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Archive for the ‘fires and fire protection’ Category

CRS — Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding

April 17, 2014 Comments off

Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via National Agricultural Law Center)

The Assistance to Firefighters Grant (AFG) Program, also known as fire grants or the FIRE Act grant program, was established by Title XVII of the FY2001 National Defense Authorization Act (P.L. 106-398). Currently administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the program provides federal grants directly to local fire departments and unaffiliated Emergency Medical Services (EMS) organizations to help address a variety of equipment, training, and other firefighter-related and EMS needs. A related program is the Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response Firefighters (SAFER) program, which provides grants for hiring, recruiting, and retaining firefighters.

The fire grant program is now in its 14th year. The Fire Act statute was reauthorized in 2012 (Title XVIII of P.L. 112-239) and provides new guidelines on how fire grant money should be distributed. There is no set geographical formula for the distribution of fire grants—fire departments throughout the nation apply, and award decisions are made by a peer panel based on the merits of the application and the needs of the community. However, the law does require that fire grants be distributed to a diverse mix of fire departments, with respect to type of department (paid, volunteer, or combination), geographic location, and type of community served (e.g., urban, suburban, or rural).

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New: Residential Building Electrical Fires (2009-2011)

April 15, 2014 Comments off

New: Residential Building Electrical Fires (2009-2011) (PDF)
Source: U.S. Fire Administration

Findings from this report:

  • An estimated 25,900 residential building electrical fires were reported to fire departments within the United States each year. These fires caused an estimated 280 deaths, 1,125 injuries and $1.1 billion in property loss.
  • Residential building electrical fires resulted in greater dollar loss per fire than residential building nonelectrical fires.
  • In 79 percent of residential building electrical fires, the fire spread beyond the object where the fire started.
  • The leading items most often first ignited in residential building electrical fires were electrical wire/cable insulation (30 percent) and structural member or framing (19 percent).

State Fire Death Rates and Relative Risk

April 9, 2014 Comments off

State Fire Death Rates and Relative Risk
Source: U.S. Fire Administration

The fire problem varies from region to region in the United States. This often is a result of climate, poverty, education, demographics, and other causal factors. Perhaps the most useful way to assess fire fatalities across groups is to determine the relative risk of dying in a fire. Relative risk compares the per capita rate for a particular group (e.g., Pennsylvania) to the overall per capita rate (i.e., the general population). The result is a measure of how likely a group is to be affected. For the general population, the relative risk is set at 1.

In addition to the District of Columbia, the states with the highest relative risk in 2010 included West Virginia, Alabama and Mississippi. The populace of West Virginia was 3.3 times more likely to die in a fire than the general population; however, people living in Oregon, Massachusetts and Arizona were 50 percent less likely to die in a fire than the population as a whole. Twenty-three states and the District of Columbia had a relative risk higher than that of the general population. Three states, Iowa, Washington and New Mexico, had a relative risk comparable to that of the general population.

Relative risk was not computed for HI, ME, ND, VT and WY due to small numbers of fire deaths which are subject to variability.

Residential Building Garage Fires (2009-2011)

April 2, 2014 Comments off

Residential Building Garage Fires (2009-2011) (PDF)
Source: U.S. Fire Administration

An estimated 6,600 residential building garage fires were reported to United States fire departments each year and caused an estimated 30 deaths, 400 injuries and $457 million in property loss.

Findings from this report:

  • Residential building garage fires are considered part of the residential fire problem and comprised about 2 percent of all residential building fires.
  • Fires originating in residential building garages tend to be larger and spread farther than fires that start in other areas of a residence.
  • Of residential building garage fires, 93 percent occurred in one- and two-family residential buildings.
  • The leading causes of residential building garage fires were “electrical malfunction” (16 percent); “other unintentional, careless” action (15 percent); and “open flame” (11 percent).
  • Residential building garage fires occurred most often in the colder months of January and December (at 10 percent each). Additionally, residential building garage fires also peaked in July at 10 percent.
  • Electrical arcing was the most common heat source in residential building garage fires (17 percent).

