Intimate Partner Violence: Attributes of Victimization, 1993–2011
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics
Presents data on trends in nonfatal intimate partner violence among U.S. households from 1993 to 2011. Intimate partner violence includes rape, sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault, and simple assault by a current or former spouse, boyfriend, or girlfriend. This report focuses on attributes of the victimization such as the type of crime, type of attack, whether the victim was threatened before the attack, use of a weapon by the offender, victim injury, and medical treatment received for injuries. The report also describes ways these attributes of the victimization may be used to measure seriousness or severity of the incident. Data are from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), which collects information on nonfatal crimes reported and not reported to the police. The NCVS is a self-report survey administered every six months to persons age 12 or older from a nationally representative sample of U.S. households.
- From 1994 to 2011, the rate of serious intimate partner violence declined 72% for females and 64% for males.
- Nonfatal serious violence comprised more than a third of intimate partner violence against females and males during the most recent 10-year period (2002–11).
- An estimated two-thirds of female and male intimate partner victimizations involved a physical attack in 2002–11; the remaining third involved an attempted attack or verbal threat of harm.
- In 2002–11, 8% of female intimate partner victimizations involved some form of sexual violence during the incident.
About 4% of females and 8% of males who were victimized by an intimate partner were shot at, stabbed, or hit with a weapon in 2002–11.
Matching with Couples: Stability and Incentives in Large Markets (PDF)
Source: Quarterly Journal of Economics
Accommodating couples has been a longstanding issue in the design of centralized labor market clearinghouses for doctors and psychologists, because couples view pairs of jobs as complements. A stable matching may not exist when couples are present. This paper’s main result is that a stable matching exists when there are relatively few couples and preference lists are sufficiently short relative to market size. We also discuss incentives in markets with couples. We relate these theoretical results to the job market for psychologists, in which stable matchings exist for all years of the data, despite the presence of couples.
See: Study explains how a job-market system lands couples in the same city (EurekAlert!)
Research has shown that individuals have an optimal walking speed–a speed which minimizes energy expenditure for a given distance. Because the optimal walking speed varies with mass and lower limb length, it also varies with sex, with males in any given population tending to have faster optimal walking speeds. This potentially creates an energetic dilemma for mixed-sex walking groups. Here we examine speed choices made by individuals of varying stature, mass, and sex walking together. Individuals (N = 22) walked around a track alone, with a significant other (with and without holding hands), and with friends of the same and opposite sex while their speeds were recorded every 100 m. Our findings show that males walk at a significantly slower pace to match the females’ paces (p = 0.009), when the female is their romantic partner. The paces of friends of either same or mixed sex walking together did not significantly change (p>0.05). Thus significant pace adjustment appears to be limited to romantic partners. These findings have implications for both mobility and reproductive strategies of groups. Because the male carries the energetic burden by adjusting his pace (slowing down 7%), the female is spared the potentially increased caloric cost required to walk together. In energetically demanding environments, we will expect to find gender segregation in group composition, particularly when travelling longer distances.
See: Men tend to walk slower when walking with romantic partners (EurekAlert!)
Online Dating & Relationships
Source: Pew Internet & American Life Project
One in ten Americans have used an online dating site or mobile dating app; 66% of these online daters have gone on a date with someone they met through a dating site or app, and 23% have met a spouse or long term partner through these sites. Public attitudes toward online dating have become more positive in recent years, but many users also report negative experiences.
Drinking games as a venue for sexual competition
Source: Evolutionary Psychology
Based on sexual selection theory, we hypothesized that sex differences in mating effort and social competitiveness—and subsequent sex differences in sexual and competitive motivations for participating in drinking games—are responsible for the well-documented sex differences in college students’ drinking game behaviors. Participants in a cross-sectional study were 351 women and 336 men aged 17 to 26. In a mediation model, we tested sex differences in mating effort, social competitiveness, sexual and competitive motivations for participating in drinking games, drinking game behaviors, and alcohol-related problems. Men participated in drinking games more frequently, consumed more alcohol while participating in drinking games, and experienced more problems associated with drinking. These sex differences appeared to be partially mediated by mating effort, social competitiveness, and sexual and competitive motivations for participating in drinking games. Drinking games are a major venue in which college students engage in heavy episodic drinking, which is a risk factor for college students’ behavioral and health problems. Thus, the functional perspective we used to analyze them here may help to inform public health and university interventions and enable better identification of at-risk students.
Friendship as a relationship infiltration tactic during human mate poaching
Source: Evolutionary Psychology
Previous research has characterized human mate poaching as a prevalent alternative mating strategy that entails risks and costs typically not present during general romantic courtship and attraction. This study is the first to experimentally investigate friendship between a poacher and his/her target as a risk mitigation tactic. Participants (N = 382) read a vignette that differed by whether the poacher was male/female and whether the poacher and poached were friends/acquaintances. Participants assessed the likelihood of the poacher being successful and incurring costs. They also rated the poacher and poached on several personality and mate characteristics. Results revealed that friendship increased the perceived likelihood of success of a mate poaching attempt and decreased the perceived likelihood of several risks typically associated with mate poaching. However, friend-poachers were rated less favorably than acquaintance-poachers across measures of warmth, nurturance, and friendliness. These findings are interpreted using an evolutionary perspective. This study complements and builds upon previous findings and is the first experimental investigation of tactics poachers may use to mitigate risks inherent in mate poaching.
