Archive

Archive for the ‘Preventing Chronic Disease (CDC)’ Category

Restaurant Owners’ Perspectives on a Voluntary Program to Recognize Restaurants for Offering Reduced-Size Portions, Los Angeles County, 2012

April 8, 2014 Comments off

Restaurant Owners’ Perspectives on a Voluntary Program to Recognize Restaurants for Offering Reduced-Size Portions, Los Angeles County, 2012
Source: Preventing Chronic Disease (CDC)

Introduction
Reducing the portion size of food and beverages served at restaurants has emerged as a strategy for addressing the obesity epidemic; however, barriers and facilitators to achieving this goal are not well characterized.

Methods
In fall 2012, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health conducted semistructured interviews with restaurant owners to better understand contextual factors that may impede or facilitate participation in a voluntary program to recognize restaurants for offering reduced-size portions.

Results
Interviews were completed with 18 restaurant owners (representing nearly 350 restaurants). Analyses of qualitative data revealed 6 themes related to portion size: 1) perceived customer demand is central to menu planning; 2) multiple portion sizes are already being offered for at least some food items; 3) numerous logistical barriers exist for offering reduced-size portions; 4) restaurant owners have concerns about potential revenue losses from offering reduced-size portions; 5) healthful eating is the responsibility of the customer; and 6) a few owners want to be socially responsible industry leaders.

Conclusion
A program to recognize restaurants for offering reduced-size portions may be a feasible approach in Los Angeles County. These findings may have applications for jurisdictions interested in engaging restaurants as partners in reducing the obesity epidemic.

About these ads

Relationships Between Housing and Food Insecurity, Frequent Mental Distress, and Insufficient Sleep Among Adults in 12 US States, 2009

March 18, 2014 Comments off

Relationships Between Housing and Food Insecurity, Frequent Mental Distress, and Insufficient Sleep Among Adults in 12 US States, 2009
Source: Preventing Chronic Disease (CDC)

Introduction
Housing insecurity and food insecurity may be psychological stressors associated with insufficient sleep. Frequent mental distress may mediate the relationships between these variables. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between housing insecurity and food insecurity, frequent mental distress, and insufficient sleep.

Methods
We analyzed data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in 12 states. Housing insecurity and food insecurity were defined as being worried or stressed “sometimes,” “usually,” or “always” during the previous 12 months about having enough money to pay rent or mortgage or to buy nutritious meals.

Results
Of 68,111 respondents, 26.4% reported frequent insufficient sleep, 28.5% reported housing insecurity, 19.3% reported food insecurity, and 10.8% reported frequent mental distress. The prevalence of frequent insufficient sleep was significantly greater among those who reported housing insecurity (37.7% vs 21.6%) or food insecurity (41.1% vs 22.9%) than among those who did not. The prevalence of frequent mental distress was also significantly greater among those reporting housing insecurity (20.1% vs 6.8%) and food insecurity (23.5% vs 7.7%) than those who did not. The association between housing insecurity or food insecurity and frequent insufficient sleep remained significant after adjustment for other sociodemographic variables and frequent mental distress.

Conclusion
Sleep health and mental health are embedded in the social context. Research is needed to assess whether interventions that reduce housing insecurity and food insecurity will also improve sleep health and mental health.

Disability Status as an Antecedent to Chronic Conditions: National Health Interview Survey, 2006–2012

February 24, 2014 Comments off

Disability Status as an Antecedent to Chronic Conditions: National Health Interview Survey, 2006–2012
Source: Preventing Chronic Disease (CDC)

Introduction
A strong relationship exists between disability and poor health. This relationship could exist as a result of disabilities emerging from chronic conditions; conversely, people with disabilities may be at increased risk of developing chronic conditions. Studying health in relation to age of disability onset can illuminate the extent to which disability may be a risk factor for future poor health.

Methods
We used data from the 2006–2012 National Health Interview Survey and conducted weighted logistic regression analyses to compare chronic conditions in adults with lifelong disabilities (n = 2,619) and adults with no limitations (n = 122,395).

