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Annotated Bibliography: Juvenile Justice

April 18, 2014 Comments off

Annotated Bibliography: Juvenile Justice
Source: National Institute of Corrections

Are you looking for a comprehensive list of resources about juvenile justice? Then this publication is for you. It offers a wide range of sources that will give you an excellent review of the field of juvenile justice. Each annotation explains what the item is about, with many having Web links. Citations are organized into the following areas: courts; juvenile assessment; assessment tools; programs; programs for young women; facilities; training; websites; and juvenile sex offenders.

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Pregnancy- and Child-Related Legal and Policy Issues Concerning Justice-Involved Women

February 7, 2014 Comments off

Pregnancy- and Child-Related Legal and Policy Issues Concerning Justice-Involved Women (PDF)
Source: National Institute of Corrections

This document provides an overview of pregnancy- and child-related legal questions concerning justice-involved women that can be raised in correctional settings. It updates and expands the Legal Appendix, written by Southwestern Law School Professor Myrna Raeder, that is included in Gender-Responsive Strategies: Research, Practice, and Guiding Principles for Women Offenders, by Barbara Bloom and colleagues, published by the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) in 2003. The information presented here is expected to be pertinent to a wide audience, only some of whom have legal training. Commissioners of correctional departments and their legal staff, wardens, sheriffs, and other prison and jail administrators; community correctional officials; service providers; and stakeholders, including advocates for inmates, should all be able to reference this document as a starting point for analyzing family issues that affect a large percentage of female inmates. A variety of resources, legal and otherwise, are cited to help further research about these issues. Administrators and policymakers may find it useful to review their policies in light of these pregnancy- and child-related legal questions and answers, with the caveat that their responses must be dictated in part by the specific laws and policies that exist in the particular jurisdiction where their facility is located, and by the specific circumstances of each issue that arises.

National Institute of Corrections — Sexually Abusive Behavior Prevention and Intervention Program

February 3, 2014 Comments off

Sexually Abusive Behavior Prevention and Intervention Program
Source: National Institute of Corrections

This document intends to “provide a written policy that implements zero tolerance toward all forms of sexual activity, including sexual abuse and sexual harassment, and to provide guidelines to address the following prohibited and/or illegal sexually abusive behavior involving: Inmate perpetrator against staff victim; Inmate perpetrator against inmate victim; [and] Staff perpetrator against inmate victim. This policy also covers incidents involving contractors and volunteers. These guidelines are provided to: Help detect incidents, perpetrators, and inmate victims of sexually abusive behavior; Help prevent sexually abusive behavior; Educate staff to intervene properly and in a timely manner; Document, report, and investigate reported incidents; [and] Discipline and/or prosecute perpetrators” (p. 1). Procedures explain: prevention planning; responsive planning; training and education; screening for risk of sexual victimization and abusiveness; reporting; official response following an inmate report; investigations; discipline; medical and mental care; data collection and review; and audits. Also attached is the “PREA Intake Objective Screening Instrument”.

Pregnancy and Child-Related Legal and Policy Issues Concerning Justice-Involved Women

December 18, 2013 Comments off

Pregnancy and Child-Related Legal and Policy Issues Concerning Justice-Involved Women
Source: National Institute of Corrections

The National Institute of Corrections (NIC) is pleased to announce the release of “Pregnancy and Child – Related Legal and Policy Issues Concerning Justice-Involved Women”. The document cites a wide range of resources to assist correctional professionals,027701 administrators, policymakers, and related professionals. It provides a legal context to review current policy and practice specific to the laws and policies that affect justice-involved women. The document is a follow up to “Legal Considerations with Regard to Women Offenders,” an appendix to Gender Responsive Strategies: Research Practice, and Guiding Principles for Women Offenders by Bloom, Owen & Covington (PDF).

A Review of the Findings from Project D.A.T.E.: Risky Relationships and Teen Dating Violence Among At-Risk Adolescents

September 16, 2013 Comments off

A Review of the Findings from Project D.A.T.E.: Risky Relationships and Teen Dating Violence Among At-Risk Adolescents (PDF)
Source: National Institute of Justice

Statement of Purpose:
Teen dating violence is linked to numerous longstanding consequen ces , such as delinquency, risky sexual behavior, and adult partner violence. Thus, research exploring adolescents’ trajectories into and out of violent relationships is important for developing effective prevention and intervention programs to promote healthy teen relationships. Prior research has generally been restricted to normative, school-based samples that may not capture the unique experiences of youth who are already most likely to experience negative relationship outcomes. The purpose of Project D.A.T.E. (Demand Appreciation, Trust, and Equality) was to address gaps in current research by focusing on romantic relationship experiences among at- risk adolescents .

Goals and Objectives:
We investigated risk and protective factors related to teen dating violence and positive relationship outcomes within a single relationship and across multiple relationships. We also explored how early abusive relationships impact trajectories into later abusive relationships, and how age gaps between romantic partners might contribute to victimization and other negative outcomes.

