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TIGTA — Fiscal Year 2014 Statutory Review of Disclosure of IRS Collection Activity With Respect to Joint Returns

July 24, 2014 Comments off

Fiscal Year 2014 Statutory Review of Disclosure of Collection Activity With Respect to Joint Returns
Source: Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration

Highlights of Reference Number: 2014-30-046 to the Internal Revenue Service Commissioners for the Small Business/Self-Employed and Wage and Investment Divisions.

IMPACT ON TAXPAYERS
Internal Revenue Code (I.R.C.) Section (§) 6103(e)(8) gives joint filer taxpayers who are no longer married or no longer reside in the same household the right to request information regarding the IRS’s efforts to collect delinquent taxes on their joint tax return liabilities. If the IRS does not provide employees sufficient guidance for handling those requests, taxpayer rights could potentially be violated.

WHY TIGTA DID THE AUDIT
This audit was initiated because the IRS Restructuring and Reform Act of 1998 added I.R.C. § 7803(d)(1)(B), which requires TIGTA to annually review and certify the IRS’s compliance with I.R.C. § 6103(e)(8). The objective of this review was to determine whether the IRS is complying with the provisions of I.R.C. § 6103(e)(8) as related to the disclosure of collection activities with respect to joint filers.

WHAT TIGTA FOUND
IRS procedures provide employees with sufficient guidance for handling joint filer collection activity information requests. However, TIGTA could not determine whether the IRS fully complied with I.R.C. § 6103(e)(8) requirements when responding to written collection activity information requests from joint filers. IRS management information systems do not separately record or monitor joint filer requests, and there is no legal requirement for the IRS to do so. Further, TIGTA does not recommend the creation of a separate tracking system.

WHAT TIGTA RECOMMENDED
TIGTA made no recommendations in this report. IRS officials were provided an opportunity to review the draft report and did not provide any comments.

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Gender and time allocation of cohabiting and married women and men in France, Italy, and the United States

July 17, 2014 Comments off

Gender and time allocation of cohabiting and married women and men in France, Italy, and the United States
Source: Demographic Research

Background:
Women, who generally do more unpaid and less paid work than men, have greater incentives to stay in marriages than cohabiting unions, which generally carry fewer legal protections for individuals that wish to dissolve their relationship. The extent to which cohabitation is institutionalized, however, is a matter of policy and varies substantially by country. The gender gap in paid and unpaid work between married and cohabiting individuals should be larger in countries where cohabitation is less institutionalized and where those in cohabiting relationships have relatively fewer legal protections should the relationship dissolve, yet few studies have explored this variation.

Objective:
Using time diary data from France, Italy, and the United States, we assess the time men and women devote to paid and unpaid work in cohabiting and married couples. These three countries provide a useful diversity in marital regimes for examining these expectations: France, where cohabitation is most “marriage like” and where partnerships can be registered and carry legal rights; the United States, where cohabitation is common but is short-lived and unstable and where legal protections vary across states; and Italy, where cohabitation is not common and where such unions are not legally acknowledged and less socially approved than in either France or the United States.

Results:
Cohabitating men’s and women’s time allocated to market and nonmarket work is generally more similar than married men and women. Our expectations about country differences are only partially borne out by the findings. Greater gender differences in the time allocated to market and nonmarket work are found in Italy relative to either France or the U.S.

UK — What Does the 2011 Census Tell Us About Inter-ethnic Relationships?

July 11, 2014 Comments off

What Does the 2011 Census Tell Us About Inter-ethnic Relationships?
Source: Office for National Statistics

Key Points

  • Nearly 1 in 10 people (9% or 2.3 million) who were living as part of a couple were in an inter-ethnic relationship in England and Wales in 2011. This has increased from 7% in 2001.
  • People from the Mixed/Multiple ethnic groups were most likely to be in an inter-ethnic relationship (85%).
  • Outside the Mixed/Multiple ethnic groups, White Irish (71%), Other Black (62%) and Gypsy or Irish Travellers (50%) were the most likely to be in an inter-ethnic relationship.
  • White British (4%) were least likely to be in inter-ethnic relationships, followed by Bangladeshi (7%), Pakistani (9%) and Indian (12%) ethnic groups.
  • The biggest difference between the sexes was found with the Chinese group, where women were almost twice as likely (39%) to be in an inter-ethnic relationship as men (20%).
  • Of all people in inter-ethnic relationships, 4 in 10 (40%) included someone who was White British – the most common being between Other White and White British (16%).
  • People who were married (or in a civil partnership) were less likely to be in an inter-ethnic relationship than people who were co-habiting (8% compared with 12%).
  • Some 7% of dependent children lived in a household with an inter-ethnic relationship.
  • Pakistani (3%), Indian (3%) and Bangladeshi (2%) dependent children were least likely to live in a household with an inter-ethnic relationship.