Results
After adjusting for sociodemographic differences, adults with lifelong disabilities had increased odds of having the following chronic conditions compared with adults with no limitations: coronary heart disease (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.33–3.66) cancer (AOR = 1.61; 95% CI, 1.34–1.94), diabetes (AOR = 2.57; 95% CI, 2.10–3.15), obesity (AOR = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.63–2.01), and hypertension (AOR = 2.18; 95% CI, 1.94–2.45). Subpopulations of people with lifelong disabilities (ie, physical, mental, intellectual/developmental, and sensory) experienced similar increased odds for chronic conditions compared with people with no limitations.

Conclusion
Adults with lifelong disabilities were more likely to have chronic conditions than adults with no limitations, indicating that disability likely increases risk of developing poor health. This distinction is critical in understanding how to prevent health risks for people with disabilities. Health promotion efforts that target people living with a disability are needed.

From Menu to Mouth: Opportunities for Sodium Reduction in Restaurants

January 24, 2014 Comments off

From Menu to Mouth: Opportunities for Sodium Reduction in Restaurants
Source: Preventing Chronic Disease (CDC)

Restaurant foods can be a substantial source of sodium in the American diet. According to the Institute of Medicine, the significant contribution made by restaurants and food service menu items to Americans’ sodium intake warrants targeted attention. Public health practitioners are uniquely poised to support sodium-reduction efforts in restaurants and help drive demand for lower-sodium products through communication and collaboration with restaurant and food service professionals and through incentives for restaurants. This article discusses the role of the public health practitioner in restaurant sodium reduction and highlights select strategies that have been taken by state and local jurisdictions to support this effort.

Monitoring Progress in Population Health: Trends in Premature Death Rates

January 7, 2014 Comments off

Monitoring Progress in Population Health: Trends in Premature Death Rates
Source: Preventing Chronic Disease (CDC)

Introduction
Trends in population health outcomes can be monitored to evaluate the performance of population health systems at the national, state, and local levels. The objective of this study was to compare and contrast 4 measures for assessing progress in population health improvement by using age-adjusted premature death rates as a summary measure of the overall health outcomes in the United States and in all 50 states.

Methods
To evaluate the performance of statewide population health systems during the past 20 years, we used 4 measures of age-adjusted premature (<75 years of age) death rates: current rates (2009), baseline trends (1990s), follow-up trends (2000s), and changes in trends from baseline to the follow-up periods (ie, “bending the curve”).

Results
Current premature death rates varied by approximately twofold, with the lowest rate in Minnesota (268 deaths per 100,000) and the highest rate in Mississippi (482 deaths per 100,000). Rates improved the most in New York during the baseline period (−3.05% per year) and in New Jersey during the follow-up period (−2.87% per year), whereas Oklahoma ranked last in trends during both periods (−0.30%/y, baseline; +0.18%/y, follow-up). Trends improved the most in Connecticut, bending the curve downward by −1.03%; trends worsened the most in New Mexico, bending the curve upward by 1.21%.

Discussion
Current premature death rates, recent trends, and changes in trends vary by state in the United States. Policy makers can use these measures to evaluate the long-term population health impact of broad health care, behavioral, social, and economic investments in population health.

The Physical and Mental Health of Head Start Staff: The Pennsylvania Head Start Staff Wellness Survey, 2012

November 1, 2013 Comments off

The Physical and Mental Health of Head Start Staff: The Pennsylvania Head Start Staff Wellness Survey, 2012
Source: Preventing Chronic Disease (CDC)

Introduction
Despite attention to the health of low-income children in Head Start, little is known about the health of adults working for the program. The objective of our study was to compare the physical and mental health of women working in Pennsylvania Head Start programs with the health of US women who have similar sociodemographic characteristics.

Methods
We used data from a web-based survey in 2012 in which 2,199 of 3,375 (65.2%) staff in 66 Pennsylvania Head Start programs participated. For the 2,122 female respondents, we determined the prevalence of fair or poor health status, frequent (≥14 d/mo) unhealthy days, frequent (≥10 d/y) work absences due to illness, diagnosed depression, and 3 or more of 6 physical health conditions. We compared these prevalences with those found in 2 national samples of employed women of similar age, education, race/ethnicity, and marital status.