CRS — United States Fire Administration: An Overview

March 11, 2014 Comments off

United States Fire Administration: An Overview (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via University of North Texas Digital Library)

The United States Fire Administration (USFA)—which includes the National Fire Academy (NFA)—is currently housed within the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The objective of the USFA is to significantly reduce the nation’s loss of life from fire, while also achieving a reduction in property loss and non-fatal injury due to fire.

The Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013 (P.L. 113-6) funded USFA at $43.942 million. Additionally, the United States Fire Administration and Training budget account was subject to a 5.0% sequestration cut, putting the FY2013 level for USFA at $41.726 million.

The FY2014 budget proposal requested $41.306 million for USFA. Of the requested total appropriation, $12.267 million would be allocated to the National Fire Academy, $11.205 million to National Fire Programs, and $17.834 million to National Emergency Training Center (NETC) Management, Operations and Support. The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014 (P.L. 113-76), signed into law on January 17, 2014, funds USFA at $44 million.

U.S. Fire Administration — Emergency Vehicle Safety Initiative

March 10, 2014 Comments off

Emergency Vehicle Safety Initiative (PDF)
Source: U.S. Fire Administration

Since the release of our publication “Emergency Vehicle Safety Initiative (2004),” we have worked with many fire service organizations and the law enforcement community to increase emergency responder safety in this area. Our latest study report, “Emergency Vehicle Safety Initiative (2014),” consolidates the results of this work and provides best practices and recommendations for safer emergency vehicle and roadway incident response.

Topics covered include:

  • Common crash causes and crash prevention.
  • The impact of vehicle design and maintenance on safety.
  • Internal and external factors for improving response-related safety.
  • Regulating emergency vehicle response and roadway scene safety.
  • Roadway incident scene safety.

CRS — Wildfire Fuels and Fuel Reduction

February 11, 2014 Comments off

Wildfire Fuels and Fuel Reduction (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via Federation of American Scientists)

Severe wildfires have been burning more acres and more structures in recent years. Some assert that climate change is at least partly to blame; others claim that the increasing number of homes in and near the forest (the wildland-urban interface) is a major cause. However, most observers agree that wildfire suppression and historic land management practices have led to unnaturally high accumulations of biomass in many forests, particularly in the intermountain West. While high-intensity conflagrations (wildfires that burn the forest canopy) occur naturally in some ecosystems (called crown-fire or stand-replacement fire ecosystems), abnormally high biomass levels can lead to conflagrations in ecosystems when such crown fires were rare (called frequentsurface- fire ecosystems). Thus, many propose activities to reduce forest biomass fuels.

The characteristics of forest biomass fuels affect the nature, spread, and intensity of the fire. Fuel moisture content is critical, but is generally a function of weather patterns over hours, days, and weeks. Fuel size is also important—fine and small fuels (e.g., needles, grasses, leaves, small twigs) are key to fire spread, while larger fuels (e.g., twigs larger than pencil-diameter, branches, and logs) contribute primarily to fire intensity; both are important to minimizing fire damages. Fuel distribution can also affect damages. Relatively continuous fuels improve burning, and vertically continuous fuels—fuel ladders—can lead a surface fire into the canopy, causing a conflagration. Total fuel accumulations (fuel loads) also contribute to fire intensity and damage. Thus, activities that alter biomass fuels—reducing total loads, reducing small fuels, reducing large fuels, and eliminating fuel ladders—can help reduce wildfire severity and damages.

Volunteer Fire Service Fact Sheet (2014)

January 13, 2014 Comments off

Volunteer Fire Service Fact Sheet (PDF)
Source: National Volunteer Fire Council

The National Volunteer Fire Council (NVFC) is the leading nonprofit membership association representing the interests of the volunteer fire, EMS, and rescue services. Organized in 1976, the NVFC serves as the voice of the volunteer fire and emergency services in the national arena and provides invaluable tools, resources, programs, training, and advocacy for first responders across the nation. Each state firefighter’s association elects a representative to the NVFC Board of Directors.

This Fact Sheet was produced in order to provide an overall picture of today’s volunteer fire and emergency services.

