Archive for the ‘Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’ Category

Health Effects of Cut Gas Lines and Other Petroleum Product Release Incidents — Seven States, 2010–2012

July 14, 2015 Comments off

Health Effects of Cut Gas Lines and Other Petroleum Product Release Incidents — Seven States, 2010–2012
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC)

Large mass casualty gas explosions and catastrophic oil spills are widely reported and receive considerable regulatory attention. Smaller, less catastrophic petroleum product releases are less likely to receive publicity, although study of these incidents might help focus and prioritize prevention efforts. To describe the causes and health impacts of petroleum product release incidents (including gas explosions and oil spills), the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) analyzed 2010–2012 data from the National Toxic Substance Incidents Program (NTSIP). A total of 1,369 petroleum product release incidents were reported from seven states, resulting in 512 injuries and 36 deaths. Approximately one fourth of the incidents were associated with utilities, and approximately one fifth were associated with private vehicles or residences. Approximately 10% of petroleum product releases resulted from inadvertent damage to utility lines. Understanding the characteristics of acute petroleum product releases can aid the public and utility workers in the development of preventive strategies and reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with such releases.

Few teens use the most effective types of birth control

July 4, 2015 Comments off

Few teens use the most effective types of birth control
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Teen births continue to decline in the U.S., but still more than 273,000 infants were born to teens ages 15 to 19 in 2013. Childbearing during the teen years can carry health, economic, and social costs for mothers and their children.

The good news is that more teens are waiting to have sex, and of those who are sexually active, nearly 90 percent used birth control the last time they had sex. Data show that teens most often use condoms and birth control pills which, when not used consistently and correctly, are less effective for preventing pregnancy. According to this month’s Vital Signs report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, increasing access to Long-Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC) is one way to further reduce teen pregnancy.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2015

June 19, 2015 Comments off

Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2015
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC)

These guidelines for the treatment of persons who have or are at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were updated by CDC after consultation with a group of professionals knowledgeable in the field of STDs who met in Atlanta on April 30–May 2, 2013. The information in this report updates the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010 (MMWR Recomm Rep 2010;59 [No. RR–12]). These updated guidelines discuss 1) alternative treatment regimens for Neisseria gonorrhoeae; 2) the use of nucleic acid amplification tests for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis; 3) alternative treatment options for genital warts; 4) the role of Mycoplasma genitalium in urethritis/cervicitis and treatment-related implications; 5) updated HPV vaccine recommendations and counseling messages; 6) the management of persons who are transgender; 7) annual testing for hepatitis C in persons with HIV infection; 8) updated recommendations for diagnostic evaluation of urethritis; and 9) retesting to detect repeat infection. Physicians and other health-care providers can use these guidelines to assist in the prevention and treatment of STDs.

Approaches for Controlling Illicit Tobacco Trade — Nine Countries and the European Union

June 3, 2015 Comments off

Approaches for Controlling Illicit Tobacco Trade — Nine Countries and the European Union
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC)

An estimated 11.6% of the world cigarette market is illicit, representing more than 650 billion cigarettes a year and $40.5 billion in lost revenue (1). Illicit tobacco trade refers to any practice related to distributing, selling, or buying tobacco products that is prohibited by law, including tax evasion (sale of tobacco products without payment of applicable taxes), counterfeiting, disguising the origin of products, and smuggling (2). Illicit trade undermines tobacco prevention and control initiatives by increasing the accessibility and affordability of tobacco products, and reduces government tax revenue streams (2). The World Health Organization (WHO) Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products, signed by 54 countries, provides tools for addressing illicit trade through a package of regulatory and governing principles (2). As of May 2015, only eight countries had ratified or acceded to the illicit trade protocol, with an additional 32 needed for it to become international law (i.e., legally binding) (3). Data from multiple international sources were analyzed to evaluate the 10 most commonly used approaches for addressing illicit trade and to summarize differences in implementation across select countries and the European Union (EU). Although the WHO illicit trade protocol defines shared global standards for addressing illicit trade, countries are guided by their own legal and enforcement frameworks, leading to a diversity of approaches employed across countries. Continued adoption of the methods outlined in the WHO illicit trade protocol might improve the global capacity to reduce illicit trade in tobacco products.

