Archive

Archive for the ‘disabilities’ Category

Employment Services and Supports Available to Veterans with Disabilities Through the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and Other Federal Agencies

April 19, 2014 Comments off

Employment Services and Supports Available to Veterans with Disabilities Through the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and Other Federal Agencies (PDF)
Source: Mathematica Center for Studying Disability Policy

The number of military personnel incurring disability in current military conflicts is the highest in over three decades. Since 2001, over 1.6 million service members, Reservists, and National Guard have been deployed to Iraq, Afghanistan, and other Middle Eastern nations. As noted by Lew et al. (2007), advances in medical innovations and body armor have enabled 90 percent of soldiers to survive injuries that would have likely been fatal in previous wars, but many service personnel survive with serious physical and psychological injuries.

The Federal government has recently responded to the growing number of service members with disabilities in several ways. President Obama has signed executive orders to improve federal government hiring of veterans and to require federal agencies to contract with veteran owned agencies. The 2011 American Jobs Act added tax credits to employers hiring veterans with service co nnected disabilities. That same year, the Veterans Opportunity to Work (VOW) to Hire Heroes Act was passed and signed into law . The VOW Act provides additional tax credit and training funds for unemployed veterans to prepare them for employment.

Many federal agencies will be involved in the implementation of these initiatives. Employment services and supports for veterans with disabilities is primarily provided by the VA, but the Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Labor (DoL) also operate program s specifically targeting veterans with disabilities. Veterans also access other employment service programs that target all individuals with disabilities or persons in need specialized support to obtain employment.

T his report provides an overview of Federally – funded employment services and supports that can be accessed by veterans with disabilities, including those designed to meet the needs of the disabled veteran population specifically, the veteran population in general, and the disability population in general. The purpose is to present a comprehensive cataloging and review of all employment resources of which veterans with disabilities could access in pursuit of wage and self – employment.

About these ads

New From the GAO

April 9, 2014 Comments off

New GAO Reports and Testimonies
Source: Government Accountability Office

Reports

1. Defense Infrastructure: In-Kind Projects Initiated during Fiscal Years 2011 and 2012. GAO-14-280R, April 9.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-280R

2. Mine Safety: Basis for Proposed Exposure Limit on Respirable Coal Mine Dust and Possible Approaches for Lowering Dust Levels. GAO-14-345, April 9.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-345
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/662411.pdf

Testimonies

1. Health Care Workforce: Federal Investments in Training and the Availability of Data for Workforce Projections, by Linda T. Kohn, director, health care, before the Subcommittee on Primary Health and Aging, Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. GAO-14-510T, April 9.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-510T
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/662392.pdf

2. VA Health Care: Ongoing and Past Work Identified Access Problems That May Delay Needed Medical Care for Veterans, by Debra A. Draper, director, health care, before the House Committee on Veterans’ Affairs. GAO-14-509T, April 9.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-509T
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/662396.pdf

3. Social Security Disability Programs: SSA Could Take Steps to Improve Its Assessment of Continued Eligibility, by Daniel Bertoni, director, education, workforce, and income security, before the Subcommittee on Energy Policy, Health Care, and Entitlements, House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform. GAO-14-492T, April 9.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-492T
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/662399.pdf

Environmental and State-Level Regulatory Factors Affect the Incidence of Autism and Intellectual Disability

March 26, 2014 Comments off

Environmental and State-Level Regulatory Factors Affect the Incidence of Autism and Intellectual Disability
Source: PLoS Computational Biology

Many factors affect the risks for neurodevelopmental maladies such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID). To compare environmental, phenotypic, socioeconomic and state-policy factors in a unified geospatial framework, we analyzed the spatial incidence patterns of ASD and ID using an insurance claims dataset covering nearly one third of the US population. Following epidemiologic evidence, we used the rate of congenital malformations of the reproductive system as a surrogate for environmental exposure of parents to unmeasured developmental risk factors, including toxins. Adjusted for gender, ethnic, socioeconomic, and geopolitical factors, the ASD incidence rates were strongly linked to population-normalized rates of congenital malformations of the reproductive system in males (an increase in ASD incidence by 283% for every percent increase in incidence of malformations, 95% CI: [91%, 576%], p<6×10−5). Such congenital malformations were barely significant for ID (94% increase, 95% CI: [1%, 250%], p = 0.0384). Other congenital malformations in males (excluding those affecting the reproductive system) appeared to significantly affect both phenotypes: 31.8% ASD rate increase (CI: [12%, 52%], p<6×10−5), and 43% ID rate increase (CI: [23%, 67%], p<6×10−5). Furthermore, the state-mandated rigor of diagnosis of ASD by a pediatrician or clinician for consideration in the special education system was predictive of a considerable decrease in ASD and ID incidence rates (98.6%, CI: [28%, 99.99%], p = 0.02475 and 99% CI: [68%, 99.99%], p = 0.00637 respectively). Thus, the observed spatial variability of both ID and ASD rates is associated with environmental and state-level regulatory factors; the magnitude of influence of compound environmental predictors was approximately three times greater than that of state-level incentives. The estimated county-level random effects exhibited marked spatial clustering, strongly indicating existence of as yet unidentified localized factors driving apparent disease incidence. Finally, we found that the rates of ASD and ID at the county level were weakly but significantly correlated (Pearson product-moment correlation 0.0589, p = 0.00101), while for females the correlation was much stronger (0.197, p<2.26×10−16).

