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Dignity, Death, and Dilemma: A Study of Washington Hospices and Physician-Assisted Death

July 22, 2013 Comments off

Dignity, Death, and Dilemma: A Study of Washington Hospices and Physician-Assisted Death
Source: Oregon State University

The extensive literature in biomedical ethics on physician-assisted death has represented the debate to involve three parties with significant interests. First, there are arguments regarding the legitimacy of terminally patients seeking to exercise an expanded right of self-determination. Furthermore, questions have been posed regarding the compatibility of a patient request for physician-assisted death with the professional ethics of medicine and of pharmacy, and of the ethics of individual practitioners who may or may not collaborate with this request for a prescription to end the patient’s life. Third, discussion has address the role of the state, which requires assurance in public policy of both patient decision-making capacity and professional accountability to warrant rescinding paternalistic laws that prohibit or restrict patient rights at the end-of-life.

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Comparison of the Characteristics and Attitudes of Dog Adopters from Three Dog Rescue Groups

July 1, 2013 Comments off

Comparison of the Characteristics and Attitudes of Dog Adopters from Three Dog Rescue Groups (PDF)
Source: Oregon State University (Zimmerman)

A web-based survey was conducted to investigate the relationships between adopters and the dogs they adopted from three types of rescue groups/organizations: humane societies, greyhound rescues, and pit bull rescues. The dog selected to adopt can vary for many reasons, one of which is breed preference. This study found dog adopters from the three rescues differ according to different owner demographic characteristics, reasons for adoption, attitudes toward the adopted dog, feelings of attachment to the adop ted dog, and experiences with the dog and rescue organizations. Two thirds of the pit pull adopters took their dog to obedience training while on one – third of the adopters from the other rescue groups did. The majority of all adopters responding felt they had helped save a life by adopting from a rescue organization but the pit bull adopters indicated felt most strongly (82%) compared to humane society adopters (67%) and greyhound adopters (60%). This study also found commonalities in the emotional experience of having a close and caring relationship with a pet, irrespective of where an adopter finds the companion dog. The majority of all adopters (93%) considered their adopted dog as member of the family rather than a pet. Stereotypes associated with the types of rescue dogs adopted were confirm ed and/or dispel led. Overall, the adopters were satisfied with their adopted rescue dog as well as feeling their adopted dog exceeded their expectations. Nearly 95% of adopters in each rescue indicated they would adopt future dogs from the same rescue organization. Future studies are needed to address underrepresentation of males and minority racial/ethnic groups as well as access responses from adopters not volunteering to participate in an online survey.

Academic Women: Individual Considerations and Structural Forces in Navigating Academic Organizations

July 9, 2012 Comments off

Academic Women: Individual Considerations and Structural Forces in Navigating Academic Organizations (PDF)

Source: Oregon State University (Jennifer M. Almquist)

This dissertation is situated as the third work in a series on academic women. In 1964, Jessie Bernard published Academic Women, which provided a comprehensive assessment of the status of women in academia. Two decades later, in 1987, Angela Simeone offered insight into attempts to achieve equity for women in higher education in her book Academic Women: Workings Towards Equality. Now, at the next twentyfive year interval, this dissertation continues the scholarly engagement with questions about academic women. Drawing primarily on in-depth interviews with academic women (n = 35), this dissertation is more than a status update. The research presented here furthers the discussion by recognizing the limitations to the use of “academic women” as an all-encompassing category, and it offers a more nuanced approach to understanding their experiences in academia. Drawing on both the individual strategies of women and the organizational structure of the university this dissertation offers a new framework for assessing the various ways in which academic women navigate academic organizations. Additionally, lessons and practices are featured as recommendations and resources for both academic women and academic organizations.

Fuzzy Sets to Describe Driver Behavior in the Dilemma Zone of High-Speed Signalized Intersections

March 19, 2012 Comments off

Fuzzy Sets to Describe Driver Behavior in the Dilemma Zone of High-Speed Signalized Intersections

Source:  Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour
The Type II dilemma zone describes a segment of road on the approach to a signalized intersection where, if occupied by a motorist presented with the circular yellow indication, is likely to result in a motorist having difficulty deciding to stop at the stop line or proceed through the intersection. This phenomenon results in increased frequency of three failure conditions: rear-end collision at the stop line (excessive deceleration rates), the more severe right-angle crashes in the intersections, and left-turn head-on collisions (both resulting from incorrect estimates of clearance time). A more effective boundary definition for Type II dilemma zones could contribute to the safe design of signalized intersections. The prevailing approaches to dilemma zone delineation include the consideration of the vehicle’s travel time to the stop line or the driver’s likelihood of stopping at a particular distance from the stop line. The imprecision of the driver’s perception of speed and distance suggest that fuzzy logic may contribute to the identification of the Type II dilemma zone boundaries. A Fuzzy Logic (FL) model was constructed and validated from driver’s empirically observed behavior at high-speed signalized intersections. The research resulted in an increased understanding of the phenomenon which, when applied to the timing of signals and the placement of vehicle detection, can improve the overall safety of signalized intersections.
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