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Global Metro Monitor 2014: An Uncertain Recovery

January 23, 2015 Comments off

Global Metro Monitor 2014: An Uncertain Recovery
Source: Brookings Institution

With only 20 percent of the population, the world’s 300 largest metropolitan economies accounted for nearly half of global output in 2014. This interactive and report compare growth patterns in the world’s 300 largest metro economies on two key economic indicators—annualized growth rate of real GDP per capita and annualized growth rate of employment. These indicators, which are combined into an economic performance index on which metro areas are ranked, matter because they reflect the importance that people and policymakers attach to achieving rising incomes and standards of living and generating widespread labor market opportunity.

Who Pays? A Distributional Analysis of the Tax Systems in All 50 States (5th Edition)

January 19, 2015 Comments off

Who Pays? A Distributional Analysis of the Tax Systems in All 50 States (5th Edition)
Source: Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy

Who Pays?, A Distributional Analysis of the Tax Systems in All Fifty States (the fifth edition of the report), assesses the fairness of state and local tax systems by measuring the state and local taxes that will be paid in 2015 by different income groups as a share of their incomes. The report examines every state and the District of Columbia. It discusses important features of each state’s tax system and includes detailed state-by-state profiles that provide essential baseline data to help lawmakers understand the effect tax reform proposals will have on constituents at all income levels.

See also: State Tax Codes As Poverty Fighting Tools

2014 Catalyst Census: Women Board Directors

January 16, 2015 Comments off

2014 Catalyst Census: Women Board Directors
Source: Catalyst
From press release:

For the first time, Catalyst takes its 2014 Catalyst Census: Women Board Directors global, as the call for gender equality on boards grows worldwide. Created in partnership with The Data Morphosis Group, the new and expanded Census focuses on women’s share of board seats at stock market index companies across three regions and 20 countries, including the United States, Canada, Europe (14 countries), and Asia-Pacific (Australia, Hong Kong, India, and Japan).

Among the findings:

  • North America: Women hold 19.2% of S&P 500 board seats in the United States; and 20.8% of S&P/TSX 60 board seats in Canada.
  • Europe: Women’s share of board seats ranges from 7.9% in Portugal (PSI-20 index) to 18.5% in Germany (DAX index) to 22.8% in the United Kingdom (FTSE 100 index) to 35.5% in Norway (OBX index).
  • Asia-Pacific: Women’s share of board seats ranges from 3.1% in Japan (TOPIX Core 30 index) to 9.5% in India (BSE 200 index) to 19.2% in Australia (S&P/ASX 200 index).

MPI Releases Detailed Data Profiles of Unauthorized Immigrants and Estimates of Deferred Action Populations for Top U.S. Counties

January 16, 2015 Comments off

MPI Releases Detailed Data Profiles of Unauthorized Immigrants and Estimates of Deferred Action Populations for Top U.S. Counties
Source: Migration Policy Institute

The Migration Policy Institute (MPI) today released data profiles of unauthorized immigrants in the 94 U.S. counties with the largest such populations, including detailed information on population size, countries of origin, recency of arrival, educational enrollment and attainment, health insurance coverage, poverty levels and potential eligibility for the two deferred action programs launched by the Obama administration.

The profiles for the 94 counties, which are home to approximately two-thirds of the 11.4 million unauthorized immigrants in the United States, are the latest addition to a unique data tool that offers detailed information on this population at national and state levels, including those potentially eligible for the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program or the recently announced Deferred Action for Parents of Americans and Lawful Permanent Residents (DAPA) program. Using an innovative MPI methodology that takes U.S. Census Bureau data and imputes legal status for noncitizens, the tool also provides estimates of the age, gender, parental and marital status, top languages spoken, labor force participation and home ownership rates for unauthorized immigrants.

The county profiles reveal that the top five counties with the largest populations potentially eligible for relief from deportation through DACA or DAPA — Los Angeles, CA; Harris, TX; Orange, CA; Cook, IL; and Dallas, TX — account for 1.1 million people, over one-fifth of the total potentially eligible population nationwide, which MPI estimates at 5.2 million.

Top 10 Migration Issues of 2014

January 15, 2015 Comments off

Top 10 Migration Issues of 2014
Source: Migration Policy Institute

From rising levels of humanitarian migration around the globe to President Obama’s action ordering deportation relief for millions of unauthorized immigrants in the United States and migration controls to halt the spread of Ebola from West Africa, 2014 was punctuated by a range of migration crises, important policy changes, and developments. In this edition of the Migration Information Source’s annual Top 10 migration issues of the year, Migration Policy Institute experts analyze these and other trends that occurred throughout 2014.

The Anatomy of Medical Research: US and International Comparisons

January 15, 2015 Comments off

The Anatomy of Medical Research: US and International Comparisons
Source: Journal of the American Medical Association

Importance
Medical research is a prerequisite of clinical advances, while health service research supports improved delivery, access, and cost. Few previous analyses have compared the United States with other developed countries.

Objectives
To quantify total public and private investment and personnel (economic inputs) and to evaluate resulting patents, publications, drug and device approvals, and value created (economic outputs).

Evidence Review
Publicly available data from 1994 to 2012 were compiled showing trends in US and international research funding, productivity, and disease burden by source and industry type. Patents and publications (1981-2011) were evaluated using citation rates and impact factors.

Findings
(1) Reduced science investment: Total US funding increased 6% per year (1994-2004), but rate of growth declined to 0.8% per year (2004-2012), reaching $117 billion (4.5%) of total health care expenditures. Private sources increased from 46% (1994) to 58% (2012). Industry reduced early-stage research, favoring medical devices, bioengineered drugs, and late-stage clinical trials, particularly for cancer and rare diseases. National Insitutes of Health allocations correlate imperfectly with disease burden, with cancer and HIV/AIDS receiving disproportionate support. (2) Underfunding of service innovation: Health services research receives $5.0 billion (0.3% of total health care expenditures) or only 1/20th of science funding. Private insurers ranked last (0.04% of revenue) and health systems 19th (0.1% of revenue) among 22 industries in their investment in innovation. An increment of $8 billion to $15 billion yearly would occur if service firms were to reach median research and development funding. (3) Globalization: US government research funding declined from 57% (2004) to 50% (2012) of the global total, as did that of US companies (50% to 41%), with the total US (public plus private) share of global research funding declining from 57% to 44%. Asia, particularly China, tripled investment from $2.6 billion (2004) to $9.7 billion (2012) preferentially for education and personnel. The US share of life science patents declined from 57% (1981) to 51% (2011), as did those considered most valuable, from 73% (1981) to 59% (2011).

Conclusions and Relevance
New investment is required if the clinical value of past scientific discoveries and opportunities to improve care are to be fully realized. Sources could include repatriation of foreign capital, new innovation bonds, administrative savings, patent pools, and public-private risk sharing collaborations. Given international trends, the United States will relinquish its historical international lead in the next decade unless such measures are undertaken.

National Academies Press — Most Downloaded Reports in 2014

January 13, 2015 Comments off
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