Participants.
Participants included 223 adolescents (58% female, 61% African- American) who (1) were between 13 and 18 years old, (2) answered yes to “Have you ever ‘dated someone’ or been in a romantic relationship that lasted at least 1 month?”, and (3) received community -based services (e.g., foster care, alternative schooling) or low- income services (e.g., free or reduced lunch, low- income housing).

Methods.
Participants completed two waves o f two -hour, in-person, self-report interviews that took place about a year apart. In each interview, participants answered questions about socio-demographics, family, and schooling. Most of the interview, however, addressed issues of abuse, intimacy, and health within up to three romantic relationships (thus, up to six relationships total across two waves of data collection). We used assessments shown to be valid and reliable for adolescents.

Results:
Teens in our at-risk sample repo rted high levels of dating abuse, risky sexual behavior, and deviance within their romantic relationships. Abuse victimization and perpetration were highly correlated, with patterns largely the same for boys and girls, suggesting reciprocal or “common coup le” violence rather than one – sided intimate terrorism. Risk factors for dating violence were similar whether considering single or multiple relationships. However, dynamic risk factors (e.g., depression, peer delinquency) appeared to be more powerful than historical factors (e.g., sexual debut, child maltreatment). Relationship-specific risk factors like dyadic deviancy and intimacy related significantly to dating violence, indicating that teens may view abusive relationships as serious and committed. In addition, d ating abuse by partners and toward partners was relatively stable across time. For most teens, experiencing abuse in their first ever romantic relationship placed them at great risk for a trajectory of future abuse. Finally, age gaps between partners were related to negative outcomes regardless of the younger partner’s age or gender. This link between partner age gaps and poor outcomes was best explained by older and younger partners’ risky lifestyles, not power inequalities within the relationship.

Conclusions:
Low-income, service -receiving adolescents showed high rates of abuse in their earliest relationships, and then continued to be significantly at risk for abuse in subsequent relationships—despite describing these relationships as positive in many ways. Thus, there is a clear need for prevention and intervention efforts targeting such at – risk youth that focus more on relationship quality than simply the presence or absence of abuse. Initial Project D.A.T.E. results suggest that future research needs to investigate the context of teen dating violence (events before and after, whether a partner was frightened, etc.) to understand how youth perceive these relationships. A nuanced understanding of the context of abuse is crucial since youth are unlikely to seek help if their perceptions of “dating violence” diverge from definitions used by service providers and law enforcement.

LGBTI: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Intersex Offenders (Selected Resources for Criminal Justice Professionals)

November 6, 2012 Comments off

LGBTI: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Intersex Offenders (Selected Resources for Criminal Justice Professionals) (PDF)
Source: National Institute of Corrections

This annotated bibliography has been developed in an effort to provide current and useful information to correctional agencies regarding the safe and respectful management of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) offenders. Relying on a best practices approach, this information will enable corrections staff to make better informed decisions about the safety, security, treatment and care of LGBTI offenders by providing academic, cultural and legal perspectives of the issues that make this group unique.

Surveys conducted by the Bureau of Justice Statistics indicate that non-heterosexual adult offenders report higher rates of sexual victimization while in custody. Similar surveys in juvenile facilities show even higher rates of sexual victimization among non-heterosexual juvenile offenders. Similarly, a 2009 research report cited findings that transgender offenders experienced sexual victimization at a rate thirteen times higher than a random sampling of offenders in the same facility.

Such evidence indicates that LGBTI offenders are at increased risk for sexual victimization while in custody, and agencies that ignore this may be placing themselves at risk for litigation. Changes in federal and state legislation, court decisions, settlement agreements and the proposed standards under the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) are all factors for consideration in the management of LGBTI offenders in correctional settings. For example, the proposed PREA standards contain requirements for agencies to conduct staff training on effective and respectful communication with LGBTI offenders and to enhance sexual abuse prevention measures that specifically address this population.

We are confident you can obtain these resources either through the Internet, the NIC Information Center, the authors, or by ordering them. We invite contributions to this list, as well as additions submitted material to the NIC Library, such as articles and training resources.

Jail Resource Management

April 1, 2012 Comments off

Jail Resource Management (PDF)
Source: National Institute of Corrections

The goal of this training program is to provide participants with the administrative tools necessary to assess facility needs, mange their budget, identify funding
options and request funding from their parent agency.