Civil Partnerships in the UK, 2012
Source: Office for National Statistics
- The provisional number of civil partnerships in the UK in 2012 was 7,037, an increase of 3.6% since 2011.
- The average age of men forming a civil partnership in the UK in 2012 was 40.0 years, while for women the average age was 37.6 years. These figures represent a small decrease in average ages in comparison to 2011.
- The provisional number of civil partnership dissolutions granted in England and Wales in 2012 was 794, an increase of 20% since 2011.
LGBT Youth Face Higher Rate of Dating Abuse
Source: Urban Institute
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender teenagers are at much greater risk of dating abuse than their heterosexual counterparts, with transgender teens especially vulnerable to victimization, an Urban Institute report shows.
“Dating Violence Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth” is one of the first examinations of dating violence and abuse through the distinct lens of sexual orientation and of gender identity. Victims are more likely to be females or transgender youth who are also more likely to be depressed, have lower grades, have committed delinquent acts, and to have a history of sexual activity.
The report is based on a survey of 3,745 youth in 7th to 12th grades, in New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey. Six percent identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender, the rest as heterosexual.
Of the LGB respondents,
- 43 percent reported being victims of physical dating violence, compared to 29 percent of heterosexual youth;
- 59 percent reported emotional abuse, compared to 46 percent of heterosexual youth;
- 37 percent reported digital abuse and harassment, compared to 26 percent of heterosexual youth; and
- 23 percent reported sexual coercion, compared to 12 percent of heterosexual youth.
Technology, Teen Dating Violence and Abuse, and Bullying
Source: Urban Institute
This study explores the role of technology in teen dating violence and abuse and teen bullying. The researchers surveyed 5,647 youth—more than any previous analysis—in 10 northeastern schools. Twenty-six percent of dating teens reported experiencing abuse online or through texts from their partners, and 17 percent of all youth said they were cyber bullied by a peer. Teenage girls reported experiencing more digital dating abuse (particularly sexual abuse) and cyber bullying than teenage boys. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
History of dating violence and the association with late adolescent health
Source: BMC Public Health
The present investigation expands upon prior studies by examining the relationship between health in late adolescence and the experience of physical/sexual and non-physical dating violence victimization, including dating violence types that are relevant to today’s adolescents (e.g., harassment via email and text messaging). We examined the relationship between physical/sexual and non-physical dating violence victimization from age 13 to 19 and health in late adolescence/early adulthood.
The sample comprised 585 subjects (ages 18 to 21; mean age, 19.8, SD = 1.0) recruited from The Ohio State University who completed an online survey to assess: 1) current health (depression, disordered eating, binge drinking, smoking, and frequent sexual behavior); and 2) dating violence victimization from age 13 to 19 (retrospectively assessed using eight questions covering physical, sexual, and non-physical abuse, including technology-related abuse involving stalking/harassment via text messaging and email). Multivariable models compared health indicators in never-exposed subjects to those exposed to physical/sexual or non-physical dating violence only. The multivariable models were adjusted for age and other non-dating abuse victimization (bullying; punched, kicked, choked by a parent/guardian; touched in a sexual place, forced to touch someone sexually).
In adjusted analyses, compared to non-exposed females, females with physical/sexual dating violence victimization were at increased risk of smoking (prevalence ratio = 3.95); depressive symptoms (down/hopeless, PR = 2.00; lost interest, PR = 1.79); eating disorders (using diet aids, PR = 1.98; fasting, PR = 4.71; vomiting to lose weight, PR = 4.33); and frequent sexual behavior (5+ intercourse and oral sex partners, PR = 2.49, PR = 2.02; having anal sex, PR = 2.82). Compared to non-exposed females, females with non-physical dating violence only were at increased risk of smoking (PR = 3.61), depressive symptoms (down/hopeless, PR = 1.41; lost interest, PR = 1.36), eating disorders (fasting, PR = 3.37; vomiting, PR = 2.66), having 5+ intercourse partners (PR = 2.20), and having anal sex (PR = 2.18). For males, no health differences were observed for those experiencing physical/sexual dating violence compared to those who did not. Compared to non-exposed males, males with non-physical dating violence only were at increased risk of smoking (PR = 3.91) and disordered eating (fasting, using diet aids, vomiting, PR = 2.93).
For females, more pronounced adverse health was observed for those exposed to physical/sexual versus non-physical dating violence. For both females and males, non-physical dating violence victimization contributed to poor health.