See: Autism, intellectual disability incidence linked with environmental factors (Science Daily)

Characteristics of Noninstitutionalized DI and SSI Program Participants, 2010 Update (released February 2014)

March 10, 2014 Comments off

Characteristics of Noninstitutionalized DI and SSI Program Participants, 2010 Update
Source: Social Security Administration

The Social Security Administration (SSA) produces several statistical publications based on the data used to administer the Disability Insurance (DI) and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) programs. Although these data are extensive, they do not capture many of the economic and demographic characteristics of program participants. To better understand those beneficiary populations, SSA matches information from its administrative records with data collected by the Census Bureau in the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). DeCesaro and Hemmeter (2008) contains tables describing the characteristics of DI and SSI program participants based on 2002 data. This note updates those tables with data for 2010.

How Much of the Growth in Disability Insurance Stems From Demographic Changes?

March 4, 2014 Comments off

How Much of the Growth in Disability Insurance Stems From Demographic Changes?
Source: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities

The Disability Insurance (DI) program — a vital part of Social Security that pays modest benefits to people who can no longer support themselves by working due to severe medical impairments — has grown rapidly in recent decades. The program’s chief actuary has consistently stated that demographic changes account for the bulk of the program’s growth, while some other analyses appear to tell a different story. These differences largely reflect variations in the measure of DI growth that the studies use, the factors considered, and the time period analyzed. Thus, there is no single correct answer to “how much of DI’s growth stems from demographic factors?”

Crime Against Persons With Disabilities, 2009–2012 – Statistical Tables

February 27, 2014 Comments off

Crime Against Persons With Disabilities, 2009–2012 – Statistical Tables
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics

Presents estimates of nonfatal violent victimization (rape, sexual assault, robbery, aggravated and simple assault) against persons age 12 or older with disabilities from 2009 to 2012. Findings are based on the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). The report compares the victimization of persons with and without disabilities living in noninstitutionalized households, including distributions by age, race, sex, victims’ types of disabilities, and other victim characteristics. Data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS) and the 2000 U.S. Standard Population were used to estimate age-adjusted victimization rates.

Highlights:

  • Persons age 12 or older who had disabilities experienced 1.3 million nonfatal violent crimes in 2012.
  • In 2012, the age-adjusted rate of violent victimization for persons with disabilities (60 per 1,000 persons with disabilities) was nearly three times the rate among persons without disabilities (22 per 1,000 persons without disabilities).
  • In 2012, the age-adjusted rate of violent victimization was higher for persons with disabilities than for those without disabilities for both males and females.
  • For each racial group measured, persons with disabilities had higher age-adjusted violent victimization rates than persons without disabilities in 2012.
  • In 2012, 52% of nonfatal violent crime against persons with disabilities involved victims who had multiple disability types.

CRS — Public Safety Officers’ Benefits (PSOB) Program

February 25, 2014 Comments off

Public Safety Officers’ Benefits (PSOB) Program (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via MSPB Watch)

The Public Safety Officers’ Benefits (PSOB) program provides three different types of benefits to public safety officers and their survivors: a death, a disability, and an education benefit. The PSOB program is administered by the Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Assistance’s (BJA’s), PSOB Office.

Disability Status as an Antecedent to Chronic Conditions: National Health Interview Survey, 2006–2012

February 24, 2014 Comments off

Disability Status as an Antecedent to Chronic Conditions: National Health Interview Survey, 2006–2012
Source: Preventing Chronic Disease (CDC)

Introduction
A strong relationship exists between disability and poor health. This relationship could exist as a result of disabilities emerging from chronic conditions; conversely, people with disabilities may be at increased risk of developing chronic conditions. Studying health in relation to age of disability onset can illuminate the extent to which disability may be a risk factor for future poor health.