Pillow Talk and Cognitive Decision-making Processes: Exploring the Influence of Orgasm and Alcohol on Communication after Sexual Activity

July 9, 2014 Comments off

Pillow Talk and Cognitive Decision-making Processes: Exploring the Influence of Orgasm and Alcohol on Communication after Sexual Activity
Source: Communication Monographs

This study explores individuals’ postcoital disclosures by investigating the role of orgasm and alcohol on communication after sexual activity over a two-week period. Assessments of the risks and benefits of disclosing were expected to influence the associations among orgasm, alcohol, and postcoital communication. The results revealed that individuals who orgasmed perceived greater benefits to disclosing to their partners after sexual activity. They also disclosed more positively valenced information and information of greater magnitude compared to those who did not orgasm, although risk–benefit assessments did not mediate this relationship. Additionally, the more alcohol individuals consumed, the fewer benefits they assessed to disclosing, the less deep and positively valenced their disclosures were, and the more unintentional they were in their disclosures. Similarly, the relationship between alcohol and the dimensions of disclosure was not mediated by risk–benefit assessments. Finally, individuals who consumed more alcohol and did not orgasm disclosed less positively valenced information than individuals who consumed less alcohol and did not orgasm across occasions. The implications of these findings for couples’ communication and future research on the postcoital time interval are discussed.

See: Orgasms and alcohol influence pillow talk (Science Daily)

Making an Intercontinental Move: Difficulty of Visits and Relocation in International Long-Distance Relationships

July 9, 2014 Comments off

Making an Intercontinental Move: Difficulty of Visits and Relocation in International Long-Distance Relationships
Source: Sociation Today

Globalization, fast travel, the Internet, and modern communication technology have opened novel avenues for people to find a significant other and extended the pool of potential mates to choose from. Long-distance relationships have become possible and more common not only among partners within short distances, but across different countries, as well. Thus, concepts of geographical unavailability or undesirability are waning.

However, despite all the new possibilities of long-distance romances, crossing borders, acquiring visas, and moving to a foreign country still pose unique challenges. International, and especially intercontinental, travel tends to be more costly and generally requires more preparation and documents than domestic travel. Relocation by immigration to a different country is usually even more complicated than travel. When planning on closing the distance, international long-distance couples might run into insurmountable difficulties or might have to fundamentally alter their future plans to be able to live in the same country as their partner.

Through in-depth interviews with 20 heterosexual couples in a long-distance relationship (40 individuals total), this study compares international long-distance relationships and marriages with domestic ones and highlights the challenges of long-distance relationships and marriages in a global context.

Dating Violence Among Male and Female Youth Seeking Emergency Department Care

July 3, 2014 Comments off

Dating Violence Among Male and Female Youth Seeking Emergency Department Care
Source: Annals of Emergency Medicine

Study objective
We determine prevalence and correlates of dating violence, dating victimization, and dating aggression among male and female patients aged 14 to 20 years seeking emergency department (ED) care.

Methods
This was a systematic sampling of subjects aged 14 to 20 years seeking care at a single large academic ED between September 2010 and March 2013. Participants completed a computerized, self-administered, cross-sectional survey of demographics, dating violence from physical abuse measures of the Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory, associated behaviors, and ED health service use. Separate analyses were conducted for male and female patients.

