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Out-of-Pocket Health Care Expenses by Age and Insurance Coverage, 2011

July 29, 2014 Comments off

Out-of-Pocket Health Care Expenses by Age and Insurance Coverage, 2011
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

Highlights

  • In 2011, an average of $703 was paid out of pocket for health care among people with some health care expenses. However, the median out-of-pocket amount was notably lower ($237).
  • Nearly one-fifth of people with some health care expenses had out-of-pocket expenses greater than $1,000 while 8.2 percent had out-of-pocket expenses greater than $2,000.
  • Average out-of-pocket expenses increased with age, ranging from $283 for children under 18 to $1,215 for people age 65 and older.
  • On average, the uninsured paid nearly two-thirds of their health care expenses out of pocket while people under age 65 covered by public insurance and people age 65 and older covered by Medicare and other public insurance paid a substantially lower percentage (only 9–11 percent).
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HHS — Unaccompanied Children Released to Sponsors By State

July 29, 2014 Comments off

Unaccompanied Children Released to Sponsors By State
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Refugee Resettlement

When a child who is not accompanied by a parent or guardian is apprehended by immigration authorities, the child is transferred to the care and custody of the Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR). ORR cares for the children in shelters around the country until they can be released to a sponsor, typically a parent or relative, who can care for the child while their immigration case is processed.

Ensuring that a potential sponsor can safely and appropriately care for the child is a top priority. A background check is conducted on all potential sponsors, and steps are taken to verify a potential sponsor’s identity and relationship to the child. In some cases where concerns are raised, a home study is done.

Before children are released to a sponsor, they receive vaccinations and medical screenings. We do not release any children who have a contagious condition.

The sponsor must agree to cooperate with all immigration proceedings.

If ORR cannot identify a viable sponsor, the child will typically remain in ORR care unless the following happens:

  • The child goes before the immigration judge and requests a voluntary departure
  • A judge orders the child to be deported and DHS repatriates
  • The child turns 18, transferring custody back to DHS
  • Legal relief, in some form is granted by an immigration judge
  • Ensuring the privacy and safety of children is of paramount importance. We cannot release information about individual children that could compromise the child’s location or identity.

The data in the table below shows state-by-state placement of unaccompanied children with sponsors. ACF will update this data during the first week of each month.

Tree and forest effects on air quality and human health in the United States

July 29, 2014 Comments off

Tree and forest effects on air quality and human health in the United States
Source: U.S. Forest Service

Trees remove air pollution by the interception of particulate matter on plant surfaces and the absorption of gaseous pollutants through the leaf stomata. However, the magnitude and value of the effects of trees and forests on air quality and human health across the United States remains unknown. Computer simulations with local environmental data reveal that trees and forests in the conterminous United States removed 17.4 million tonnes (t) of air pollution in 2010 (range: 9.0-23.2 million t), with human health effects valued at 6.8 billion U.S. dollars (range: $1.5-13.0 billion). This pollution removal equated to an average air quality improvement of less than one percent. Most of the pollution removal occurred in rural areas, while most of the health impacts and values were within urban areas. Health impacts included the avoidance of more than 850 incidences of human mortality and 670,000 incidences of acute respiratory symptoms.

New From the GAO

July 29, 2014 Comments off

New GAO Reports and Testimonies
Source: Government Accountability Office

Reports

1. USDA Farm Programs: Farmers Have Been Eligible for Multiple Programs and Further Efforts Could Help Prevent Duplicative Payments. GAO-14-428, July 8.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-428
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/664671.pdf

2. 401(K) Plans: Improvements Can Be Made to Better Protect Participants in Managed Accounts. GAO-14-310, June 25.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-310
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/664392.pdf

3. National Flood Insurance Program: Additional Guidance on Building Requirements to Mitigate Agricultural Structures’ Damage in High-Risk Areas Is Needed. GAO-14-583, June 30.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-583
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/664517.pdf

4. Medicaid Financing: States’ Increased Reliance on Funds from Health Care Providers and Local Governments Warrants Improved CMS Data Collection. GAO-14-627, July 29.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-627
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/665076.pdf

Testimonies

1. Screening Partnership Program: TSA Has Improved Application Guidance and Monitoring of Screener Performance, and Continues to Improve Cost Comparison Methods, by Jennifer Grover, acting director, homeland security and justice, before the Subcommittee on Transportation Security, House Committee on Homeland Security. GAO-14-787T, July 29.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-787T
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/665067.pdf