Methods
We used data from the 2006–2012 National Health Interview Survey and conducted weighted logistic regression analyses to compare chronic conditions in adults with lifelong disabilities (n = 2,619) and adults with no limitations (n = 122,395).

Results
After adjusting for sociodemographic differences, adults with lifelong disabilities had increased odds of having the following chronic conditions compared with adults with no limitations: coronary heart disease (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.33–3.66) cancer (AOR = 1.61; 95% CI, 1.34–1.94), diabetes (AOR = 2.57; 95% CI, 2.10–3.15), obesity (AOR = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.63–2.01), and hypertension (AOR = 2.18; 95% CI, 1.94–2.45). Subpopulations of people with lifelong disabilities (ie, physical, mental, intellectual/developmental, and sensory) experienced similar increased odds for chronic conditions compared with people with no limitations.

Conclusion
Adults with lifelong disabilities were more likely to have chronic conditions than adults with no limitations, indicating that disability likely increases risk of developing poor health. This distinction is critical in understanding how to prevent health risks for people with disabilities. Health promotion efforts that target people living with a disability are needed.

CRS — Veterans’ Benefits: The Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Program

February 13, 2014 Comments off

Veterans’ Benefits: The Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Program (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via MSPB Watch)

Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment for veterans (VR&E) is an entitlement program that provides job training and related services to veterans with service-connected disabilities. In cases where a disabled veteran is not able to work, the VR&E program provides independent living (IL) services to help the veteran achieve the highest possible quality of life. The VR&E program is administered by the Veterans Benefit Administration (VBA), part of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA).

To be entitled to VR&E services, a veteran must have been discharged under conditions other than dishonorable and be found to have either (1) a 20% service-connected disability and an employment handicap, or (2) a 10% service-connected disability and a serious employment handicap. After a veteran is found to be entitled to VR&E, a counselor helps the veteran identify a suitable employment goal and determine what services will be necessary to achieve that goal.

CRS — The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities – Issues in the U.S. Ratification Debate

February 11, 2014 Comments off

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities – Issues in the U.S. Ratification Debate (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via MSPB Watch)

During the 113th Congress, the Senate might consider providing its advice and consent to ratification of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD, or the Convention). CRPD, which has been ratified or acceded to by 138 countries, is a multilateral agreement that addresses the rights of disabled persons. Its purpose is to promote, protect, and ensure the full and equal enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by persons with disabilities.

Many U.S. policymakers, including President Obama and some Members of Congress, agree that existing U.S. laws and policies are compatible with CRPD. In fact, some CRPD provisions appear to be modeled after U.S. disability laws. The United States has historically recognized the rights of individuals with disabilities through various laws and policies, including the Americans with Disabilities Act.

CRS — The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), Part B – Key Statutory and Regulatory Provisions

February 11, 2014 Comments off

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), Part B – Key Statutory and Regulatory Provisions (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via MSPB Watch)

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is both a grants statute and a civil rights statute. As a grants statute, IDEA provides federal funding for the education of children with disabilities and requires, as a condition for the receipt of such funds, the provision of a free appropriate public education (FAPE) (i.e., specially designed instruction provided at no cost to parents that meets the needs of a child with a disability). In FY2013, $12 billion was appropriated for IDEA. In 2011, 6.5 million children ages 3 through 21 received educational services under IDEA.

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is both a grants statute and a civil rights statute. As a grants statute, IDEA provides federal funding for the education of children with disabilities and requires, as a condition for the receipt of such funds, the provision of a free appropriate public education (FAPE) (i.e., specially designed instruction provided at no cost to parents that meets the needs of a child with a disability). In FY2013, $12 billion was appropriated for IDEA. In 2011, 6.5 million children ages 3 through 21 received educational services under IDEA.

Intimate partner violence among women with mental health-related activity limitations: a Canadian population based study

February 3, 2014 Comments off

Intimate partner violence among women with mental health-related activity limitations: a Canadian population based study
Source: BMC Public Health

Background
There is strong evidence that women with serious or chronic mental illness experience higher rates of violence than women in the general population. Our objective was to examine the risk of intimate partner violence (IPV), a form of violence that is often recurrent and linked to negative physical and psychological consequences, among a representative sample of non-institutionalized women with activity limitations (ALs) due to a mental health condition.

Methods
Data from the 2009 General Social Survey were used, a national, population-based, cross-sectional survey. The sample included 6851 women reporting contact with a current or former partner in the previous five years, of whom 322 (4.7%) reported a mental health-related AL always/often or sometimes.