Results
Among Head Start staff, 85.7% were non-Hispanic white, 62.4% were married, and 60.3% had completed college. The prevalence (% [95% confidence interval]) of several health indicators was higher in Head Start staff than in the national samples: fair or poor health (14.6% [13.1%–16.1%] vs 5.1% [4.5%–5.6%]), frequent unhealthy days (28.3% [26.3%–30.2%] vs 14.5% [14.1%–14.9%]), diagnosed depression (23.5% [21.7%–25.3%] vs 17.6% [17.1%–18.0%]), and 3 or more physical health conditions (21.8% [20.0%–23.6%] vs 12.6% [11.7%–13.5%]).

Conclusion
Women working with children in Head Start programs have poorer physical and mental health than do US women who have similar sociodemographic characteristics.

Disability, Health, and Multiple Chronic Conditions Among People Eligible for Both Medicare and Medicaid, 2005–2010

September 30, 2013 Comments off

Disability, Health, and Multiple Chronic Conditions Among People Eligible for Both Medicare and Medicaid, 2005–2010
Source: Preventing Chronic Disease (CDC)

Introduction
People who are eligible for both Medicare and Medicaid (dual eligibles) and who have disabilities and multiple chronic conditions (MCC) present challenges for treatment, preventive services, and cost-effective access to care within the US health system. We sought to better understand dual eligibles and their association with MCC, accounting for sociodemographic factors inclusive of functional disability category.

Methods
Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data for 2005 through 2010 were stratified by ages 18 to 64 and 65 or older to account for unique subsets of dual eligibles. Prevalence of MCC was calculated for those with physical disabilities, physical plus cognitive disabilities, and all others, accounting for sociodemographic and health-related factors. Adjusted odds for having MCC were calculated by using logistic regression.

Results
Of dual eligibles aged 18 to 64, 53% had MCC compared with 73.5% of those aged 65 or older. Sixty-five percent of all dual eligibles had 2 or more chronic conditions, and among dual eligibles aged 65 or older with physical disabilities and cognitive limitations, 35% had 4 or more, with hypertension and arthritis the most common conditions. Dual eligibles aged 18 to 64 who had a usual source of medical care had a 127% increased likelihood of having MCC compared with those who did not have a usual source of care.

Conclusion
Attention to disability can be a component to helping further understand the relationship between health and chronic conditions for dual eligible populations and other segments of our society with complex health and medical needs.

Radon Control Activities for Lung Cancer Prevention in National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Plans, 2005–2011

August 29, 2013 Comments off

Radon Control Activities for Lung Cancer Prevention in National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Plans, 2005–2011
Source: Preventing Chronic Disease (CDC)

Introduction
Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer among smokers and the leading cause among nonsmokers. The US Environmental Protection Agency recommends that every home be tested for radon. Comprehensive Cancer Control (CCC) programs develop cancer coalitions that coordinate funding and resources to focus on cancer activities that are recorded in cancer plans. Radon tests, remediation, and radon mitigation techniques are relatively inexpensive, but it is unclear whether coalitions recognize radon as an important carcinogen.

Methods
We reviewed 65 cancer plans created from 2005 through 2011 for the terms “radon,” “radiation,” or “lung.” Plan activities were categorized as radon awareness, home testing, remediation, supporting radon policy activities, or policy evaluation. We also reviewed each CCC program’s most recent progress report. Cancer plan content was reviewed to assess alignment with existing radon-specific policies in each state.

Results
Twenty-seven of the plans reviewed (42%) had radon-specific terminology. Improving awareness of radon was included in all 27 plans; also included were home testing (n = 21), remediation (n = 11), support radon policy activities (n = 13), and policy evaluation (n = 1). Three plans noted current engagement in radon activities. Thirty states had radon-specific laws; most (n = 21) were related to radon professional licensure. Eleven states had cancer plan activities that aligned with existing state radon laws.