Results
Four thousand three hundred eighty-nine youths (86.1% participation rate) were screened, and 4,089 (mean age 17.5 years; 58% female patients) were eligible for analysis. Almost 1 in 5 female patients (n=215; 18.4%) and 1 in 8 male patients (n=212; 12.5%) reported past-year dating violence. Of female patients, 10.6% reported dating victimization and 14.6% dating aggression, whereas of male patients, 11.7% reported dating victimization and 4.9% reported dating aggression. Multivariate analyses showed that variables associated with any male dating violence were black race (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.26; 95% CI 1.54 to 3.32), alcohol misuse (AOR 1.03; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.06), illicit drug use (AOR 2.38; 95% CI 1.68 to 3.38), and depression (AOR 2.13; 95% CI 1.46 to 3.10); any female dating violence was associated with black race (AOR 1.68; 95% CI 1.25 to 2.25), public assistance (AOR 1.64; 95% CI 1.28 to 2.09), grades D and below (AOR 1.62; 95% CI 1.07 to 2.43), alcohol misuse (AOR 1.04; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.07), illicit drug use (AOR 2.85; 95% CI 2.22 to 3.66), depression (AOR 1.86; 95% CI 1.42 to 2.44), and any past year ED visit for intentional injury (AOR 2.64; 95% CI 1.30 to 5.40).

Conclusion
Nearly 1 of 6 male and female patients aged 14 to 20 years and seeking ED care report recent dating violence, and health disparities remain among this population. Dating violence was strongly associated with alcohol, illicit drug use, and depression and correlated with previous ED service use among female youths. ED interventions should consider addressing these associated health conditions, as well as improving screening protocols to address dating violence among male and female youths.

The Third Wheel: The Impact of Twitter Use on Relationship Infidelity and Divorce

July 3, 2014 Comments off

The Third Wheel: The Impact of Twitter Use on Relationship Infidelity and Divorce
Source: Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking

The purpose of this study was to examine how social networking site (SNS) use, specifically Twitter use, influences negative interpersonal relationship outcomes. This study specifically examined the mediational effect of Twitter-related conflict on the relationship between active Twitter use and negative relationship outcomes, and how this mechanism may be contingent on the length of the romantic relationship. A total of 581 Twitter users aged 18 to 67 years (Mage=29, SDage=8.9) completed an online survey questionnaire. Moderation–mediation regression analyses using bootstrapping methods indicated that Twitter-related conflict mediated the relationship between active Twitter use and negative relationship outcomes. The length of the romantic relationship, however, did not moderate the indirect effect on the relationship between active Twitter use and negative relationship outcomes. The results from this study suggest that active Twitter use leads to greater amounts of Twitter-related conflict among romantic partners, which in turn leads to infidelity, breakup, and divorce. This indirect effect is not contingent on the length of the romantic relationship. The current study adds to the growing body of literature investigating SNS use and romantic relationship outcomes.

Violence Against Women: Effective Interventions and Practices with Perpetrators –- A Literature Review

July 2, 2014 Comments off

Violence Against Women: Effective Interventions and Practices with Perpetrators — A Literature Review
Source: Scottish Centre for Crime & Justice Research

The key focus of the report is on reviewing evidence about reducing re-offending in crimes of violence against women. The research evidence available provides a number of valuable insights into what works to reduce reoffending in the area of violence against women.

2011 Census Analysis: How do Living Arrangements, Family Type and Family Size Vary in England and Wales?

June 26, 2014 Comments off

2011 Census Analysis: How do Living Arrangements, Family Type and Family Size Vary in England and Wales?
Source: Office for National Statistics

This story summarises the distribution of family types (married couples, cohabiting couples and lone parents with/without dependent children) within England and Wales and the interaction with family size (number of dependent children). Variations in family size and type by country of birth are also highlighted.

Towards a Geography of Unmarried Cohabitation in the Americas

May 27, 2014 Comments off

Towards a Geography of Unmarried Cohabitation in the Americas
Source: Demographic Research

Background: As the incidence of cohabitation has been rising in many parts of the world, efforts to determine the forces driving the cohabitation boom have also been intensifying. But most of the analyses of this issue conducted so far were carried out at a national level, and did not account for regional heterogeneity within countries.

Objective: This paper presents the geography of unmarried cohabitation in the Americas. We offer a large-scale, cross-national perspective, together with small-area estimates of cohabitation. We created this map for several reasons. (i) First, our examination of the geography of cohabitation reveals considerable spatial heterogeneity, and challenges the explanatory frameworks which may work at the international level, but which have low explanatory power with regard to intra-national variation. (ii) Second, we argue that historical pockets of cohabitation can still be identified by examining the current geography of cohabitation. (iii) Finally, our map serves as an initial step in efforts to determine whether the recent increase in cohabitation is an intensification of pre-existing traditions, or whether it has different roots that suggest that a new geography may be evolving.

Methods: Census microdata from 39 countries and 19,000 local units have been pooled together to map the prevalence of cohabitation among women.