See also: Use of Tobacco Tax Stamps to Prevent and Reduce Illicit Tobacco Trade — United States, 2014

Vital Signs: Hispanic Health

May 14, 2015 Comments off

Vital Signs: Hispanic Health
Source: CDC

Hispanics or Latinos are the largest racial/ethnic minority population in the US. Heart disease and cancer in Hispanics are the two leading causes of death, accounting for about 2 of 5 deaths, which is about the same for whites. Hispanics have lower deaths than whites from most of the 10 leading causes of death with three exceptions—more deaths from diabetes and chronic liver disease, and similar numbers of deaths from kidney diseases. Health risk can vary by Hispanic subgroup—for example, 66% more Puerto Ricans smoke than Mexicans. Health risk also depends partly on whether you were born in the US or another country. Hispanics are almost 3 times as likely to be uninsured as whites. Hispanics in the US are on average nearly 15 years younger than whites, so steps Hispanics take now to prevent disease can go a long way.

Stressful Life Events Experienced by Women in the Year Before Their Infants’ Births — United States, 2000–2010

May 4, 2015 Comments off

Stressful Life Events Experienced by Women in the Year Before Their Infants’ Births — United States, 2000–2010
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC)

Epidemiologic studies suggest that prenatal stress is associated with preterm birth, low birth weight (1–3), and peripartum anxiety and depressive symptoms (4). The most recent population-based study, assessing trends in stress experienced in the year before an infant’s birth, used 1990–1995 data from 11 states participating in the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) (5). That study found that 64% of women surveyed reported experiencing at least one stressful life event (SLE), although the prevalence declined slightly over the study period. PRAMS data for 2000–2010 were used to examine more recent trends and to determine if the prevalence of SLEs has continued to decrease in the past decade. Additionally, 2010 data were used to determine the extent that maternal demographics and state of residence are associated with SLEs. This report describes the results of those analyses, which found that most women in the sample reported experiencing ≥1 SLEs in the year before their infant’s birth, although the prevalence of experiencing SLEs decreased during 2000–2010. In 2010, based on data from 27 states, 70.2% of women reported ≥1 SLEs. The mean number of SLEs was 1.81, ranging from 1.41 in New York City to 2.26 in Oklahoma. SLEs were most frequently financial. Prevalence of SLEs varied by PRAMS reporting site and maternal demographics. Younger, less educated, unmarried, and Medicaid-covered women had the highest prevalence of SLEs. Public health practitioners and clinicians can use the information on trends and risk factors for SLEs to determine the likelihood that pregnant women might benefit from screening for stressors during pregnancy.

Drug-poisoning Deaths Involving Heroin: United States, 2000–2013

April 23, 2015 Comments off

Drug-poisoning Deaths Involving Heroin: United States, 2000–2013
Source: National Center for Health Statistics

Key findings
Data from the National Vital Statistics System (Mortality)

  • From 2000 through 2013, the age-adjusted rate for drug-poisoning deaths involving heroin nearly quadrupled from 0.7 deaths per 100,000 in 2000 to 2.7 deaths per 100,000 in 2013. Most of the increase occurred after 2010.
  • The number of drug-poisoning deaths involving heroin was nearly four times higher for men (6,525 deaths) than women (1,732 deaths) in 2013.
  • In 2000, non-Hispanic black persons aged 45–64 had the highest rate for drug-poisoning deaths involving heroin (2.0 per 100,000). In 2013, non-Hispanic white persons aged 18–44 had the highest rate (7.0 per 100,000).
  • From 2000 through 2013, the age-adjusted rate for drug-poisoning deaths involving heroin increased for all regions of the country, with the greatest increase seen in the Midwest.

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