Fire Management and Invasive Plants: A Handbook

December 26, 2013 Comments off

Fire Management and Invasive Plants: A Handbook (PDF)
Source: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Fire management can help maintain natural habitats, increase forage for wildlife, reduce fuel loads that might otherwise lead to catastrophic wildfire, and maintain natural succession. Today, there is an emerging challenge that fire managers need to be aware of: invasive plants. Fire management activities can create ideal opportunities for invasions by nonnative plants, potentially undermining the benefits of fire management actions.

This manual provides practical guidelines that fire managers should consider with respect to invasive plants.

Mortality and cancer incidence in a pooled cohort of US firefighters from San Francisco, Chicago and Philadelphia (1950− 2009)

November 7, 2013 Comments off

Mortality and cancer incidence in a pooled cohort of US firefighters from San Francisco, Chicago and Philadelphia (1950− 2009) (PDF)
Source: Occupational and Environmental Medicine (via CDC)

OBJECTIVES:
To examine mortality patterns and cancer incidence in a pooled cohort of 29 993 US career firefighters employed since 1950 and followed through 2009.

METHODS:
Mortality and cancer incidence were evaluated by life table methods with the US population referent. Standardised mortality (SMR) and incidence (SIR) ratios were determined for 92 causes of death and 41 cancer incidence groupings. Analyses focused on 15 outcomes of a priori interest. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the potential for significant bias.

RESULTS:
Person-years at risk totalled 858 938 and 403 152 for mortality and incidence analyses, respectively. All-cause mortality was at expectation (SMR=0.99, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.01, n=12 028). There was excess cancer mortality (SMR=1.14, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.18, n=3285) and incidence (SIR=1.09, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.12, n=4461) comprised mainly of digestive (SMR=1.26, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.34, n=928; SIR=1.17, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.25, n=930) and respiratory (SMR=1.10, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.17, n=1096; SIR=1.16, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.24, n=813) cancers. Consistent with previous reports, modest elevations were observed in several solid cancers; however, evidence of excess lymphatic or haematopoietic cancers was lacking. This study is the first to report excess malignant mesothelioma (SMR=2.00, 95% CI 1.03 to 3.49, n=12; SIR=2.29, 95% CI 1.60 to 3.19, n=35) among US firefighters. Results appeared robust under differing assumptions and analytic techniques.

CONCLUSIONS:
Our results provide evidence of a relation between firefighting and cancer. The new finding of excess malignant mesothelioma is noteworthy, given that asbestos exposure is a known hazard of firefighting.

CRS — Wildfire Management: Federal Funding and Related Statistics (updated)

November 7, 2013 Comments off

Wildfire Management: Federal Funding and Related Statistics (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via National Agricultural Law Library)

Wildfires can have beneficial and harmful impacts on ecosystems (e.g., by reducing fuel loads, or by damaging communities and timber resources). These impacts are generally measured and discussed based on the priorities of humans in these ecosystems. Federal resources are typically deployed during wildfire season—an annual occurrence of intense wildfire activity—to help manage wildfires and potentially minimize some of the impacts, including the loss of life and property. The primary agencies for federal wildfire response are the Forest Service and the Department of the Interior. Federal wildfire response activities involve preparedness, suppression, fuel reduction, site rehabilitation, and more.

More than 9.3 million acres burned during the 2012 wildfire season, which was the third-largest acreage burned annually since 1960. The total amount of wildfire management (WFM) appropriations for 2012 was more than $2.8 billion, not including an additional $407.5 million appropriated in 2013 to repay 2012 WFM wildfire suppression accounts. Over the last five years, WFM appropriations on average have steadily increased relative to earlier years. This leads some to question whether federal resources for wildfire management are being used efficiently.

This report provides wildfire management statistics (e.g., number of wildfires, acres burned, select state wildfire activity, firefighter personnel), presents WFM appropriations from fiscal years 2008 to the present, and discusses two related issues—wildfire suppression funding estimation and air tanker readiness.

Annual report on firefighter fatalities in the United States

October 2, 2013 Comments off

Annual report on firefighter fatalities in the United States
Source: U.S. Fire Administration

Eighty-one firefighters died while on duty in 2012.