Results
The prevalence of any type of IPV was highest among women with mental health-related ALs always/often (54.4%), followed by women reporting ALs sometimes (49.9%), and those reporting no ALs (18.3%, p < 0.0001). The same pattern was observed for emotional (51.1%, 45.5%, 16.3%, p < 0.0001) and financial IPV (18.1%, 9.5%, 4.0%, p < 0.0001). For physical/sexual violence, rates were similar among women reporting mental health-related ALs always/often and sometimes, but were lower among those reporting no ALs (20.2%, 20.9%, 5.9%, p < 0.0001). In a logistic regression analysis the odds of having experienced any IPV remained greater for women reporting ALs always/often (OR = 3.65; 95% CI: 2.10, 6.32) and sometimes (OR = 3.20; 95% CI: 2.15, 4.75) than those reporting no ALs. Several social capital variables, including perceptions of having experienced discrimination, a weak sense of belonging in their local community, and low trust toward family members and strangers were also significantly associated with having experienced IPV.

Conclusion
Findings suggest that women with mental health-related ALs may be at increased risk of IPV. Health and social service providers may need, therefore, to better target prevention and intervention initiatives to this population.

African Americans: Description of Social Security and Supplemental Security Income Participation and Benefit Levels Using the American Community Survey

February 3, 2014 Comments off

African Americans: Description of Social Security and Supplemental Security Income Participation and Benefit Levels Using the American Community Survey
Source: Social Security Administration

African Americans encounter significant economic disadvantages, making them a critical focus for social insurance programs. Examining how the African American population uses Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI, or Social Security) benefits and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payments clarifies the role these programs play in supporting at-risk populations.

Earlier research has explored various facets of the relationship between Social Security and African Americans. For instance, many studies investigate African Americans’ low retirement benefit receipt rates relative to whites (Abbott 1977, 1980; Thompson 1975; Huntley 1979; Parsons 1980; Gibson 1987, 1991, 1994; Farley 1988; Hayward, Friedman, and Chen 1996; O’Rand 1996; Gendell and Siegel 1996; Choi 1997; Hendley and Bilimoria 1999; Gustman and Steinmeier 2004; Bridges and Choudhury 2007, 2009; Favreault 2010). Others examine the prominent role of children’s benefits for African Americans (Newcomb 2003/2004; Tamborini, Cupito, and Shoffner 2011). This analysis contributes to that body of research by using a relatively new, publicly available, and comprehensive data source, the American Community Survey (ACS), to document the demographic and economic characteristics of African American OASDI beneficiaries and SSI recipients. It is designed to lay the groundwork for future detailed analyses of how African Americans interact with Social Security and related programs.

In this note, we first discuss the strengths of the ACS and the methodology of this analysis. Next, we present the demographic and economic characteristics of the African American population in the 2009 ACS. Then, we present ACS data on OASDI and SSI participation and benefit levels, comparing African American participants with overall participants in three age distributions: the full age range for which benefit statistics are available in the ACS (15 or older), working age (18–61), and retirement age (62 or older).

CRS — Medicaid Coverage of Long-Term Services and Supports

January 2, 2014 Comments off

Medicaid Coverage of Long-Term Services and Supports (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via Federation of American Scientists)

Long-term services and supports (LTSS) refer to a broad range of health and health-related services and supports needed by individuals who lack the capacity for self-care due to a physical, cognitive, or mental disability or condition. Often the individual’s disability or condition results in the need for hands-on assistance or supervision over an extended period of time. Medicaid plays a key role in covering LTSS to aged and disabled individuals. As the largest single payer of LTSS in the United States, federal and state Medicaid spending accounted for $133.5 billion or 42.1% of all LTSS expenditures in 2011 ($317.1 billion). LTSS are also a substantial portion of spending within the Medicaid program relative to the population served, accounting for over one third (35.6%) of all Medicaid spending. Of the 66 million total enrolled Medicaid population, an estimated 4.2 million (or 6.4%) Medicaid beneficiaries received LTSS in 2010.

Variation Found in Rates of Restraint and Seclusion Among Students With a Disability

December 18, 2013 Comments off

Variation Found in Rates of Restraint and Seclusion Among Students With a Disability
Source: The Carsey Institute (University of New Hampshire)

The restraint and seclusion of individuals—practices usually associated with highly restrictive environments—are extreme responses to student behavior used in some public schools. In this brief, authors Douglas Gagnon, Marybeth Mattingly, and Vincent Connelly report that restraint and seclusion are used much more frequently on students with a disability than on students without a disability. In addition, the majority of U.S. school districts does not restrain or seclude students with a disability; 59.3 percent of districts report no instances of restraint, while 82.5 percent do not report a single instance of seclusion. However, a small proportion of districts report exceedingly high rates. The authors also find that low-poverty, low-diversity school districts use restraint and seclusion on students with a disability more than twice as often as high-poverty, high-diversity districts. The authors conclude that, overall, the relationships between restraint and seclusion rates, and disability type and school characteristics, warrant further research. This brief draws on data from the 2009–2010 Civil Rights Data Collection and the 2009 Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates.