Conclusion
Although several states have radon-specific policies, approximately half of cancer coalitions may not be aware of radon as a public health issue. CCC-developed cancer coalitions and plans should prioritize tobacco control to address lung cancer but should consider addressing radon through partnership with existing radon control programs.

Factors Predicting Physical Activity Among Children With Special Needs

August 28, 2013 Comments off

Factors Predicting Physical Activity Among Children With Special Needs
Source: Preventing Chronic Disease

Introduction
Obesity is especially prevalent among children with special needs. Both lack of physical activity and unhealthful eating are major contributing factors. The objective of our study was to investigate barriers to physical activity among these children.

Methods
We surveyed parents of the 171 children attending Vista Del Mar School in Los Angeles, a nonprofit school serving a socioeconomically diverse group of children with special needs from kindergarten through 12th grade. Parents were asked about their child’s and their own physical activity habits, barriers to their child’s exercise, and demographics. The response rate was 67%. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine predictors of children being physically active at least 3 hours per week.

Results
Parents reported that 45% of the children were diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 38% with autism, and 34% with learning disabilities; 47% of children and 56% of parents were physically active less than 3 hours per week. The top barriers to physical activity were reported as child’s lack of interest (43%), lack of developmentally appropriate programs (33%), too many behavioral problems (32%), and parents’ lack of time (29%). However, child’s lack of interest was the only parent-reported barrier independently associated with children’s physical activity. Meanwhile, children whose parents were physically active at least 3 hours per week were 4.2 times as likely to be physically active as children whose parents were less physically active (P = .01).

Conclusion
In this group of students with special needs, children’s physical activity was strongly associated with parental physical activity; parent-reported barriers may have had less direct effect. Further studies should examine the importance of parental physical activity among children with special needs.

A Binational Overview of Reproductive Health Outcomes Among US Hispanic and Mexican Women in the Border Region

August 25, 2013 Comments off

A Binational Overview of Reproductive Health Outcomes Among US Hispanic and Mexican Women in the Border Region
Source: Preventing Chronic Disease (CDC)

Introduction
The US–Mexico border region has 15 million residents and 300,000 births annually. Reproductive health concerns have been identified on both sides of the border, but comparable information about reproductive health is not available. The objective of this study was to compare reproductive health indicators among populations in this region.

Methods
We used 2009 US Hispanic and Mexican birth certificate data to compare births inside the border region, elsewhere within the border states, and in the United States and Mexico overall. We examined trends in total fertility and birth rates using birth data from 2000 through 2009 and intercensal population estimates.

Results
Among women in the border region, US women had more lifetime births than Mexican women in 2009 (2.69 births vs 2.15 births) and throughout the decade. Birth rates in the group aged 15 to 19 years were high in both the US (73.8/1,000) and Mexican (86.7/1,000) border regions. Late or no prenatal care was nearly twice as prevalent in the border regions as in the nonborder regions of border states. Low birth weight and preterm and early-term birth were more prevalent in the US border than in the Mexican border region; US border rates were higher and Mexican rates were lower than their corresponding nonborder and national rates. We found some variations within border states.

Conclusion
These findings constitute the first population-based information on the reproductive health of the entire Hispanic US–Mexico border population. Evidence of disparities warrants exploration at state and local levels. Teen pregnancy and inadequate prenatal care are shared problems in US–Mexico border communities and suggest an area for binational cooperation.

The Economic Impact of Smoke-Free Laws on Restaurants and Bars in 9 States

August 20, 2013 Comments off

The Economic Impact of Smoke-Free Laws on Restaurants and Bars in 9 States
Source: Preventing Chronic Disease (CDC)

Introduction
Smoke-free air laws in restaurants and bars protect patrons and workers from involuntary exposure to secondhand smoke, but owners often express concern that such laws will harm their businesses. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the association between local smoke-free air laws and economic outcomes in restaurants and bars in 8 states without statewide smoke-free air laws: Alabama, Indiana, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, South Carolina, Texas, and West Virginia. A secondary objective was to examine the economic impact of a 2010 statewide smoke-free restaurant and bar law in North Carolina.