  • The total break down included 42 volunteer, 28 career, and 11 wildland agency firefighters.
  • There were 4 multiple firefighter fatality incidents claiming a total of 10 firefighters.
  • Fifteen firefighters died in duties associated with wildland fires.
  • Activities related to emergency incidents resulted in the deaths of 45 firefighters.
  • Twenty-two firefighters died while engaging in activities at the scene of a fire.
  • Seventeen firefighters died while responding to or returning from 16 emergency incidents.
  • Eighteen firefighters died as the result of 14 vehicle crashes, six involving POVs, six involving apparatus, and six from two separate incidents involving aircraft.
  • Heart attacks were the most frequent cause of death with 39 firefighter deaths.
  • Eight firefighters died while they were engaged in training activities.
  • Twelve firefighters died after the conclusion of their on-duty activity.

CRS — Wildfire Management: Federal Funding and Related Statistics

September 10, 2013 Comments off

Wildfire Management: Federal Funding and Related Statistics (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via Federation of American Scientists)

Wildfires can have beneficial and harmful impacts on ecosystems (e.g., by reducing fuel loads, or by damaging communities and timber resources). These impacts are generally measured and discussed based on the priorities of humans in these ecosystems. Federal resources are typically deployed during wildfire season—an annual occurrence of intense wildfire activity—to help manage wildfires and potentially minimize some of the impacts, including the loss of life and property. The primary agencies for federal wildfire response are the Forest Service and the Department of the Interior. Federal wildfire response activities involve preparedness, suppression, fuel reduction, site rehabilitation, and more.

More than 9.3 million acres burned during the 2012 wildfire season, which was the third-largest acreage burned annually since 1960. The total amount of wildfire management (WFM) appropriations for 2012 was approximately $2.7 billion, not including an additional $407.5 million appropriated in 2013 to repay 2012 WFM wildfire suppression accounts. Over the last five years, WFM appropriations on average have steadily increased relative to earlier years. This leads some to question whether federal resources for wildfire management are being used efficiently.

This report provides wildfire management statistics (e.g., number of wildfires, acres burned, select state wildfire activity, firefighter personnel), presents WFM appropriations from fiscal years 2008 to the present, and discusses two related issues—wildfire suppression funding estimation and air tanker readiness.

Knowing Exposure Risks Important to Saving Structures from Wildfires

September 5, 2013 Comments off

Knowing Exposure Risks Important to Saving Structures from Wildfires
Source: National Institute of Standards and Technology

A recent study of one of California’s most devastating wildland fires by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) strongly suggests that measures for reducing structural damage and property loss from wildland urban interface (WUI)* fires are most effective when they are based on accurate assessments of exposure risks both for individual structures and the community as a whole.

The report also describes how the NIST-USFS WUI Hazard Scale provides a state-of-the-art tool for making such assessments and how that data could be linked to improved building codes, standards and practices that will help communities better resist the threat of wildfires.
The Witch Creek/Guejito WUI fire (commonly known as the Witch Fire) was the largest of a series of wildfires that began burning across Southern California on Oct. 20, 2007. It affected areas north and northeast of San Diego, starting in Witch Creek Canyon near Santa Ysabel and quickly spreading westward toward the coast because of strong Santa Ana winds. The Witch Fire burned some 80,000 hectares (nearly 200,000 acres), destroyed more than 1,600 structures, caused an estimated $1.8 billion in property damages and cost $18 million to fight. It also was responsible for two civilian deaths and 39 firefighter injuries.

A NIST-USFS WUI team worked in collaboration with the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (CAL FIRE) and the City of San Diego to collect post-incident data within the Witch Fire perimeter. The team focused its effort on The Trails development at Rancho Bernardo, north of San Diego. There were 274 homes in The Trails, with 245 within the fire perimeter. Seventy-four homes were completely destroyed and 16 were partly damaged. Field measurements made by the NIST team included structure particulars, specifically roof type; proximity of combustibles to the structure; and damage to wildland and residential vegetation. Documentation included more than 11,000 photographs.