2. Budget Issues: Opportunities to Reduce Federal Fiscal Exposures Through Greater Resilience to Climate Change and Extreme Weather, by Alfredo Gomez, director, natural resources and environment, before the Senate Committee on the Budget. GAO-14-504T, July 29.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-504T
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/665090.pdf

3. Federal Real Property: Better Guidance and More Reliable Data Needed to Improve Management, by David J. Wise, director, physical infrastructure issues, before the Subcommittee on Government Operations, House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform. GAO-14-757T, July 29.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-757T
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/665086.pdf

4. Tobacco Taxes: Disparities in Rates for Similar Smoking Products Continue to Drive Market Shifts to Lower-Taxed Options, by David Gootnick, director, international affairs and trade, before the Senate Committee on Finance. GAO-14-811T, July 29.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-811T
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/665082.pdf

5. Medicaid: Completed and Preliminary Work Indicate that Transparency around State Financing Methods and Payments to Providers Is Still Needed for Oversight, by Katherine M. Iritani, director, health care, before the Subcommittee on Energy Policy, Health Care and Entitlements, House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform. GAO-14-817T, July 29.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-817T
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/665070.pdf

6. Combating Nuclear Smuggling: Past Work and Preliminary Observations on Research and Development at the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office, by David C. Trimble, director, natural resources and environment, before the Subcommittee on Cybsersecurity, Infrastructure Protection, and Security Technologies, House Committee on Homeland Security. GAO-14-783T, July 29.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-783T
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/665073.pdf

FDA approves new extended-release oxycodone with abuse-deterrent properties

July 29, 2014 Comments off

FDA approves new extended-release oxycodone with abuse-deterrent properties
Source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration

Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Targiniq ER (oxycodone hydrochloride and naloxone hydrochloride extended-release tablets), an extended-release/long-acting (ER/LA) opioid analgesic to treat pain severe enough to require daily, around-the-clock, long-term opioid treatment and for which alternative treatment options are inadequate. Targiniq ER is the second ER/LA opioid analgesic with FDA-approved labeling describing the product’s abuse-deterrent properties consistentwith the FDA’s 2013 draft guidance for industry, Abuse-Deterrent Opioids – Evaluation and Labeling.

Targiniq ER has properties that are expected to deter, but not totally prevent, abuse of the drug by snorting and injection. When crushed and snorted, or crushed, dissolved and injected, the naloxone in Targiniq ER blocks the euphoric effects of oxycodone, making it less liked by abusers than oxycodone alone. Naloxone is a medication that is commonly used to reverse the effects of opioid overdose. Targiniq ER can still be abused, including when taken orally (by mouth), which is currently the most common way oxycodone is abused. It is important to note that taking too much Targiniq ER for purposes of abuse or by accident, can cause an overdose that can result in death.

CBO Releases Updated and Complete Cost Estimate for H.R. 3230, the Veterans Access to Care Act of 2014, as Passed by the House

July 29, 2014 Comments off

CBO Releases Updated and Complete Cost Estimate for H.R. 3230, the Veterans Access to Care Act of 2014, as Passed by the House
Source: Congressional Budget Office

Today, as part of its ongoing work to assist the conference committee that is working on H.R. 3230, the Veterans Access to Care Act of 2014, CBO issued an updated and complete estimate of the version of the bill that was passed by the House of Representatives on June 18, 2014. That version of H.R. 3230 would authorize the appropriation of whatever sums are necessary for the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to expand, for two years, its use of non-VA health care providers to provide medical services to veterans.

Initially, CBO had issued preliminary estimates for the major provisions of the House-passed and Senate-passed bills. Since then, it has obtained additional information, refined its analysis, and completed estimates of other provisions of those bills. An updated and complete estimate of the Senate version of the bill was issued on July 10. Today, CBO issued an updated and complete estimate of the House version of the bill. Those updated estimates provide a basis for CBO’s analysis of proposals that would modify the earlier versions of the legislation.