Methods
Using quarterly data from 2000 through 2010, we estimated dynamic panel data models for employment and sales in restaurants and bars. The models controlled for smoke-free laws, general economic activity, cigarette sales, and seasonality. We included data from 216 smoke-free cities and counties in the analysis. During the study period, only North Carolina had a statewide law banning smoking in restaurants or bars. Separate models were estimated for each state.

Results
In West Virginia, smoke-free laws were associated with a significant increase of approximately 1% in restaurant employment. In the remaining 8 states, we found no significant association between smoke-free laws and employment or sales in restaurants and bars.

Conclusion
Results suggest that smoke-free laws did not have an adverse economic impact on restaurants or bars in any of the states studied; they provided a small economic benefit in 1 state. On the basis of these findings, we would not expect a statewide smoke-free law in Alabama, Indiana, Kentucky, Missouri, Mississippi, South Carolina, Texas, or West Virginia to have an adverse economic impact on restaurants or bars in those states.

Adult Caregivers in the United States: Characteristics and Differences in Well-being, by Caregiver Age and Caregiving Status

August 19, 2013 Comments off

Adult Caregivers in the United States: Characteristics and Differences in Well-being, by Caregiver Age and Caregiving Status
Source: Preventing Chronic Disease (CDC)

We examined the characteristics of adults providing regular care or assistance to friends or family members who have health problems, long-term illnesses, or disabilities (ie, caregivers). We used data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to examine caregiver characteristics, by age and caregiving status, and compare these characteristics with those of noncaregivers. Approximately 24.7% (95% confidence interval, 24.4%–25.0%) of respondents were caregivers. Compared with younger caregivers, older caregivers reported more fair or poor health and physical distress but more satisfaction with life and lower mental distress. Understanding the characteristics of caregivers can help enhance strategies that support their role in providing long-term care.

Preventable Hospitalizations and Emergency Department Visits for Angina, United States, 1995–2010

August 8, 2013 Comments off

Preventable Hospitalizations and Emergency Department Visits for Angina, United States, 1995–2010
Source: Preventing Chronic Disease (CDC)

Introduction
Preventable hospitalizations for angina have been decreasing since the late 1980s — most likely because of changes in guidance, physician coding practices, and reimbursement. We asked whether this national decline has continued and whether preventable emergency department visits for angina show a similar decline.

Methods
We used National Hospital Discharge Survey data from 1995 through 2010 and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey data from 1995 through 2009 to study preventable hospitalizations and emergency department visits, respectively. We calculated both crude and standardized rates for these visits according to technical specifications published by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, which uses population estimates from the US Census Bureau as the denominator for the rates.

Results
Crude hospitalization rates for angina declined from 1995–1998 to 2007–2010 for men and women in all 3 age groups (18–44, 45–64, and ≥65) and age- and sex-standardized rates declined in a linear fashion (P = .02). Crude rates for preventable emergency department visits for angina declined for men and women aged 65 or older from 1995–1998 to 2007–2009. Age- and sex-standardized rates for these visits showed a linear decline (P = .05).

Conclusion
We extend previous research by showing that preventable hospitalization rates for angina have continued to decline beyond the time studied previously. We also show that emergency department visits for the same condition have also declined during the past 15 years. Although these declines are probably due to changes in diagnostic practices in the hospitals and emergency departments, more studies are needed to fully understand the reasons behind this phenomenon.

Putting Chronic Disease on the Map: Building GIS Capacity in State and Local Health Departments

August 2, 2013 Comments off

Putting Chronic Disease on the Map: Building GIS Capacity in State and Local Health Departments
Source: Preventing Chronic Disease

Techniques based on geographic information systems (GIS) have been widely adopted and applied in the fields of infectious disease and environmental epidemiology; their use in chronic disease programs is relatively new. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention is collaborating with the National Association of Chronic Disease Directors and the University of Michigan to provide health departments with capacity to integrate GIS into daily operations, which support priorities for surveillance and prevention of chronic diseases. So far, 19 state and 7 local health departments participated in this project. On the basis of these participants’ experiences, we describe our training strategy and identify high-impact GIS skills that can be mastered and applied over a short time in support of chronic disease surveillance. We also describe the web-based resources in the Chronic Disease GIS Exchange that were produced on the basis of this training and are available to anyone interested in GIS and chronic disease (www.cdc.gov/DHDSP/maps/GISX). GIS offers diverse sets of tools that promise increased productivity for chronic disease staff of state and local health departments.