New From the GAO

August 20, 2013 Comments off

New GAO Reports
Source: Government Accountability Office

1. Next Generation Jammer: DOD Should Continue to Assess Potential Duplication and Overlap As Program Moves Forward. GAO-13-642, August 20.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-13-642
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/660/657035.pdf

2. Wildland Fire Management: Improvements Needed in Information, Collaboration, and Planning to Enhance Federal Fire Aviation Program Success. GAO-13-684, August 20.
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-13-684
Highlights – http://www.gao.gov/assets/660/657001.pdf
Podcast: http://www.gao.gov/multimedia/podcasts/657004

DOD OIG — Compliance with Electrical and Fire Protection Standards of U.S. Controlled and Occupied Facilities in Afghanistan

July 23, 2013 Comments off

Compliance with Electrical and Fire Protection Standards of U.S. Controlled and Occupied Facilities in Afghanistan
Source: U.S. Department of Defense, Office of Inspector General

Objective

At selected U.S. controlled and occupied facilities in Kandahar Air Field (KAF) and Bagram Air Field (BAF), Afghanistan, we inspected for:

  • Compliance with the National Electrical Code (NEC)
  • Compliance with the Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC), and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) standards, and
  • Corrective actions for previous DoD Office of the Inspector General (OIG) electrical and fire protection findings (Report Nos. SPO-2009-005, D2010-D000JB-0078, and DODIG-2012-089).

Findings

  • Hazardous conditions due to a lack of consistent adherence to minimum NEC and NFPA standards as evidenced by 1,089 findings; 440 findings violate NEC electrical standards and 649 findings violate UFC and/or NFPA fire protection standards.
  • Fire protection systems were not maintained and/or repaired.
  • Garrison commands lacked qualified Government or dedicated contractor electricians, fire alarm, or fire suppression technicians on their staffs to perform inspection, testing, and maintenance.
  • Inadequate Government oversight and inspection of facilities.
  • Lack of independent technical support for the Government Contracting Office resulted in overreliance on facility construction and maintenance contractors.
  • The Base Camp Master Plans (BCMPs) lacked a comprehensive fire protection plan.
  • Corrective actions for previous DoD OIG audits and inspections were incomplete and ineffective for many findings.

Recommendations

  • We recommend that a priority be given to correcting the 71critical findings tallied in Table 2 of this report.
  • We recommend that all 1,089 findings which include the 71 critical findings (440 electrical and 649 fire protection findings) be addressed and prioritized according to a robust risk management plan. Furthermore this plan should be approved and coordinated with AT&L (I&E).
  • We recommend that U.S. Forces-Afghanistan (USFOR-A) review the government oversight and inspection requirements for electrical and fire protection systems and ensure that sufficient qualified resources are available and deployed to meet requirements throughout the USFOR-A area of responsibility.
  • We recommend that provisions be made for regular inspection and maintenance of electrical and fire protection systems.
  • We recommend that the Base Camp Master Plans (BCMP) include a comprehensive fire protection plan.
  • We recommend that the Commander, CENTCOM Joint Theater Support Contracting Command, review applicable contracts to determine if contractual remedies, including financial recovery, are appropriate in those cases where contract requirements for electrical or fire protection construction, maintenance, or repair services were not satisfied.

Social amplification of wildfire risk: The role of social interactions and information sources

July 17, 2013 Comments off

Social amplification of wildfire risk: The role of social interactions and information sources
Source: U.S. Forest Service

Wildfire is a persistent and growing threat across much of the western United States. Understanding how people living in fire-prone areas perceive this threat is essential to the design of effective riskmanagement policies. Drawing on the social amplification of risk framework, we develop a conceptual model of wildfire risk perceptions that incorporates the social processes that likely shape how individuals in fire-prone areas come to understand this risk, highlighting the role of information sources and social interactions.We classify information sources as expert or nonexpert, and group social interactions according to two dimensions: formal versus informal, and generic versus fire-specific. Using survey data from two Colorado counties, we empirically examine how information sources and social interactions relate to the perceived probability and perceived consequences of a wildfire. Our results suggest that social amplification processes play a role in shaping how individuals in this area perceive wildfire risk. A key finding is that both “vertical” (i.e., expert information sources and formal social interactions) and “horizontal” (i.e., nonexpert information and informal interactions) interactions are associated with perceived risk of experiencing a wildfire. We also find evidence of perceived “risk interdependency” – that is, homeowners’ perceptions of risk are higher when vegetation on neighboring properties is perceived to be dense. Incorporating social amplification processes into community-based wildfire education programs and evaluating these programs’ effectiveness constitutes an area for future inquiry.

