away and generally involve sentences (typically for felonies) that are longer than one year. The number of youth who have an incarcerated parent has grown considerably over the past two decades. It is estimated that 1.7 million youth in the United States have at least one parent currently in prison and that millions more have a parent in jail. As a group, these youth fare worse than other youth on a range of immediate and longer-term outcomes that relate to mental and physical health as well as educational achievement. Evidence suggests that, in combination with other sources of risk and adversity, the incarceration of a parent can increase the likelihood that youth become involved in antisocial and delinquent behavior. Yet, it is clear that parental incarceration affects families in different ways and that experiences before, during, and after incarceration contribute to youths’ outcomes. Furthermore, as many youth faced with the incarceration of a parent do well, a parent’s incarceration is clearly not an insurmountable barrier to a young person realizing his or her full potential.
The broader research literature supports mentoring programs as a promising form of support for youth with incarcerated parents. Findings indicate that participation in a mentoring program can benefit a young person in several different areas, including emotional well-being, social relationships, avoiding problem behavior, and academic achievement.
Hospitalizations Due to Firearm Injuries in Children and Adolescents
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:
Despite recent national attention on deaths from firearms, little information exists about children and adolescents who are hospitalized for firearm injuries. The objective was to determine the national frequency of firearm-related hospitalizations in the United States in children, compare rates by cause and demographics, and describe hospitalized cases.
We used the 2009 Kids’ Inpatient Database to identify hospitalizations from firearm-related injuries in young people <20 years of age; International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, and external-cause-of injury codes were used to categorize the injuries and the causes as follows: assault, suicide attempt, unintentional, or undetermined. Incidences were calculated by using the weighted number of cases and the intercensal population. Risk ratios compared incidences.
In 2009, 7391 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6523–8259) hospitalizations were due to firearm-related injuries. The hospitalization rate was 8.87 (95% CI: 7.83–9.92) per 100 000 persons <20 years of age. Hospitalizations due to assaults were most frequent (n = 4559) and suicide attempts were least frequent (n = 270). Of all hospitalizations, 89.2% occurred in males; the hospitalization rate for males was 15.22 per 100 000 (95% CI: 13.41–17.03) and for females was 1.93 (95% CI: 1.66–2.20). The rate for black males was 44.77 (95% CI: 36.69–52.85), a rate more than 10 times that for white males. Rates were highest for those aged 15 to 19 years (27.94; 95% CI: 24.42–31.46). Deaths in the hospital occurred in 453 (6.1%); of those hospitalized after suicide attempts, 35.1% died.
On average, 20 US children and adolescents were hospitalized each day in 2009 due to firearm injuries. Public health efforts are needed to reduce this common source of childhood injury.
Evaluative and hedonic wellbeing among those with and without children at home
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
We document and interpret differences in life evaluation and in hedonic experience between those who live with children and those who do not; most previous literature has concluded that those with children have worse lives. For a sample of 1.8 million Americans of all ages, and without controls for other circumstances, we find little difference in subjective wellbeing between people with and without children. Among those most likely to be parents, life evaluation and all hedonic experiences except stress are markedly better among those living with a child. However, within this group, people who live with children are more likely to be married, richer, better educated, more religious, and healthier, all of which have well-documented positive associations with evaluative and hedonic wellbeing. With statistical controls for these background factors, the presence of a child has a small negative association with life evaluation, although it is associated with more of both positive and negative hedonics. These patterns are replicated in the English-speaking countries of the world, but not in other regions. We argue that the causal effect of children on parental wellbeing, which is the target for most of the literature, is not well defined. Instead, we interpret our rich-country results within a theory of children and wellbeing in which adults sort into parenthood according to their preferences. In poor, high-fertility countries, we find evidence that at least some people have children even when it diminishes their personal wellbeing.