Trends in Health-Related Quality of Life Among Adolescents in the United States, 2001–2010

July 3, 2013 Comments off

Trends in Health-Related Quality of Life Among Adolescents in the United States, 2001–2010
Source: Preventing Chronic Disease (CDC)

Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measures are often used to track changes in population health, mostly among adults. Prompted by the recent US recession, we assessed trends in adolescent HRQOL by using cross-sectional data from the 2001–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Adolescents’ self-rated health and reported mental health declined significantly, especially among those in low-income families, but their physical health and activity limitation did not change. Because these HRQOL declines occurred at the end of the decade and especially among adolescents from low-income families, we conclude that these declines are consistent with recession effects and warrant further study.

Impact of a Hospital-Level Intervention to Reduce Heart Disease Overreporting on Leading Causes of Death

July 2, 2013 Comments off

Impact of a Hospital-Level Intervention to Reduce Heart Disease Overreporting on Leading Causes of Death
Source: Preventing Chronic Disease (CDC)

Introduction
The quality of cause-of-death reporting on death certificates affects the usefulness of vital statistics for public health action. Heart disease deaths are overreported in the United States. We evaluated the impact of an intervention to reduce heart disease overreporting on other leading causes of death.

Methods
A multicomponent intervention comprising training and communication with hospital staff was implemented during July through December 2009 at 8 New York City hospitals reporting excessive heart disease deaths. We compared crude, age-adjusted, and race/ethnicity-adjusted proportions of leading, underlying causes of death reported during death certification by intervention and nonintervention hospitals during preintervention (January–June 2009) and postintervention (January–June 2010) periods. We also examined trends in leading causes of death for 2000 through 2010.

Results
At intervention hospitals, heart disease deaths declined by 54% postintervention; other leading causes of death (ie, malignant neoplasms, influenza and pneumonia, cerebrovascular disease, and chronic lower respiratory diseases) increased by 48% to 232%. Leading causes of death at nonintervention hospitals changed by 6% or less. In the preintervention period, differences in leading causes of death between intervention and nonintervention hospitals persisted after controlling for race/ethnicity and age; in the postintervention period, age accounted for most differences observed between intervention and nonintervention hospitals. Postintervention, malignant neoplasms became the leading cause of premature death (ie, deaths among patients aged 35–74 y) at intervention hospitals.

Conclusion
A hospital-level intervention to reduce heart disease overreporting led to substantial changes to other leading causes of death, changing the leading cause of premature death. Heart disease overreporting is likely obscuring the true levels of cause-specific mortality.

Survey of New York City Resident Physicians on Cause-of-Death Reporting, 2010

July 2, 2013 Comments off

Survey of New York City Resident Physicians on Cause-of-Death Reporting, 2010
Source: Preventing Chronic Disease (CDC)

Introduction
Death certificates contain critical information for epidemiology, public health research, disease surveillance, and community health programs. In most teaching hospitals, resident physicians complete death certificates. The objective of this study was to examine the experiences and opinions of physician residents in New York City on the accuracy of the cause-of-death reporting system.

Methods
In May and June 2010, we conducted an anonymous, Internet-based, 32-question survey of all internal medicine, emergency medicine, and general surgery residency programs (n = 70) in New York City. We analyzed data by type of residency and by resident experience in reporting deaths. We defined high-volume respondents as those who completed 11 or more death certificates in the last 3 years.