CRS — Wildfire Management: Hotshot Crews

July 15, 2013 Comments off

Wildfire Management: Hotshot Crews (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via Federation of American Scientists)

Wildfires can be unpredictable, with the severity and direction of the wildfire changing in a matter of moments. To ensure the safety and protection of life and property, response to a wildfire requires an array of resources including air and ground support.

This report briefly discusses the role of hotshot crews for wildfire management. Hotshot crews are intensively trained fire crews that are generally placed in the most rugged terrain on the most active and difficult areas on wildfires .

The primary mission of an Interagency Hotshot Crew (IHC) is to provide a safe, professional, mobile and highly skilled hand crew for all phases of fire management and incident operations.

A crew typically consists of 20 members that have excelled at a variety of standards for IHC operations including physical fitness, operational preparedness training, and field exercises, and has a particular wildfire management experience level. General activities for an IHC may include fire line construction, fuel removal, and burnout operations, among other tasks. The crew may be deployed to any state where they are needed. The National Interagency C oordination Center (NICC) is the overarching federal agency charged with deployment of a crew.

There are 110 interagency Hotshot Crews, with the Forest Service being the federal agency with the largest number of crews (67).

The Bureau of Land Management, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and the National Park Service also have Interagency Hotshot Crews. There are a small number of crews that are nonfederal, including crews operated by states and local governments. All crews, federal and nonfederal, must meet the standard for interagency hotshot crew operations and be certified in order to be recognized as an IHC.

As of July 1, 2013, the National Interagency Fire Center (NIFC) reports that 53 crews are working on incidents.

New: Nonresidential Building Fires (2009-2011)

July 11, 2013 Comments off

New: Nonresidential Building Fires (2009-2011)
Source: U.S. Fire Administration

Findings from this report:

  • An estimated 86,500 nonresidential building fires were reported to United States fire departments each year and caused an estimated 85 deaths, 1,325 injuries, and $2.6 billion in property losses per year.
  • Cooking was the leading cause of all nonresidential building fires (29 percent). Nearly all nonresidential building cooking fires were small, confined fires (97 percent).
  • Outside and special properties accounted for the most nonresidential building fires (21 percent), while storage buildings accounted for the most nonresidential building fire deaths (29 percent).
  • Nonresidential building fires occurred most frequently from 3 to 6 p.m.
  • Nonconfined nonresidential building fires most often started in vehicle storage areas (9 percent).
  • Fifty-six percent of nonconfined nonresidential building fires extended beyond the room of origin. The leading causes of these larger fires were unintentional or careless actions (19 percent), intentional actions (13 percent), and electrical malfunctions (12 percent).
  • Misuse of material or product (32 percent) was the leading factors contributing to ignition category in nonconfined nonresidential building fires.
  • Smoke alarms were not present in 52 percent of the larger, nonconfined fires in occupied nonresidential buildings.

Decision making for wildfires: A guide for applying a risk management process at the incident level

July 2, 2013 Comments off

Decision making for wildfires: A guide for applying a risk management process at the incident level
Source: U.S. Forest Service

This publication focuses on the thought processes and considerations surrounding a risk management process for decision making on wildfires. The publication introduces a six element risk management cycle designed to encourage sound risk-informed decision making in accordance with Federal wildland fire policy, although the process is equally applicable to non-Federal fire managers and partners. The process describes the assessment and control of identified risks, the analysis of benefits and costs, and the risk decision at multiple scales. Decision makers can apply principles from this publication to specific decision documentation structures such as the Wildland Fire Decision Support System (WFDSS) or other wildland fire decision documentation systems.

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