Results: The results show inter- and intra-national regional contrasts. The highest rates of cohabitation are found in areas of Central America, the Caribbean, Colombia, and Peru. The lowest rates are mainly found in the United States and Mexico. In all of the countries, the spatial autocorrelation statistics indicate that there is substantial spatial heterogeneity.

Conclusions: Our results lead us to ask what forces may have shaped these patterns, and they remind us that these forces need to be taken into account when seeking to explain recent cohabitation patterns, and especially the rise in cohabitation.

UK — 544,000 stepfamilies with dependent children in 2011

May 12, 2014 Comments off

544,000 stepfamilies with dependent children in 2011
Source: Office for National Statistics

While the number of couple non-stepfamilies with dependent children has risen by 4% between 2001 and 2011, the number of couple stepfamilies with dependent children has fallen by 14% from 631,000 to 544,000 over the same period. There are no clear reasons for the fall in the number of stepfamilies but possible factors include:

+ A rise in the average age at which women have their first baby. This means that children are less likely to be born to younger couples who are more likely to break up. This may lessen the chance of children becoming stepchildren later on

+ Lone parents may be increasingly likely to have a partner who lives elsewhere. This partner may be a stepparent to the lone parent’s children while not living with them permanently.

Estimates from the General Lifestyle Survey in 2011 for Great Britain show that 85% of stepfamilies with dependent children included children from the woman’s previous relationship, 11% included children from the man’s previous relationship and 4% from both partners’ previous relationships.

Family Ties: A Compilation of Baseball’s Relatives — 2014 Season

May 7, 2014 Comments off

Family Ties: A Compilation of Baseball’s Relatives — 2014 Season (PDF)
Source: MLBLogs Network: Baseball’s Relatives

Who’s included in the list
• 2014 players on MLB 40 – Man Rosters who have a relative currently or formerly in professional baseball, or was drafted by an MLB organization
• 2014 managers and coaches on MLB teams who have a relative currently or formerly in professional baseball , or was drafted by an MLB organization
• 2014 minor League players with a relative currently or formerly in the major leagues

Who’s not included in the list
• Former major League players, coaches, managers whose baseball relatives are not currently active in professional baseball
• Current m inor League players, coaches, and managers whose baseball relatives have only played in the minor l eagues , or were only drafted
• Current and former major leaguers whose relatives have only played college baseball

Beyond the Numbers: Employer-sponsored benefits extended to domestic partners

April 24, 2014 Comments off

Beyond the Numbers: Employer-sponsored benefits extended to domestic partners
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

As part of compensation packages offered to employees, it is common for employers to extend certain benefits to an employee’s family members. For example, employment-based health benefits typically include insurance coverage for the family, and traditional (defined-benefit) pension plans provide survivor benefits to spouses of married employees. As employers recognize different family structures, many have adapted by offering similar benefits to employees who have varied family units. For example, employers often vary employee contributions for health benefits based on family makeup by identifying different contribution amounts for married employees with children and for single employees with children. New data provide a picture of how frequently certain benefits are extended to unmarried opposite-sex and unmarried same-sex partners. For example, 72 percent of civilian workers had access to employment-based health benefits in March 2013, with nearly all the employers extending these benefits to spouses and children, but only 32 percent of civilian workers had health benefits extended to unmarried same-sex domestic partners and 26 percent had benefits extended to unmarried opposite-sex domestic partners.

Nonfatal Domestic Violence, 2003–2012

April 24, 2014 Comments off

Nonfatal Domestic Violence, 2003–2012
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics

Presents estimates on nonfatal domestic violence from 2003 to 2012. Domestic violence includes victimization committed by current or former intimate partners (spouses, boyfriends or girlfriends), parents, children, siblings, and other relatives. This report focuses on the level and pattern of domestic violence over time, highlighting selected victim and incident characteristics. Incident characteristics include the type of violence, the offender’s use of a weapon, victim injury and medical treatment, and whether the incident was reported to police. The report provides estimates of acquaintance and stranger violence for comparison. Data are from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), which collects information on nonfatal crimes reported and not reported to police. The NCVS is a self-report survey administered every six months to persons age 12 or older from a nationally representative sample of U.S. households.