Assuming appropriation of the necessary amounts, CBO estimates that implementing the House-passed bill would lead to a net increase of $41 billion in VA’s discretionary spending over the 2014-2017 period, reflecting the expectation that veterans’ utilization of contracted care under this act would ramp up over time. We also estimate that enacting the House version of the bill would reduce direct spending by $80 million during that period. Finally, if the amounts estimated were appropriated, CBO estimates that implementing the bill would lead to savings totaling $7 billion in the Medicare and Medicaid programs and to additional revenues of $2.5 billion over the 2015-2017 period.

The Senate-passed version of H.R. 3230 would authorize and appropriate such sums as may be necessary to carry out a similar expansion of health care services. CBO estimates that enacting the Senate version of H.R. 3230 would increase direct spending by $35 billion and increase revenues by $2.5 billion over the 2014-2024 period, and lead to additional appropriations totaling about $2 billion over the 2014-2019 period.

Lack of Planning in $34.4 Million Department of Agriculture Soybean Program in Afghanistan

July 29, 2014 Comments off

Lack of Planning in $34.4 Million Department of Agriculture Soybean Program in Afghanistan (PDF)
Source: Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction

The Honorable Tom Vilsack Secretary U.S. Department of Agriculture

Dear Mr. Secretary:

Thank you for your response to my inquiry letter dated April 17, 2014, concerning the Soybeans for Agricultural Renewal in Afghanistan Initiative (SARAI) funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). After examining the materials that you provided, I’m concerned about the viability of the project and the apparent lack of analysis and planning performed prior to the project’s initiation. I’m most troubled by the following issues:

• The USDA confirmed that soybean production in Afghanistan has not met expectations and that there are doubts concerning the long-term sustainability of a soybean processing factory built as part of the project.

• The project’s implementer, the American Soybean Association, did not conduct feasibility or value-chain studies prior to initiation of the project in 2010.

• Scientific research conducted for the UK Department for International Development between 2005 and 2008 concluded that soybeans were inappropriate for conditions and farming practices in northern Afghanistan, where the program was implemented.

• Despite the lack of prior planning and analysis, and despite evidence that may have put the success of the program in doubt, USDA provided $34.4 million in commodities, transportation, and administrative funds to ASA for SARAI.

Census Bureau Releases Industry Series Report on Semiconductors and Related Device Manufacturing

July 29, 2014 Comments off

Census Bureau Releases Industry Series Report on Semiconductors and Related Device Manufacturing
Source: U.S. Census Bureau

The U.S. Census Bureau today released additional figures from the 2012 Economic Census Industry Series reports for the manufacturing sector of the economy. This release includes new statistics for semiconductor and related device manufacturing (NAICS 334413).

Highlights include:

  • The semiconductor and related device manufacturing industry employed 90,244 people in 2012, down 38.3 percent from 146,152 employed in 2007.
  • The total value of industry shipments in the semiconductor and related device manufacturing industry was $72.2 billion in 2012.
  • The cost of gold and other precious metals used as a material in this industry more than doubled from $149.3 million in 2007 to $372.0 million in 2012, an increase of 149.1 percent.

Highlights of value of product shipment data

  • The total value of product shipments in the semiconductor and related device manufacturing industry was $70.7 billion in 2012.
  • Memory increased 24.4 percent from $6.0 billion in 2007 to $7.5 billion in 2012.
  • Transistors decreased 42.2 percent from $938.0 million in 2007 to $542.0 million in 2012.
  • Microprocessors made up 58.6 percent ($41.4 billion) of the total value of product shipments from semiconductors and related devices ($70.7 billion) in 2012.

Sea Level Rise and Nuisance Flood Frequency Changes around the United States

July 29, 2014 Comments off

Sea Level Rise and Nuisance Flood Frequency Changes around the United States (PDF)
Source: NOAA

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ( NOAA ) water level (tide) gauges have been measuring water levels around the U.S. for over a century, providing clear evidence of sea level rise relative to land (SLR rel ) around most of the continental United States and Hawaii. As SLR rel increases mean sea level (MSL), there is naturally an increase in tidal datum elevations, which are typically used to delineate inundation thresholds. Direct consequences of rising sea level against fixed elevations such as today’s built infrastructure also include increased inundation during extreme events both spatially and temporally. Not only are extreme flooding events reaching high er grounds and covering larger areas due to SLR rel , the frequency and duration of these extreme flood events are increasing.