A Review of the Findings from Project D.A.T.E.: Risky Relationships and Teen Dating Violence Among At-Risk Adolescents
A Review of the Findings from Project D.A.T.E.: Risky Relationships and Teen Dating Violence Among At-Risk Adolescents (PDF)
Source: National Institute of Justice
Statement of Purpose:
Teen dating violence is linked to numerous longstanding consequen ces , such as delinquency, risky sexual behavior, and adult partner violence. Thus, research exploring adolescents’ trajectories into and out of violent relationships is important for developing effective prevention and intervention programs to promote healthy teen relationships. Prior research has generally been restricted to normative, school-based samples that may not capture the unique experiences of youth who are already most likely to experience negative relationship outcomes. The purpose of Project D.A.T.E. (Demand Appreciation, Trust, and Equality) was to address gaps in current research by focusing on romantic relationship experiences among at- risk adolescents .
Goals and Objectives:
We investigated risk and protective factors related to teen dating violence and positive relationship outcomes within a single relationship and across multiple relationships. We also explored how early abusive relationships impact trajectories into later abusive relationships, and how age gaps between romantic partners might contribute to victimization and other negative outcomes.
Participants included 223 adolescents (58% female, 61% African- American) who (1) were between 13 and 18 years old, (2) answered yes to “Have you ever ‘dated someone’ or been in a romantic relationship that lasted at least 1 month?”, and (3) received community -based services (e.g., foster care, alternative schooling) or low- income services (e.g., free or reduced lunch, low- income housing).
Participants completed two waves o f two -hour, in-person, self-report interviews that took place about a year apart. In each interview, participants answered questions about socio-demographics, family, and schooling. Most of the interview, however, addressed issues of abuse, intimacy, and health within up to three romantic relationships (thus, up to six relationships total across two waves of data collection). We used assessments shown to be valid and reliable for adolescents.
Teens in our at-risk sample repo rted high levels of dating abuse, risky sexual behavior, and deviance within their romantic relationships. Abuse victimization and perpetration were highly correlated, with patterns largely the same for boys and girls, suggesting reciprocal or “common coup le” violence rather than one – sided intimate terrorism. Risk factors for dating violence were similar whether considering single or multiple relationships. However, dynamic risk factors (e.g., depression, peer delinquency) appeared to be more powerful than historical factors (e.g., sexual debut, child maltreatment). Relationship-specific risk factors like dyadic deviancy and intimacy related significantly to dating violence, indicating that teens may view abusive relationships as serious and committed. In addition, d ating abuse by partners and toward partners was relatively stable across time. For most teens, experiencing abuse in their first ever romantic relationship placed them at great risk for a trajectory of future abuse. Finally, age gaps between partners were related to negative outcomes regardless of the younger partner’s age or gender. This link between partner age gaps and poor outcomes was best explained by older and younger partners’ risky lifestyles, not power inequalities within the relationship.
Low-income, service -receiving adolescents showed high rates of abuse in their earliest relationships, and then continued to be significantly at risk for abuse in subsequent relationships—despite describing these relationships as positive in many ways. Thus, there is a clear need for prevention and intervention efforts targeting such at – risk youth that focus more on relationship quality than simply the presence or absence of abuse. Initial Project D.A.T.E. results suggest that future research needs to investigate the context of teen dating violence (events before and after, whether a partner was frightened, etc.) to understand how youth perceive these relationships. A nuanced understanding of the context of abuse is crucial since youth are unlikely to seek help if their perceptions of “dating violence” diverge from definitions used by service providers and law enforcement.
In, Out, and In Again? A Life Course Understanding of Women’s Violent Relationships (PDF)
Source: National Criminal Justice Reference Service
This research points to two main policy implications. First, it is important to learn whether a woman is leaving a violent relationship or experiences violence across relationships. This will help researchers identify which strategies successfully help women to escape violence. It will also help them develop specific interventions and treatments to help women cope with their violent relationships. Second, given the potentially disastrous effect of childhood victimization, it is important to identify victims of child abuse and address the abuse while the victims are still young and before they enter their own intimate relationships. In these cases, efforts should be made to both prevent child abuse and preemptively address the lifetime effects of such abuse.
The Dating Preferences of Liberals and Conservatives (PDF)
Source: Political Behavior
American politics has become more polarized. The source of the phenomena is debated. We posit that human mate choice may play a role in the process. Spouses are highly correlated in their political preferences, and research in behavioral genetics, neuroscience, and endocrinology shows that political preferences develop through a complex interaction of social upbringing, life experience, immediate circumstance, and genes and hormones, operating through one’s psychological architecture by Hatemi et al. (J Theor Politics, 24:305–327, 2012). Consequently, if people with similar political values produce children, there will be more individuals at the ideological extremes over generations. This said, we are left with a mystery: spousal concordance on political attitudes does not result from convergence over the course of the relationship, nor are spouses initially selecting one another on political preferences. We examine whether positive mate assortation—like seeks like—on non-political factors such as lifestyle and demographics could lead to inadvertent assortation on political preferences. Using a sample of Internet dating profiles we find that both liberals and conservatives seek to date individuals who are like themselves. This result suggests a pathway by which long-term couples come to share political preferences, which in turn could be fueling the widening ideological gap in the United States.