Highlights:

  • In 2003–12, domestic violence accounted for 21% of all violent crime.
  • A greater percentage of domestic violence was committed by intimate partners (15%) than immediate family members (4%) or other relatives (2%).
  • Current or former boyfriends or girlfriends committed most domestic violence.
  • Females (76%) experienced more domestic violence victimizations than males (24%).

The Third Wheel: The Impact of Twitter Use on Relationship Infidelity and Divorce

April 8, 2014 Comments off

The Third Wheel: The Impact of Twitter Use on Relationship Infidelity and Divorce
Source: Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking

The purpose of this study was to examine how social networking site (SNS) use, specifically Twitter use, influences negative interpersonal relationship outcomes. This study specifically examined the mediational effect of Twitter-related conflict on the relationship between active Twitter use and negative relationship outcomes, and how this mechanism may be contingent on the length of the romantic relationship. A total of 581 Twitter users aged 18 to 67 years (Mage=29, SDage=8.9) completed an online survey questionnaire. Moderation–mediation regression analyses using bootstrapping methods indicated that Twitter-related conflict mediated the relationship between active Twitter use and negative relationship outcomes. The length of the romantic relationship, however, did not moderate the indirect effect on the relationship between active Twitter use and negative relationship outcomes. The results from this study suggest that active Twitter use leads to greater amounts of Twitter-related conflict among romantic partners, which in turn leads to infidelity, breakup, and divorce. This indirect effect is not contingent on the length of the romantic relationship. The current study adds to the growing body of literature investigating SNS use and romantic relationship outcomes.

Non-marital pregnancy and the second demographic transition in Australia in historical perspective

March 19, 2014 Comments off

Non-marital pregnancy and the second demographic transition in Australia in historical perspective
Source: Demographic Research

Background:
Australia has remarkably detailed data on non-marital pregnancy dating from 1908. They both offer insight into long-term trends in childbearing resulting from non-marital sexual activity and reveal in historical context key features of the second demographic transition and its genesis.

Objective:
Trends are traced in rates of non-marital conception of children ultimately born both outside and within marriage. A range of related indices is also presented in examining how demographic behaviour surrounding non-marital pregnancy (i) helped generate the second demographic transition and (ii) unfolded as a component of it.

Methods:
Core indices are rates of non-marital conception partitioned into additive components associated with marital and non-marital confinement. Data on non-marital and early marital births (at marriage durations 0-7 months) are lagged back 38 weeks to a date of and age at conception basis to facilitate a common, unmarried, population at risk.

Results:
Post-war weakening of parental oversight of courtship was a fundamental trigger to the broader rejection of normative and institutional values that underpinned the second demographic transition. In tandem with denying the unmarried access to oral contraception it generated rampant youthful non-marital pregnancy, which undermined Judeo-Christian values, especially once abortion law reform occurred.

Conclusions:
Childbearing following non-marital conception transitioned rapidly after the 1960s from primarily the unintended product of youthful intercourse in non-coresidential relationships to mainly intended behaviour at normative reproductive ages in consensual unions. Family formation increasingly mixed non-marital births and premaritally and/or maritally conceived marital births.

Couples, the Internet, and Social Media

February 12, 2014 Comments off

Couples, the Internet, and Social Media
Source: Pew Research Internet Project

The internet, cell phones, and social media have become key actors in the life of many American couples— the 66% of adults who are married or in committed relationships. Couples use technology in the little and large moments. They negotiate over when to use it and when to abstain. A portion of them quarrel over its use and have had hurtful experiences caused by tech use. At the same time, some couples find that digital tools facilitate communication and support. A majority of those in couples maintain their own separate email and social media accounts, though a smaller number report sharing accounts and calendars. And fully two-thirds of couples share passwords.

Using Technology to Connect in Romantic Relationships: Effects on Attachment, Relationship Satisfaction, and Stability in Emerging Adults

February 6, 2014 Comments off

Using Technology to Connect in Romantic Relationships: Effects on Attachment, Relationship Satisfaction, and Stability in Emerging Adults
Source: Journal of Couple & Relationship Therapy

This exploratory path analysis was designed to identify significant associations among technology use and relationship variables in a population of emerging adults. Two hundred seventy-six young people between the ages of 18 and 25 in committed relationships completed survey questions about ways they connect with their partners using technology. Actor and partner effects were obtained. A measure of attachment behaviors in relationships was tested as a mediator. Results indicate that attachment behaviors were universally associated with relationship satisfaction and stability for both men and women. No significant associations were found with social networking sites. Male texting frequency was negatively associated with relationship satisfaction and stability scores for both partners while female texting frequency was positively associated with their own relationship stability scores. Texting to express affection was associated with higher reported partner attachment for both men and women. For men, texting to hurt their partners was negatively associated with reported partner attachment, relationship satisfaction, and stability. Male-reported partner attachment mediated the relationship between texting to hurt partners and relationship satisfaction, and mediated the relationship between texting to express affection and satisfaction. Other differences and clinical implications are discussed.