Another consequence of SLR rel is the increase in lesser extremes such as occasional minor coastal flooding experienced during high tide. These events are becoming more noticeable and widespread along many U.S. coastal regions and are today becoming more of a nuisance . As sea levels continue to rise and with an anticipated acceleration in the rate of rise from ocean warming and land-ice melt, concern exists as to when more substantive impacts from tidal flooding of greater frequency and duration will regularly occur. Information quantifying these occurrences to inform mitigation and adaptation efforts and decision makers is not widely available.

In this report, we show that water level exceedances above the elevation threshold for “minor” coastal flooding (nuisance level ) impacts established locally by the National Weather Service (NWS) have been increasing in time. More importantly, we document that event frequencies are accelerating at many U.S. East and Gulf Coast gauges, and many other locations will soon follow regardless of whether there is an acceleration of SLR rel . Lastly, we show a regional pattern of increasingly greater event-rate acceleration as the height between MSL and a location’s nuisance flood threshold elevation decreases.

Additionality in U.S. Agricultural Conservation and Regulatory Offset Programs

July 29, 2014 Comments off

Additionality in U.S. Agricultural Conservation and Regulatory Offset Programs
Source: USDA Economic Research Service

The Federal Government spent more than $6 billion in fiscal year 2013 on voluntary conservation payment programs to encourage the adoption of a wide range of conservation practices that address multiple environmental and resource conservation goals. Conservation payments can also come from private industry, particularly in the context of an agricultural offset market established as part of a cap-and-trade system designed to reduce nutrient or greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Payments lead to improvement in environmental quality only if farmers and ranchers who receive them adopt conservation practices that would not have been adopted without the payment.

When a voluntary payment causes a change in practice(s) that leads to improved environmental quality, these changes are “additional.” For any type of voluntary payment, there is some risk that the farmers or ranchers who receive them would have adopted the required practice(s), even without the payment. This study measures additionality for a number of common conservation practices typically supported by voluntary conservation payments and examines ways to increase additionality.

Guidance for Schools Issued on How to Keep Parents Better Informed on the Data They Collect on Students

July 29, 2014 Comments off

Guidance for Schools Issued on How to Keep Parents Better Informed on the Data They Collect on Students
Source: U.S. Department of Education

The U.S. Department of Education today announced new guidance for schools and districts on how to keep parents and students better informed about what student data is collected and how it is used.

In the guidance issued by the Department’s Privacy Technical Assistance Center, schools and districts are urged to be proactive in communicating how they use student data. Information should be available to answer common questions before they are asked.

NIH-commissioned Census Bureau report highlights effect of aging boomers

July 28, 2014 Comments off

NIH-commissioned Census Bureau report highlights effect of aging boomers
Source: National Institutes of Health/U.S. Census Bureau

While rates of smoking and excessive drinking have declined among older Americans, prevalence of chronic disease has risen, and many older Americans are unprepared to afford the costs of long-term care in a nursing home, according to a report from the U.S. Census Bureau commissioned by the National Institutes of Health.

The report highlights those trends and others among America’s older population, now over 40 million and expected to more than double by mid-century, growing to 83.7 million people and one-fifth of the U.S. population by 2050. Population trends and other national data about people 65 and older are presented in the report, 65+ in the United States: 2010 (PDF, 12.0M). It documents aging as quite varied in terms of how long people live, how well they age, their financial and educational status, their medical and long-term care and housing costs, where they live and with whom, and other factors important for aging and health.

Social Security Board of Trustees: No Change in Projected Year of Trust Fund Reserve Depletion

July 28, 2014 Comments off

Social Security Board of Trustees: No Change in Projected Year of Trust Fund Reserve Depletion
Source: Social Security Administration

The Social Security Board of Trustees today released its annual report on the long-term financial status of the Social Security Trust Funds. The combined asset reserves of the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) Trust Funds are projected to become depleted in 2033, unchanged from last year, with 77 percent of benefits still payable at that time. The DI Trust Fund will become depleted in 2016, also unchanged from last year’s estimate, with 81 percent of benefits still payable.

In the 2014 Annual Report to Congress, the Trustees announced:

  • The combined trust fund reserves are still growing and will continue to do so through 2019. Beginning with 2020, the cost of the program is projected to exceed income.
  • The projected point at which the combined trust fund reserves will become depleted, if Congress does not act before then, comes in 2033 – the same as projected last year. At that time, there will be sufficient income coming in to pay 77 percent of scheduled benefits.
  • The projected actuarial deficit over the 75-year long-range period is 2.88 percent of taxable payroll — 0.16 percentage point larger than in last year’s report.