Long-Term Care Services in the United States: 2013 Overview

December 16, 2013 Comments off

Long-Term Care Services in the United States: 2013 Overview (PDF)
Source: National Center for Health Statistics

Long-term care services include a broad range of services that meet the needs of frail older people and other adults with functional limitations. Long-Term care services provided by paid, regulated providers are a significant component of personal health care spending in the United States. This report presents descriptive results from the first wave of the National Study of Long-Term Care Providers (NSLTCP), which was conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Data presented in this report are drawn from five sources: NCHS surveys of adult day services centers and residential care communities, and administrative records obtained from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services on home health agencies, hospices, and nursing homes. This report provides information on the supply, organizational characteristics, staffing, and services offered by providers of long-term care services; and the demographic, health, and functional composition of users of these services. Service users include residents of nursing homes and residential care communities, patients of home health agencies and hospices, and participants of adult day services centers.

Spinal cord injury: as many as 500 000 people suffer each year

December 9, 2013 Comments off

Spinal cord injury: as many as 500 000 people suffer each year
Source: World Health Organization

As many as 500 000 people suffer a spinal cord injury each year. People with spinal cord injuries are 2 to 5 times more likely to die prematurely, with worse survival rates in low- and middle-income countries. The new WHO report, “International perspectives on spinal cord injury”, summarizes the best available evidence on the causes, prevention, care and lived experience of people with spinal cord injury.

Males are most at risk of spinal cord injury between the ages of 20-29 years and 70 years and older, while females are most at risk between the ages of 15-19 years and 60 years and older. Studies report male to female ratios of at least 2:1 among adults.

+ International perspectives on spinal cord injury

Critical Issues in the Identification of Gifted Students With Co-Existing Disabilities: The Twice-Exceptional

December 4, 2013 Comments off

Critical Issues in the Identification of Gifted Students With Co-Existing Disabilities: The Twice-Exceptional
Source: Sage Open

Federal law ensures all students with disabilities the right to a Free, Appropriate Public Education (FAPE). However, current policies governing a student’s eligibility for services may contribute to the underidentification of gifted children with co-existing disabilities—the Twice-Exceptional. The emphasis on below-grade-level (or lower) performance, without regard to ability or potential weaknesses, misses twice-exceptional students. Those who perform at grade level, by using advanced conceptual abilities and hard work to compensate, may still require interventions and accommodations to manage increasing educational demands. Otherwise, college and even high school graduation may be out of reach. This article reviews changing laws and policies, explores case studies of twice-exceptional students missed, and examines the diagnosis of twice-exceptionality through comprehensive assessment. Appropriate best practices for the identification of twice-exceptional learners, maintenance of their civil rights, and provision of FAPE are offered for educators, parents, advocates, and legislators as federal, state, and district laws/policies evolve.

Growth in New Disabled-Worker Entitlements, 1970–2008

November 19, 2013 Comments off

Growth in New Disabled-Worker Entitlements, 1970–2008
Source: Social Security Administration

We find that three factors—(1) population growth, (2) the growth in the proportion of women insured for disability, and (3) the movement of the large baby boom generation into disability-prone ages—explain 90 percent of the growth in new disabled-worker entitlements over the 36-year subperiod (1972–2008). The remaining 10 percent is the part attributable to the disability “incidence rate.” Looking at the two subperiods (1972–1990 and 1990–2008), unadjusted measures appear to show faster growth in the incidence rate in the later period than in the earlier one. This apparent speedup disappears once we account for the changing demographic structure of the insured population. Although the adjusted growth in the incidence rate accounts for 17 percent of the growth in disability entitlements in the earlier subperiod, it accounts for only 6 percent of the growth in the more recent half. Demographic factors explain the remaining 94 percent of growth over the 1990–2008 period.

Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering (updated)

November 19, 2013 Comments off

Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering
Source: National Science Foundation

Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering provides statistical information about the participation of women, minorities, and persons with disabilities in science and engineering education and employment. A formal report, now in the form of a digest, is issued every 2 years.

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 784 other followers