You’re an Adult Now: Youth in Adult Criminal Justice Systems

January 21, 2012 Comments off

You’re an Adult Now: Youth in Adult Criminal Justice Systems (PDF)

Source:  National Institute of Corrections
Since the world’s first juvenile court was founded in Chicago, our legal system has recognized a separate mandate to rehabilitate youth with an approach that is different than adults. Today, all 50 states and the District of Columbia and the federal government have two distinct systems for dealing with adults and juveniles, and corrections systems kept pace by developing different systems for dealing with the youth. While the majority of youth arrested for criminal acts are prosecuted in state juvenile justice systems, a significant proportion of youth are handled by adult criminal justice agencies.
It has been estimated that nearly 250,000 youth under age 18 end up in the adult 2 criminal justice system every year. However, little attention has been directed to how adult corrections systems are managing the youth offenders that end up in jails, prisons and under community supervision. To address this information gap, the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) convened three dozen juvenile justice and adult corrections experts on June 18th , 2010, to consider some of the known issues, impacts and opportunities that face corrections systems as they work to safely and effectively rehabilitate thousands of youth offenders in the nations’ jails, prisons, probation and parole systems. This monograph presents the key findings identified during this convening of experts.

National Institute of Corrections: Environmental Scan 2010

November 9, 2011 Comments off

Environmental Scan 2010 (PDF)
Source: National Institute of Corrections

Beginning in the late 1990’s, the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) Information Center began scanning social, economic and corrections issues to inform the development of programs and services offered by NIC. This report, now in its 5th edition, has continued to evolve into a popular tool that is also used by corrections practitioners to inform their work in jails, prisons and community corrections. Since there are many issues beyond what is addressed in this environmental scan that potentially will influence corrections, this report is intended to give a broad overview of selected current and anticipated trends and not intended to be comprehensive.

The method for selecting articles, reports and other materials was based on a scan of popular magazines, newspapers and websites as well as corrections-specific publications. As part of the ongoing work of the Information Center in supporting the work of corrections practitioners, staff regularly monitor reports and publications from state, national and independent sources. The report is arranged from outside influences with the broadest influence on corrections to specific corrections issues. Each section of the report gives an overview of the topic followed by corrections-specific trends and developments in this area.

Universally documented, economic conditions both domestically and internationally have been the most salient factor influencing all professions and industries including corrections and which appears will continue into the coming decade. Together with demographic and incarceration trends, corrections will be forced to make difficult decisions in the coming years that may fundamentally change the trajectory of criminal justice in the United States.

National Institute of Corrections — Report to the Nation FY 2010

August 31, 2011 Comments off

Report to the Nation FY 2010 (PDF)
Source: National Institute of Corrections

In this report, NIC is pleased to highlight its success in meeting constituent needs during iscal year 2010. We responded to a number of requests for technical assistance, revived the NIC Ofice of Public Health, and migrated many of our print publications into a fully online format. We have also developed and nurtured an increasing number of partnerships with industry stakeholders, which we hope will enhance our ability to meet the needs of the ever-changing and exciting ield of corrections.

Rather than operating in a vacuum, NIC commits itself to sharing ideas and contributing to the success of individuals and jurisdictions in the criminal justice ield. In these pages, you will ind evidence of NIC’s collaborative model of getting things done, a model that focuses on teamwork and trust, and foreshadows the positive changes in corrections now slowly taking shape nationwide.

Future of Parole as a Key Partner in Assuring Public Safety

July 20, 2011 Comments off

Future of Parole as a Key Partner in Assuring Public Safety (PDF)
Source: National Institute of Corrections

Paroling authorities play a critical role within correctional systems nationwide.They make thousands of decisions a year about the timing of release from prison for a significant number of offenders each year.They set conditions of release and respond to violations of postrelease supervision for many thousands more. Recognizing this critical role, the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) is engaged in a major initiative to develop useful resources for parole board chairs, members, and their executive staff. In 2008, the initiative sponsored the development of the Comprehensive Framework for Paroling Authorities in an Era of Evidence-Based Practices (Campbell 2008). Comprehensive Framework provides an overview of how the role of parole is, and should be, changing to meet the challenges facing the corrections field as it looks forward to the second decade of the 21st century. NIC has also made training curricula, delivery, and technical assistance available as part of the initiative.

As an additional part of this initiative, NIC has commissioned the development of a series of five papers entitled Parole Essentials: Practical Guides for Parole Leaders. This series builds on the Comprehensive Framework and provides concrete guidance on how to implement the principles it outlines.The series is composed of an informative set of products focused on the unique challenges facing parole leaders; it will assist them in further honing their technical skills, clearly deining their roles and responsibilities, and support­ing effective practice.

This document, The Future of Parole as a Key Partner in Assuring Public Safety, is the fifth and last of the series. It builds on the previous four papers, encouraging paroling authorities to be leaders of change. Paroling authorities are encouraged to use their unique role in the criminal justice system to move toward more effective recidivism reduction, wiser use of public resources, and a more collaborative approach to their work. Focusing on the key responsibilities of decisionmaking — for release, setting of conditions, and responding to violations — the paper challenges parole professionals to use both their individual discretion and their potential as effective teams to be leaders of change.

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