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Prescription Opioid Analgesic Use Among Adults: United States, 1999–2012

March 4, 2015 Comments off

Prescription Opioid Analgesic Use Among Adults: United States, 1999–2012
Source: National Center for Health Statistics

Key findings

Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

  • From 1999–2002 to 2003–2006, the percentage of adults aged 20 and over who used a prescription opioid analgesic in the past 30 days increased from 5.0% to 6.9%. From 2003–2006 to 2011–2012, the percentage who used an opioid analgesic remained stable at 6.9%.
  • From 1999–2002 to 2011–2012, the percentage of opioid analgesic users who used an opioid analgesic stronger than morphine increased from 17.0% to 37.0%.
  • During 2007–2012, the use of opioid analgesics was higher among women (7.2%) than men (6.3%).
  • During 2007–2012, the use of opioid analgesics was higher among non-Hispanic white adults (7.5%) compared with Hispanic adults (4.9%).
  • There was no significant difference in use between non-Hispanic white adults and non-Hispanic black adults (6.5%).

Vital Signs: Seat Belt Use Among Long-Haul Truck Drivers — United States, 2010

March 4, 2015 Comments off

Vital Signs: Seat Belt Use Among Long-Haul Truck Drivers — United States, 2010
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC)

Background:
Motor vehicle crashes were the leading cause of occupational fatalities in the United States in 2012, accounting for 25% of deaths. Truck drivers accounted for 46% of these deaths. This study estimates the prevalence of seat belt use and identifies factors associated with nonuse of seat belts among long-haul truck drivers (LHTDs), a group of workers at high risk for fatalities resulting from truck crashes.

Methods:
CDC analyzed data from its 2010 national survey of LHTD health and injury. A total of 1,265 drivers completed the survey interview. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between seat belt nonuse and risk factors.

Results:
An estimated 86.1% of LHTDs reported often using a seat belt, 7.8% used it sometimes, and 6.0% never. Reporting never using a belt was associated with often driving ≥10 mph (16 kph) over the speed limit (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.9), working for a company with no written safety program (AOR = 2.8), receiving two or more tickets for moving violations in the preceding 12 months (AOR = 2.2), living in a state without a primary belt law (AOR = 2.1); and being female (AOR = 2.3).

Conclusions:
Approximately 14% of LHTDs are at increased risk for injury and death because they do not use a seat belt on every trip. Safety programs and other management interventions, engineering changes, and design changes might increase seat belt use among LHTDs.

Implications for Public Health:
Primary state belt laws can help increase belt use among LHTDs. Manufacturers can use recently collected anthropometric data to design better-fitting and more comfortable seat belt systems.

Introduction

HHS OIG — Not All Children in Foster Care Who Were Enrolled in Medicaid Received Required Health Screenings

March 4, 2015 Comments off

Not All Children in Foster Care Who Were Enrolled in Medicaid Received Required Health Screenings
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General

Nearly a third of children in foster care who were enrolled in Medicaid did not receive at least one required health screening. Furthermore, just over a quarter of children in foster care who were enrolled in Medicaid received at least one required screening late. Moreover, ACF’s reviews do not ensure that children in foster care receive the required screenings according to State schedules.

Expanding Early Care and Education for Homeless Children

March 4, 2015 Comments off

Expanding Early Care and Education for Homeless Children
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children & Families

Ensuring the early learning and development of our country’s youngest children is essential to ACF’s work. Supporting the well-being of these young children and their families is an urgent task and one that is critical to improving the long-term educational outcomes of children nationwide.

Several federal policies and programs are in place to strengthen the ability of early care and education (ECE) providers to serve young children experiencing homelessness. Whether you are in a Head Start program, early childhood program, or work at the state level on early childhood systems and services, the resources listed below will assist you in ensuring that these young children are prioritized for services that support their learning and development.

  • The Early Childhood Self-Assessment Tool for Family Shelters is specifically designed to guide family shelter staff as they create a safe and developmentally appropriate environment for infants, toddlers, and preschoolers.
  • The Guide to Developmental and Behavioral Screening for housing and shelter providers addresses the importance of developmental and behavioral screening, how to talk to parents, where to go for help, and how to select the most appropriate screening tool for the population served as well as the provider implementing the screening.
  • The Early Childhood and Family Homelessness Resource List contains ACF resources and links to national organizations working to end homelessness.

Taking Care of Your Behavioral Health: Tips for Social Distancing, Quarantine, and Isolation During an Infectious Disease Outbreak

February 28, 2015 Comments off

Taking Care of Your Behavioral Health: Tips for Social Distancing, Quarantine, and Isolation During an Infectious Disease Outbreak
Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Explains social distancing, quarantine, and isolation in the event of an infectious disease outbreak, such as Ebola. Discusses feelings and thoughts that may arise during this time and suggests ways to cope and support oneself during such an experience.

CDC Grand Rounds: Preventing Youth Violence

February 27, 2015 Comments off

CDC Grand Rounds: Preventing Youth Violence
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC)

Youth violence occurs when persons aged 10–24 years, as victims, offenders, or witnesses, are involved in the intentional use of physical force or power to threaten or harm others. Youth violence typically involves young persons hurting other young persons and can take different forms. Examples include fights, bullying, threats with weapons, and gang-related violence. Different forms of youth violence can also vary in the harm that results and can include physical harm, such as injuries or death, as well as psychological harm. Youth violence is a significant public health problem with serious and lasting effects on the physical, mental, and social health of youth. In 2013, 4,481 youths aged 10–24 years (6.9 per 100,000) were homicide victims (1). Homicide is the third leading cause of death among persons aged 10–24 years (after unintentional injuries and suicide) and is responsible for more deaths in this age group than the next seven leading causes of death combined (Figure) (1). Males and racial/ethnic minorities experience the greatest burden of youth violence. Rates of homicide deaths are approximately six times higher among males aged 10–24 years (11.7 per 100,000) than among females (2.0). Rates among non-Hispanic black youths (27.6 per 100,000) and Hispanic youths (6.3) are 13 and three times higher, respectively, than among non-Hispanic white youths (2.1) (1). The number of young persons who are physically harmed by violence is more than 100 times higher than the number killed. In 2013, an estimated 547,260 youths aged 10–24 years (847 per 100,000) were treated in U.S. emergency departments for nonfatal physical assault–related injuries (1)

Update: Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic — West Africa, February 2015

February 26, 2015 Comments off

Update: Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic — West Africa, February 2015
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC)

According to the latest World Health Organization update on February 18, 2015 (2), a total of 23,253 confirmed, probable, and suspected cases of Ebola and 9,380 Ebola-related deaths had been reported as of February 15 from the three West African countries (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) where Ebola virus transmission has been widespread and intense. Total case counts include all suspected, probable, and confirmed cases, which are defined similarly by each country (3). Because of improvements in surveillance, the number of cases reported in recent weeks might overestimate the number of Ebola cases in some areas because nonconfirmed cases are included in the total case counts. Sierra Leone reported the highest number of laboratory-confirmed cases (8,212), followed by Liberia (3,149) and Guinea (2,727). During the week ending February 14, a daily average of 11 confirmed cases were reported from Sierra Leone, fewer than one from Liberia, and seven from Guinea. The areas with the highest numbers of confirmed cases reported during January 25–February 14 were the Western Area and Port Loko (Sierra Leone) and Forecariah (Guinea) (Figure). Guinea saw an increase in confirmed cases over the past 3 weeks. This might reflect improved surveillance and case reporting because of increased access to previously inaccessible communities.

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