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Archive for the ‘National Academies’ Category

Research Priorities to Inform Public Health and Medical Practice for Ebola Virus Disease— Workshop in Brief

November 23, 2014 Comments off

Research Priorities to Inform Public Health and Medical Practice for Ebola Virus Disease— Workshop in Brief
Source: Institute of Medicine

The current epidemic of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), cause by a filovirus, has spread internationally, now affecting multiple continents, and has become the worst EVD outbreak in history since its discovery in 1976. While the Ebola viruses have typically been studied in laboratory settings, additional biomedical and public health research in real world settings can best prepare the United States to safeguard the public and at-risk workers.

At the request of the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Institute of Medicine (IOM), in collaboration with the National Research Council, convened a workshop on November 3, 2014 with key stakeholders and experts to discuss the research priorities that could guide medical and public health practice. Discussions included the degree of transmission and biopersistence of the virus under a range of conditions and on a variety of materials, as well as issues of handling potentially infected materials, decontamination, and the training and personal protective equipment and usage of traditional and nontraditional workers involved in the full spectrum of this response.

Capturing Social and Behavioral Domains and Measures in Electronic Health Records: Phase 2

November 21, 2014 Comments off

Capturing Social and Behavioral Domains and Measures in Electronic Health Records: Phase 2
Source: Institute of Medicine

Determinants of health—like physical activity levels and living conditions—have traditionally been the concern of public health and have not been linked closely to clinical practice. However, if standardized social and behavioral data can be incorporated into patient electronic health records (EHRs), those data can provide crucial information about factors that influence health and the effectiveness of treatment.Such information is useful for diagnosis, treatment choices, policy, health care system design, and innovations to improve health outcomes and reduce health care costs.

With this goal in mind, a committee was convened to conduct a two-phase study, first to identify social and behavioral domains that most strongly determine health, and then to evaluate the measures of those domains that can be used in EHRs.

In Capturing Social and Behavioral Domains in Electronic Health Records: Phase 1, the committee identified 17 domains that they considered to be good candidates for inclusion in EHRs. The second report, Capturing Social and Behavioral Domains and Measures in Electronic Health Records: Phase 2, pinpoints 12 measures related to 11 of the initial domains and considers the implications of incorporating them into all EHRs.

Antimicrobial Resistance: A Problem Without Borders (2014)

November 13, 2014 Comments off

Antimicrobial Resistance: A Problem Without Borders (2014)
Source: Institute of Medicine

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention identified antimicrobial resistance as one of five urgent health threats facing the United States this year. Antimicrobial resistance is a global health security threat that will demand collaboration from many stakeholders around the world. This report highlights the crosscutting character of antimicrobial resistance and the needs for many disciplines to be brought together to be able to deal with it more effectively.

Identifying the Culprit: Assessing Eyewitness Identification (2014)

October 17, 2014 Comments off

Identifying the Culprit: Assessing Eyewitness Identification (2014)
Source: National Research Council

Eyewitnesses play an important role in criminal cases when they can identify culprits. Estimates suggest that tens of thousands of eyewitnesses make identifications in criminal investigations each year. Research on factors that affect the accuracy of eyewitness identification procedures has given us an increasingly clear picture of how identifications are made, and more importantly, an improved understanding of the principled limits on vision and memory that can lead to failure of identification. Factors such as viewing conditions, duress, elevated emotions, and biases influence the visual perception experience. Perceptual experiences are stored by a system of memory that is highly malleable and continuously evolving, neither retaining nor divulging content in an informational vacuum. As such, the fidelity of our memories to actual events may be compromised by many factors at all stages of processing, from encoding to storage and retrieval. Unknown to the individual, memories are forgotten, reconstructed, updated, and distorted. Complicating the process further, policies governing law enforcement procedures for conducting and recording identifications are not standard, and policies and practices to address the issue of misidentification vary widely. These limitations can produce mistaken identifications with significant consequences. What can we do to make certain that eyewitness identification convicts the guilty and exonerates the innocent?

Identifying the Culprit makes the case that better data collection and research on eyewitness identification, new law enforcement training protocols, standardized procedures for administering line-ups, and improvements in the handling of eyewitness identification in court can increase the chances that accurate identifications are made. This report explains the science that has emerged during the past 30 years on eyewitness identifications and identifies best practices in eyewitness procedures for the law enforcement community and in the presentation of eyewitness evidence in the courtroom. In order to continue the advancement of eyewitness identification research, the report recommends a focused research agenda.

Identifying the Culprit will be an essential resource to assist the law enforcement and legal communities as they seek to understand the value and the limitations of eyewitness identification and make improvements to procedures.

Factors Contributing to Median Encroachments and Cross-Median Crashes

October 16, 2014 Comments off

Factors Contributing to Median Encroachments and Cross-Median Crashes
Source: Transportation Research Board

TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 790: Factors Contributing to Median Encroachments and Cross-Median Crashes investigates the factors that contribute to median-related crashes and identifies design treatments and countermeasures that can be applied to improve median safety on divided highways.

Analysis of Naturalistic Driving Study Data: Safer Glances, Driver Inattention, and Crash Risk

October 2, 2014 Comments off

Analysis of Naturalistic Driving Study Data: Safer Glances, Driver Inattention, and Crash Risk
Source: Transportation Research Board

This research aims to determine the relationship between driver inattention and crash risk in lead-vehicle precrash scenarios. It seeks to develop inattention-risk relationships describing how an increase in inattention performance variables combines with context in lead-vehicle precrash scenarios to increase risk. The inattention-risk relationships are intended to show which glance behaviors are safer than others and pinpoint the most dangerous glances away from the road. The results should support distraction policy, regulation, guidelines; improve intelligent vehicle safety systems; and teach safe glance behaviors.

Maintaining Transit Effectiveness Under Major Financial Constraints

October 1, 2014 Comments off

Maintaining Transit Effectiveness Under Major Financial Constraints
Source: Transportation Research Board

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 112: Maintaining Transit Effectiveness Under Major Financial Constraints discusses transit agencies that implemented plans to increase their cost effectiveness and how the agencies communicated with their communities during challenging fiscal circumstances.

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