The 2013 Federal Reserve Payments Study — Recent and Long-Term Trends in the United States: 2000–2012

July 28, 2014 Comments off

The 2013 Federal Reserve Payments Study — Recent and Long-Term Trends in the United States: 2000–2012 (PDF)
Source: Federal Reserve Board

Underlying the net economic output of the country are billions of transactions between buyers and sellers of goods and services (such as consumers and merchants, factories and suppliers, employers and employees), as well as various financial transactions (such as transfers of balances between accounts, loan originations, and loan payments). The 2013 Federal Reserve Payments Study attempts to measure the number and value of all such transactions conducted over noncash payment systems—including general-purpose and private-label card systems, automated clearinghouse (ACH), and checks. The study builds on the triennial Federal Reserve Payments Study series, conducted since 2001, to paint a more comprehensive picture of the U.S. payments system.

New From the GAO

July 28, 2014 Comments off

New GAO Reports
Source: Government Accountability Office

1. Railroad Retirement Board: Total and Permanent Disability Program at Risk of Improper Payments. GAO-14-418,June 26.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-418
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/664467.pdf

2. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau: Opportunity Exists to Improve Transparency of Civil Penalty Fund Activities. GAO-14-551, June 26.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-551
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/664452.pdf

3. Drinking Water: EPA Program to Protect Underground Sources from Injection of Fluids Associated With Oil and Gas Production Needs Improvement. GAO-14-555, June 27.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-555
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/664500.pdf

4. Media Ownership: FCC Should Review the Effects of Broadcaster Agreements on Its Media Policy Goals. GAO-14-558, June 27.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-558
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/664485.pdf

5. Security Clearances: Tax Debts Owed by DOD Employees and Contractors. GAO-14-686R, July 28.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-686R

2013 Digital Inclusion Survey Results Published

July 28, 2014 Comments off

2013 Digital Inclusion Survey Results Published
Source: Institute of Museum and Library Services, American Library Association, Information Policy & Access Center (University of Maryland), International City/County Management Association

Funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), and conducted by the American Library Association (ALA), the Information Policy & Access Center (iPAC) at the University of Maryland, and the International City/County Management Association (ICMA), this study conducted a national survey of public libraries that explores the digital inclusion roles of public libraries in four key areas:

  • Public access technology infrastructure resources and capacity (e.g., public access workstations; broadband connectivity).
  • Digital content, services, and accessibility.
  • Digital literacy (including languages in which instruction is offered).
  • Domains-specific services and programs (civic engagement, education, health and wellness, and workforce/employment).

Based on a national survey conducted in Fall 2013, our analysis provides insights into how public libraries help build digitally inclusive communities. In particular, we offer multiple products, including:

  • Interactive mapping tools that combine digital inclusion survey and community-level data. The map enables libraries to better understand their community demographics, education and learning, economic/workforce, and health contexts along with the digital inclusion services that they provide. We have also developed a state view of the interactive mapping tool found on the individual state pages.
  • State pages that provide an interactive state-level mapping tool and selected summary data that compares states to national data.
  • Issue briefs on key topics such as broadband, employment, e-government, community access, digital literacy, and digital inclusion.
  • National report that analyzes data from the survey.
  • Executive summary that provides an overview of survey findings.

These reports and other survey-based products are based on data collected from public libraries between September and November 2013. It may well be the case that libraries have added capacity (e.g., public access computers, more broadband, space) and services/programs (e.g., health information, engagement, training classes) since then.

International Religious Freedom Report for 2013

July 28, 2014 Comments off

International Religious Freedom Report for 2013
Source: U.S. Department of State

In 2013, the world witnessed the largest displacement of religious communities in recent memory. In almost every corner of the globe, millions of Christians, Muslims, Hindus, and others representing a range of faiths were forced from their homes on account of their religious beliefs. Out of fear or by force, entire neighborhoods are emptying of residents. Communities are disappearing from their traditional and historic homes and dispersing across the geographic map. In conflict zones, in particular, this mass displacement has become a pernicious norm.