Intimate partner violence among women with mental health-related activity limitations: a Canadian population based study

February 3, 2014 Comments off

Intimate partner violence among women with mental health-related activity limitations: a Canadian population based study
Source: BMC Public Health

Background
There is strong evidence that women with serious or chronic mental illness experience higher rates of violence than women in the general population. Our objective was to examine the risk of intimate partner violence (IPV), a form of violence that is often recurrent and linked to negative physical and psychological consequences, among a representative sample of non-institutionalized women with activity limitations (ALs) due to a mental health condition.

Methods
Data from the 2009 General Social Survey were used, a national, population-based, cross-sectional survey. The sample included 6851 women reporting contact with a current or former partner in the previous five years, of whom 322 (4.7%) reported a mental health-related AL always/often or sometimes.

Results
The prevalence of any type of IPV was highest among women with mental health-related ALs always/often (54.4%), followed by women reporting ALs sometimes (49.9%), and those reporting no ALs (18.3%, p < 0.0001). The same pattern was observed for emotional (51.1%, 45.5%, 16.3%, p < 0.0001) and financial IPV (18.1%, 9.5%, 4.0%, p < 0.0001). For physical/sexual violence, rates were similar among women reporting mental health-related ALs always/often and sometimes, but were lower among those reporting no ALs (20.2%, 20.9%, 5.9%, p < 0.0001). In a logistic regression analysis the odds of having experienced any IPV remained greater for women reporting ALs always/often (OR = 3.65; 95% CI: 2.10, 6.32) and sometimes (OR = 3.20; 95% CI: 2.15, 4.75) than those reporting no ALs. Several social capital variables, including perceptions of having experienced discrimination, a weak sense of belonging in their local community, and low trust toward family members and strangers were also significantly associated with having experienced IPV.

Conclusion
Findings suggest that women with mental health-related ALs may be at increased risk of IPV. Health and social service providers may need, therefore, to better target prevention and intervention initiatives to this population.

Associations between Intimate Partner Violence and Termination of Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

January 9, 2014 Comments off

Associations between Intimate Partner Violence and Termination of Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Source: PLoS Medicine

Background
Intimate partner violence (IPV) and termination of pregnancy (TOP) are global health concerns, but their interaction is undetermined. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between IPV and TOP.

Methods and Findings
A systematic review based on a search of Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and Ovid Maternity and Infant Care from each database’s inception to 21 September 2013 for peer-reviewed articles of any design and language found 74 studies regarding women who had undergone TOP and had experienced at least one domain (physical, sexual, or emotional) of IPV. Prevalence of IPV and association between IPV and TOP were meta-analysed. Sample sizes ranged from eight to 33,385 participants. Worldwide, rates of IPV in the preceding year in women undergoing TOP ranged from 2.5% to 30%. Lifetime prevalence by meta-analysis was shown to be 24.9% (95% CI 19.9% to 30.6%); heterogeneity was high (I2>90%), and variation was not explained by study design, quality, or size, or country gross national income per capita. IPV, including history of rape, sexual assault, contraceptive sabotage, and coerced decision-making, was associated with TOP, and with repeat TOPs. By meta-analysis, partner not knowing about the TOP was shown to be significantly associated with IPV (pooled odds ratio 2.97, 95% CI 2.39 to 3.69). Women in violent relationships were more likely to have concealed the TOP from their partner than those who were not. Demographic factors including age, ethnicity, education, marital status, income, employment, and drug and alcohol use showed no strong or consistent mediating effect. Few long-term outcomes were studied. Women welcomed the opportunity to disclose IPV and be offered help. Limitations include study heterogeneity, potential underreporting of both IPV and TOP in primary data sources, and inherent difficulties in validation.

Conclusions
IPV is associated with TOP. Novel public health approaches are required to prevent IPV. TOP services provide an opportune health-based setting to design and test interventions.

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