Archive for the ‘National Criminal Justice Reference Service’ Category

How Much Crime is Drug-Related? History, Limitations, and Potential Improvements of Estimation Methods

September 22, 2014 Comments off

How Much Crime is Drug-Related? History, Limitations, and Potential Improvements of Estimation Methods (PDF)
Source: National Criminal Justice Reference Service
From NCJRS abstract:

Goldstein’s model of drug-related crime identifies three categories of DAFs: “economic-compulsive” (crimes committed to obtain money for buying drugs); “psychopharmacological” crime (crimes committed due to the effect of drugs, such as assaults and homicides); and “systemic” crime (crimes committed by individuals and organizations in the course of operating a drug-trafficking enterprise). In addition to these three categories of DAFs, this paper proposes four additional types of DAFs indirectly related to drug supply and demand. Although these drug-related harmful effects may not involve specific law violations, they constitute part of the cost of drug supply and consumption. One of the four additional drug-related costs to society is the diminishment of positive contributions to society the drug-user might have provided had he/she not become dependent on drugs. A second indirect effect pertains to the adverse impacts the drug-user has on his/her children and other family members because of drug dependence. A third indirect effect is the impact of drug market activities on the neighborhood environment and constructive influence. The fourth indirect cost of drug use is the general diminishment of the informal ability of a society to mold the moral development of its members and thus deter crime. 3 figures and 53 references

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Measuring the Costs of Crime

September 16, 2014 Comments off

Measuring the Costs of Crime (PDF)
Source: National Criminal Justice Reference Service
From NCJRS abstract:

The discussion first notes the importance of approximating the cost of crime in order to determine the cost-effectiveness of efforts to reduce crime. In this calculation, the authors reject an assumption often made about crime-reduction expenditures in relation to reduction in crime costs; for example, if the costs of social condition X were $100 billion and an intervention would cut the condition’s prevalence by 10 percent, the value of that intervention is estimated to be about $20 billion. The authors argue against this assumption, noting that a 10-percent reduction in the risk for criminal victimization will not generally lead to a 10-percent reduction in completed crime. This is because it will tend to reduce precaution, increasing the “supply” of criminal opportunity as “demand” falls. A 10-percent reduction in completed crime might occasion a reduction in total crime costs either greater or less than 10 percent, because of the gains from reduced precaution. Similarly, reduced criminality might lead to reduced criminal justice expenditure. The point being made in this paper is that expenditures on crime control and crime rates are not tightly bound, and a reduction in crime will not directly mitigate all the factors that result from crime. Thus, in making effective criminal justice policy, analysis of victimization costs must be supplemented by an analysis of primary and secondary avoidance costs and residual fear that affect people’s well-being. 22 references

National Criminal Justice Reference Service — Special Feature: Youth Violence

April 11, 2014 Comments off

Special Feature: Youth Violence
Source: National Criminal Justice Reference Service

According to data released by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, juvenile arrests for violent crimes (murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault) declined 29% between 2006 and 2011 (Juvenile Arrests 2011, December 2013). The number of juvenile court cases involving violent offenses fell 8% between 2008 and 2009 (Juvenile Court Statistics, 2009, July 2012) and 8% between 2009 and 2010 (Juvenile Court Statistics, 2010, June 2013).

The Bureau of Justice Statistics resource, Violent Crime Against Youth, 1994-2010 (December 2012), presents trend data on a number of different points related to the topic. For example, from 1994 to 2010, the rate of serious violent crime occurring on school grounds declined by 62%. Also presented is information on the non-reporting of violent crimes by youth victims. During a 2002-10 period of analysis, the most frequent reasons youth provided for not reporting violence were that the incident was reported to another individual such as a school official (30%), was considered not important enough to the victim to report (15%), or was considered to be a private or personal matter (16%). Another reason youth provided for not reporting the victimization to police was that the offender was a child (7%).

The pages of this Special Feature contain publications and resources on topics related to youth violence and the prevention of such violence.

Advanced Behavior Recognition in Crowded Environments

September 20, 2013 Comments off

Advanced Behavior Recognition in Crowded Environments (PDF)
Source: National Criminal Justice Reference Service

This program is designed to increase situational awareness in law enforcement and correctional settings and reliably detect and prevent disorderly conduct and criminal behavior. The program stresses developing a robust probabilistic event modeling framework that takes the uncertainty of low-level image evidence into consideration. The event-explanation and scenario-modeling graphical user interface also makes the program user-friendly. The program has led to developing intelligent video capabilities that can help law enforcement and corrections detect many different types of events and, often, can alert operators to the onset of an event, enabling early detection and possible prevention of critical events.

New Approaches to Understanding and Regulating Primary and Secondary Illegal Firearms

September 20, 2013 Comments off

New Approaches to Understanding and Regulating Primary and Secondary Illegal Firearms (PDF)
Source: National Criminal Justice Reference Service

This report confirms previous study results showing the usefulness of trace data in policing illicit firearms. The data show that jurisdictions with gun regulations recover fewer illicitly distributed weapons compared to jurisdictions without regulations. The authors suggest that more regulation will reduce the availability and distribution of illicit firearms.

In, Out, and In Again? A Life Course Understanding of Women’s Violent Relationships

September 12, 2013 Comments off

In, Out, and In Again? A Life Course Understanding of Women’s Violent Relationships (PDF)
Source: National Criminal Justice Reference Service

This research points to two main policy implications. First, it is important to learn whether a woman is leaving a violent relationship or experiences violence across relationships. This will help researchers identify which strategies successfully help women to escape violence. It will also help them develop specific interventions and treatments to help women cope with their violent relationships. Second, given the potentially disastrous effect of childhood victimization, it is important to identify victims of child abuse and address the abuse while the victims are still young and before they enter their own intimate relationships. In these cases, efforts should be made to both prevent child abuse and preemptively address the lifetime effects of such abuse.

A National Overview of Prostitution and Sex Trafficking Demand Reduction Efforts, Final Report

December 6, 2012 Comments off

A National Overview of Prostitution and Sex Trafficking Demand Reduction Efforts, Final Report (PDF)

Source: National Criminal Justice Reference Service

This report is designed to provide a descriptive overview of initiatives targeting the demand for commercial sex in the United States. It describes the process of gathering the information in this (and other) reports, discusses specific initiatives, and highlights selected communities to illustrate how and why their members have endeavored to address prostitution and sex trafficking by combating demand. The report is intended to serve as an introduction for those considering applying antidemand tactics in their communities, and for those at the state government level who are considering policies, statutes, and infrastructure investments supporting local efforts.


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