In Syria, as in much of the Middle East, the Christian presence is becoming a shadow of its former self. After three years of civil war, hundreds of thousands fled the country desperate to escape the ongoing violence perpetrated by the government and extremist groups alike. In the city of Homs the number of Christians dwindled to as few as 1,000 from approximately 160,000 prior to the conflict. Elsewhere, in the Central African Republic, widespread lawlessness and an upsurge in sectarian violence between Christians and Muslims reportedly resulted in at least 700 deaths in Bangui in December alone and the displacement of more than one million people throughout the country during the year.

Anti-Muslim violence in Meikhtila, Burma, led to up to 100 deaths and an estimated 12,000 displaced residents from the area in early 2013. This event showed that mob violence against Muslims was no longer confined to western Rakhine State, where over 140,000 persons have also been displaced since 2012. Although the government’s overall human rights record continued to improve, organized anti-Muslim hate speech, harassment, and discrimination against Muslims continued, exploited by those seeking to divide and pit Buddhist and Muslim communities against one another, often for political gain.

All around the world, individuals were subjected to discrimination, violence and abuse, perpetrated and sanctioned violence for simply exercising their faith, identifying with a certain religion, or choosing not to believe in a higher deity at all.

EIA — OPEC Revenues Fact Sheet

July 28, 2014 Comments off

OPEC Revenues Fact Sheet
Source: Energy Information Administration

The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates that, excluding Iran, members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) earned about $826 billion in net oil export revenues in 2013. This was a 7% decrease from 2012 earnings, but still the second-largest earnings totals during the 1975-2013 period for which EIA has tracked OPEC oil revenues. OPEC earnings declined largely for two reasons: a drop in OPEC oil production in 2013 (largely because of the supply disruption in Libya), and a 3% decline in average crude oil prices (as measured by the Brent crude oil price marker).

Saudi Arabia earned the largest share of these earnings, $274 billion in 2013, representing approximately one-third of total OPEC oil revenues. On a per capita basis, OPEC (excluding Iran) net oil export earnings reached about $2,520 in 2013. These net export earnings do not include Iran’s revenues, because of the difficulties associated with estimating Iran’s earnings, including the country’s inability to receive payments and possible price discounts Iran offers its existing customers.

Based on projections from EIA’s July 2014 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO), EIA estimates that OPEC (excluding Iran) could earn about $774 billion in net oil export revenues in 2014 and $723 billion in 2015 (unadjusted for inflation). These declines from the 2013 level are the result of projected declines in the call on OPEC crude oil production because of the large increases in non-OPEC production for 2014-15, as well as expected crude oil price declines that are also the result of declines in the call on OPEC crude oil production.

Military sexual assault: a comparative legal analysis of the 2012 department of defense report on sexual assault in the military: what it tells us, what it doesn’t tell us, and how inconsistent statistic gathering inhibits winning the “invisible war”

July 28, 2014 Comments off

Military sexual assault: a comparative legal analysis of the 2012 department of defense report on sexual assault in the military: what it tells us, what it doesn’t tell us, and how inconsistent statistic gathering inhibits winning the “invisible war” (PDF)
Source: Wisconsin Journal of Law, Gender & Society

In May 2013, the Department of Defense released its 2012 Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Office (SAPRO) report. 1 It is two volumes, totaling 1,494 pages of information related to military sexual assault. 2 While this seems an overwhelming amount of information, a thorough analysis reveals many inconsistencies, problems in the information gathering, and the absence ofmany vital statistics. Much of the report is focused on the Department of Defense and individual military branches touting their efforts at eradicating sexual assault, becoming akin to a “show and tell” exhibition rather than providing accurate, rigorous, and useful information. This Article discusses the numerous flaws in the data gathering and reporting process and how these errors are inhibiting the implementation of effective battle tactics on this front.

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Country Analysis Brief: Algeria

July 25, 2014 Comments off

Country Analysis Brief: Algeria
Source: Energy Information Administration

Algeria is the leading natural gas producer in Africa, the second-largest natural gas supplier to Europe outside of the region, and is among the top three oil producers in Africa. Algeria became a member of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in 1969, shortly after it began oil production in 1958. Algeria’s economy is heavily reliant on revenues generated from its hydrocarbon sector, which account for about 30% of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP), more than 95% of export earnings, and 60% of budget revenues, according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

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