Results
A total of 521 residents from 38 residency programs participated (program response rate, 54%). We identified 178 (34%) high-volume respondents. Only 33.3% of all respondents and 22.7% of high-volume residents believed that cause-of-death reporting is accurate. Of all respondents, 48.6% had knowingly reported an inaccurate cause of death; 58.4% of high-volume residents had done so. Of respondents who indicated they reported an inaccurate cause, 76.8% said the system would not accept the correct cause, 40.5% said admitting office personnel instructed them to “put something else,” and 30.7% said the medical examiner instructed them to do so; 64.6% cited cardiovascular disease as the most frequent diagnosis inaccurately reported.

Conclusion
Most resident physicians believed the current cause-of-death reporting system is inaccurate, often knowingly documenting incorrect causes. The system should be improved to allow reporting of more causes, and residents should receive better training on completing death certificates.

Exploratory Analysis of Fast-Food Chain Restaurant Menus Before and After Implementation of Local Calorie-Labeling Policies, 2005–2011

June 26, 2013 Comments off

Exploratory Analysis of Fast-Food Chain Restaurant Menus Before and After Implementation of Local Calorie-Labeling Policies, 2005–2011
Source: Preventing Chronic Disease (CDC)

Introduction
Since 2008, several states and municipalities have implemented regulations requiring provision of nutrition information at chain restaurants to address obesity. Although early research into the effect of such labels on consumer decisions has shown mixed results, little information exists on the restaurant industry’s response to labeling. The objective of this exploratory study was to evaluate the effect of menu labeling on fast-food menu offerings over 7 years, from 2005 through 2011.

Methods
Menus from 5 fast-food chains that had outlets in jurisdictions subject to menu-labeling laws (cases) were compared with menus from 4 fast-food chains operating in jurisdictions not requiring labeling (controls). A trend analysis assessed whether case restaurants improved the healthfulness of their menus relative to the control restaurants.

Results
Although the overall prevalence of “healthier” food options remained low, a noteworthy increase was seen after 2008 in locations with menu-labeling laws relative to those without such laws. Healthier food options increased from 13% to 20% at case locations while remaining static at 8% at control locations (test for difference in the trend, P = .02). Since 2005, the average calories for an à la carte entrée remained moderately high (approximately 450 kilocalories), with less than 25% of all entrées and sides qualifying as healthier and no clear systematic differences in the trend between chain restaurants in case versus control areas (P ≥ .50).

Conclusion
These findings suggest that menu labeling has thus far not affected the average nutritional content of fast-food menu items, but it may motivate restaurants to increase the availability of healthier options.

No Financial Disincentive for Choosing More Healthful Entrées on Children’s Menus in Full-Service Restaurants

June 11, 2013 Comments off

No Financial Disincentive for Choosing More Healthful Entrées on Children’s Menus in Full-Service Restaurants

Source: Preventing Chronic Disease (CDC)

Children are eating restaurant foods more than ever before, and price is among the top considerations for food choices. We categorized and enumerated entrées on children’s menus from 75 full-service restaurant chains to compare prices of more healthful and less healthful entrées to test the assumption that more healthful food is more expensive. The mean (standard deviation) price of more healthful entrées ($5.38 [$2.01]) was not significantly different from the price of less healthful entrées ($5.27 [$2.04]). In contrast to research demonstrating that more healthful foods tend to be more expensive in grocery stores, more healthful entrées on children’s menus in restaurants were not more expensive than less healthful entrées.

Implications of Lessons Learned From Tobacco Control for Tanning Bed Reform

March 7, 2013 Comments off

Implications of Lessons Learned From Tobacco Control for Tanning Bed Reform

Source: Preventing Chronic Disease (CDC)

Tanning beds used according to the manufacturer’s instructions expose the user to health risks, including melanoma and other skin cancers. Applying the MPOWER model (monitor, protect, offer alternatives, warn, enforce, and raise taxes), which has been used in tobacco control, to tanning bed reform could reduce the number of people at risk of diseases associated with tanning bed use. Among the tactics available to government are restricting the use of tanning beds by people under age 18 and those with fair skin, increasing the price of tanning bed services through taxation, licensing tanning bed operators, and banning unsupervised tanning bed operations.

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 776 other followers